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S   (    /^ 


REPORT 


OF  THE 


FORTY-FIRST    MEETING 


OV  THE  \ 


^X^^iT^^'- 


. BRITISH  ASSOCIATION 


FOE  THE 


ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE ; 


HELD  AT 


EDINBURGH  IN  AUGUST  1871. 


LONDON: 
JOHN  MURRAY,   ALBEMARLE    STREET. 

1873. 


PKINTED  BY 
TAYLOR    AND   FRANCIS,   RKD   LION    COURT,    FLEKT    STREET. 


v:ti^f 


CONTENTS. 


'X'VW'V/x^ 


Page 

Objects  and  Eules  of  the  Association    xvii 

Places  of  Meeting  and  Officers  from  commencement    xxiv 

Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  the  Sections  of  the  Association  from 

commencement xsx 

Evening  Lectures   yyxiy 

Lectures  to  the  Operative  Classes xli 

Table  showing  the  Attendance  and  Receipts  at  previous  Meetings . .  xlii 

Treasurer's  Account xliv 

Officers  and  Council,  1871-72 xlv 

Officers  of  Sectional  Committees xlvi 

Eeport  of  the  Council  to  the  General  Committee slvii 

Eeport  of  the  Kew  Committee,  1870-71 1 

Recommendations  of  the  General  Committee  for  Additional  Reports 

and  Researches  in  Science ....  * Ixix 

Synopsis  of  Money  Grants . .  .  i . .  * Ixxiv 

General  Statement  of  Sums  paid  on  account  of  Grants  for  Scientific 

Purposes Ixxvi 

Arrangement  of  the  General  Meetings Ixxxiii 

Address  by  the  President,  Sir  "William  Thomson,  Knt.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.     Lsxxiv 

REPORTS  OF  RESEARCHES  IN  SCIENCE. 

Seventh  Report  of  the  Committee  for  Exploring  Kent's  Cavern,  Devon- 
shire,— the  Committee  consisting  of  Sir  Chaeles  Ltell,  Bart.,  E.R.S., 
Professor  Pniiiips,  F.R.S.,  Sir  JoHjsr  Lvjbbock,  Bart.,  E.R.S.,  John 

a2 


11  CONTENTS. 

Page 

Evans,  F.E.S.,  Edwaeb  Vivian,  George  Busk,  P.R.S.,  "Wilmam  Boyd 
Dawkins,  F.R.S.,  William  Ayshfobd  Sanford,  F.G.S,,  and  William 
Pengellt,  F.Il.S.  (Reporter)   1 

Fourth  Report  of  tlie  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the  rate 
of  Increase  of  Underground  Temperature  down-\yards  in  various  Locali- 
ties of  Dry  Land  and  under  Water.  Drawn  up  by  Professor  Everett, 
at  the  request  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Sir  William  Thomson, 
F.R.S.,  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  F.R.S.,  Professor  J.  Clerk  Maxwell, 
F.R.S.,  Professor  Phillips,  F.R.S.,  G.  J.  Symons,  F.M.S.,  Dr.  Balfour 
Stewart,  F.R.S.,  Professor  Ramsay,  F.R.S.,  Professor  A.  Geikie, 
F.R.S.,  James  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  Rev.  Dr.  Graham,  E.  W.  Binney, 
F.R.S.,  George  Maw,  F.G.S.,W.  Pengelly, F.R.S.,  S.  J. Mackie, F.G.S., 
Edward  Hull,  F.R.S.,  and  Professor  Everett,  D.C.L.  (Secretary)    .  .      14 

Report  on  Observations  of  Luminous  Meteors,  1870-71.  By  a  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  James  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  of  the  Royal  Observa- 
tory, Greenwich,  Robert  P.  Greg,  F.G.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  Alexander  S. 
Herschel,  F.R.A.S.,  and  Charles  Brooke,  F.R.S.,  Secretary  to  the 
Meteorological  Society 26 

Fifth  Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Henry  Woodward,  F.G.S., 
F.Z.S.,  Dr.  Duncan,  F.R.S.,  and  R.  Etiiepidge,  F.R.S.,  on  the  Struc- 
ture and  Classification  of  the  Fossil  Crustacea,  drawn  up  by  Henry 
Woodward,  F.G.S.,  F.Z.S 53 

Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  at  the  Meeting  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation at  Liverpool,  1870,  consisting  of  Prof.  Jevons,  R.  Dudley 
Baxter,  J.  T.  Danson,  James  Heywood,  F.R.S.,  Dr.  W.  B.  Hodgson, 
and  Prof.  Waley,  with  Edmund  Macrory  as  their  Secretary,  "  for  the 
purpose  of  urging  upon  Her  Majesty's  Government  the  expediency  of 
arranging  and  tabulating  the  resiUts  of  the  approaching  Census  in  the 
three  several  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
admit  of  ready  and  effective  comparison  " 57 

Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  Superintending 
the  Publication  of  Abstracts  of  Chemical  Papers.  The  Committee  con- 
sists of  Prof.  A.  W.  Williamson,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  H.  E.  Roscoe,  F.R.S., 
Prof.  E.  Frankland,  F.R.S 59 

Report  of  the  Committee  for  discussing  Observations  of  Lunar  Objects 
suspected  of  Change.  The  Committee  consists  of  the  Rev.  T.  W. 
Webb  and  Edward  Crossley,  Secretary CO 

Second  Provisional  Report  on  the  Thermal  Conductivity  of  Metals.  By 
Prof.  Tait     97 

Report  on  the  Rainfall  of  the  British  Isles,  by  a  Committee,  consisting  of 
C.  Brooke,  F.R.S.  (Chairman),  J.  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  Phillips, 
F.R.S.,  J.  F.  Bateman,  C.E.,  F.R.S.,  R.  W.  Mylne,  C.E.,  F.R.S., 
T.  Hawksley,  C.E.,  Prof.  J.  C.  Adams,  F.R.S.,  C.  Tomlinson,  F.R.S., 
Prof.  Sylvester,  F.R.S.,  Dr.  Pole,  F.R.S.,  Rogers  Field,  C.E.,  and 
G.  J.  Symons,  Secretary    98 

Third  Report  on  the  British  Fossil  Corals.  By  P.  Martin  Duncan, 
F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  Professor  of  Geology  in  King's  College,  London  116 


CONTENTS.  Ill 

Page 

Eeport  on  the  Heat  generated  m  the  Blood  during  the  process  of  Arteria- 
lization.  By  Arthur  Gamgee,  M.D.,  F.E..S.E.,  Lecturer  on  Physiology 
in  the  Extra- Academical  Medical  School  of  Edinburgh 137 

Eeport  of  the  Committee  appointed  to  consider  the  subject  of  Physiolo- 
gical Experimentation 144 

Eeport  on  the  Physiological  Action  of  Organic  Chemical  Compounds.  By 
Benjamin  Ward  Eichardson,  M.A.,  M.D.,  P.E.S 145 

Eeport  of  the  Committee  appointed  to  get  cut  and  prepared  Sections 
of  Mountain-Limestone  Corals  for  the  purpose  of  showing  their  Struc- 
ture by  means  of  Photography.  The  Committee  consists  of  James 
Thomson,  P.G.S.,  and  Prof.  Hareness,  F.E.S 165 

Second  Eeport  of  the  Committee  appointed  to  consider  and  report  on  the 
various  Plans  proposed  for  Legislating  on  the  subject  of  Steam-Boiler 
Explosions,  with  a  view  to  their  Prevention, — the  Committee  consisting 
of  Sir  William  Fairbairn,  Bart.,  C.E.,  LL.D.,  IF.E.S.,  John  Penn, 
C.E.,  F.E.S.,  Frederick  J.  Beamwell,  C.E.,  Hugh  Mason,  Samuel 
EiGBT,  Thomas  Schofield,  Charles  F.  Beyer,  C.E.,  Thomas  Webster, 
Q.G.,  and  Lavington  E.  Fletcher,  C.E 166 

Eeport  of  the  Committee  on  the  "  Treatment  and  Utilization  of  Sewage," 
consisting  of  Eichaed  B.  Geantham,  C.E.,  F.Qr.S.  (Chairman),  Pro- 
fessor D.  T.  Ansted,  F.E.S.,  Professor  W.  H.  Corfield,  M.A.,  M.B.,  J. 
Bailet  Denton,  C.E.,  F.G.S.,  Dr.  W.  H.  Gilbert,  F.E.S. ,  John  Thorn- 
hell  Harrison,  C.E.,  Thomas  Haavksley,  C.E.,  F.G.S.,  W.  Hope,  Y.C, 
Lieut.-Col.  Leach,  E.E.,  Dr.  W.  Odling,  F.E.S.,  Dr.  A.  Voelckee, 
F.E.S.,  Professor  A.  W.  Wu-liamson,  F.E.S.,  F.C.S.,  and  Sir  John 
Lubbock,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.E.S.  (Treasurer) 166 

Letters  from  M.  Lavoisier  to  Dr.  Black     189 

Eeport  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  Anton  Dourn,  Professor  Eol- 
LESTON,  and  Mr.  P.  L.  Sclater,  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  promoting 
the  Foundation  of  Zoological  Stations  in  differeat  parts  of  the  World  : 
— Eeporter,  Dr.  Dohen   192 

Preliminary  Eeport  on  the  Thermal  Equivalents  of  the  Oxides  of  Chlo- 
rine.    By  James  Dewae,  F.E.S.E 193 

Eeport  on  the  practicability  of  establishing  "  A  Close  Time  "  for  the  pro- 
tection of  indigenous  Animals.  By  a  Committee,  consisting  of  Prof. 
Newton,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  Eev.  H.  B.  Tristram,  F.E.S.,  J.  E.  Harting, 
F.L.S.,  F.Z.S.,  Eev.  H.  Barnes,  and  H.  E.  Dresser  (Eeporter)    197 

Eeport  of  the  Committee  on  Earthquakes  in  Scotland.  The  Committee 
consists  of  Dr.  Beyce,  F.G.S.,  Sir  W.  Thomson,  F.E.S.,  D.  Mxlne- 
HoME,  F.E.S.E.,  P.  Macfarlane,  and  J.  Beough 197 

Eeport  on  the  best  means  of  providing  for  a  uniformity  of  Weights  and 
Measures,  with  reference  to  the  Interests  of  Science.  By  a  Committee, 
consisting  of  Sir  John  Boa^-ring,  F.E.S.,  The  Eight  Hon.  Sir  C.  B.  Ad- 
derley,  M.P.,  Samuel  Brown,  F.S.S.,  Dr.  Fare,  F.E.S.,  FEA^-K  P. 
Fellowes,  Professor  Frankland,  F.E.S.,  Professor  Hennessy,  F.E.S., 
James  Heywood,  r.E.S.,  Sir  Eobeei  Kane,  F.E.S.,  Professor  Leose 


IV  CONTENTS. 


Page 


Lett,  F.S.A.,  F.S.S.,  C.  W.  Siejtejts,  F.E.S.,  Colonel  Stkes,  F.E.S., 
M.P.,  Professor  A.  W.  Williamson,  F.R.S.,  James  Yates,  F.R.S.,  Dr. 
George  Gloyee,  Sir  Joseph  Whitwoeth,  Bart.,  F.R.S.,  J.  E.  Napier, 
H.  DiECKS,  J.  V.  N.  Bazaigette,  "W.  Smith,  Sir  W.  Fairbairk,  Bart., 
F.E.S.,  and  John  Robhtson  : — Professor  Leoj^e  Levi,  Secretary    ....   198 

Eeport  of  the  Committee  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  the 
extension,  improvement,  and  harmonic  analysis  of  Tidal  Observations. 
Consisting  of  Sir  William  Thomson,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  Prof.  J.  C.  Adams, 
F.E.S.,  J.  Oldham,  William  Paekes,  M.  Inst.  C.E.,  Prof.  Eanklse, 
LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  and  Admiral  Eichaeds,  E.N".,  F.E.S 201 


NOTICES  AND  ABSTRACTS 


OF 


MISCELLANEOUS  COMMUNICATIONS  TO  THE  SECTIONS. 


MATHEMATICS  AND  PHYSICS. 

Address  by  Professor  P.  G.  Tait,  M.A.,  F.R.S.E,  President  of  the  Section  , .  1 

Mathematics. 

Mr.  Robert  Sta'well  Ball's  exhibition  and  description  of  a  Model  of  a 
Conoidal  Cubic  Surface  called  the  "  Cylindroid,"  which  is  presented  in  the 

Theory  of  the  Geometrical  Freedom  of  a  Rigid  Body  8 

Professor  Catley  on  the  Number  of  Covariants  of  a  Binaiy  Quantic 9 

Mr.  W.  K.  Cliffoed  on  a  Canonical  Fonn  of  Spherical  Harmonics 10 

Mr.  J.  W.  L.  Glaishee  on  certain  Definite  Integrals 10 

— ■ — ~ on  Lambert's  Proof  of  the  In-ationality  of  tt,  and  on 

the  L-rationality  of  certain  other  Quantities 12 

Mr.  C.  W.  Meeelfield  on  certain  Families  of  Surfaces 18 

INIr.  F.  W.  NEvraiAN  on  Doubly  Diametral  Quartan  Ciu-ves 20 

Professor  Purser's  Remarks  on  Napier's  original  Method  of  Logarithms 23 

Mr.  W.  H.  L.  Russell  on  Linear  Differential  Equations 23 

on  MacCuUagh's  Theorem    23 

Mr.  J.  J.  Stltesteh.  on  the  Theory  of  a  Point  in  Partitions 23 

Sir  W.  Thomson  on  the  General  Canonical  Form  of  a  Spherical  Harmonic  of 

the  nth  Order   25 


CONTENTS.  y 

Gekehai,  Physics, 

Mr.  Robert  Stawell  Ball's  Account  of  Experiments  upon  tlie  Resistance 
of  Air  to  the  Motion  of  Vortex-rings 20 

Mr.  H.  Deacon's  Experiments  on  Vortex-rings  in  Liquids 29 

Professor  J.  D.  Everett  on  Units  of  Force  and  Energy 29 

Dr.  J.  H.  Gladstone  and  Alfred  Tribe  on  the  Corrosion  of  Copper  Plates 
by  Nitrate  of  Silver    29 

M.  Janssen's  Remarks  on  Physics 29 

INIr.  T.  M.  Lindsay  and  W.  R.  Smith  on  Democritus  and  Lucretius,  a  Ques- 
tion of  Priority  in  the  Kinetical  Theory  of  Matter 30 

Professor  James  Thomson's  Speculations  on  the  Continuity  of  the  Fluid  State 
of  Matter,  and  on  Relations  between  the  Gaseous,  the  Liquid,  and  the  Solid 
States     30 

Observations  on  Water  in  Frost  Rising  against 

Gravity  rather  than  Freezing  in  the  Pores  of  Moist  Earth   34 


Astronomy. 

Professor  Cliffobd  on  the  Secular  Cooling  and  the  Figure  of  tbe  Earth  ....  34 

Dr.  Gill's  Observations  on  the  Parallax  of  a  Planetary  Nebula 34 

M.  Janssen  on  the  Coming  Solar  Eclipse   34 

Mr.  J.  Norman  Lockyer  on  the  Recent  and  Coming  Solar  Eclipses 34 

Mr.  R.  A.  Proctor  on  the  Construction  of  the  Heavens 34 

Professor  Osborne  Reynolds  on  Artificial  Coronas 34 

Mr.  H.  Fox  Talbot  on  a  Method  of  Estimating  the  Distances  of  some  of  the 

Fixed  Stars 34 

Professor  Charles  V.  Zenger  on  the  Nutoscopo,  an  Apparatus  for  f^howing 

Graphically  the  Curve  of  Precession  and  Nutation   30 


Light. 

Mr.  Philip  Braham's  description  of  a  Set  of  Lenses  for  the  Accurate  Cor- 
rection of  Visual  Defect 37 

Mr.  Thomas'Stevenson's  description  of  a  Paraboloidal  Reflector  for  Light- 
houses, consisting  of  silvered  facets  of  ground-glass ;  and  of  a  Diflereutial 
Holophote ■.     "T 

Professor  G.  G.  Stokes's  Notice  of  the  Researches  of  the  late  Rev.  William 
Vernon  Harcoui-t'  on  the  Conditions  of  Transparency  in  Glass,  and  the  Con- 
nexion between  the  Chemical  Constitution  and  Optical  Properties  of  dif- 
ferent Glasses 38 

Mr.  G.  Johnstone  Stoney  on  one  Cause  of  Transparency ........  r ....... .     41 

on  the  advantage  of  referring  the  positions  of 

Lines  in  the  Specti-um  to  a  Scale  of  Wave-numbers 42 

Professor  William  Swan  on  the  Wave-lengths  of  the  Spectra  of  the  Hydro- 
carbons   - 43 

The  Abbe  Moigno  on  the  Poste  Photographique .■ 44 

Mr.  R.  Sutton's  Accoimt  of  a  New  Photographic  Dry  Process 44 


VI  CONTENTS. 

Page 

Heat, 

Mr.  Donald  MTablane's  description  of  Experiments  made  in  the  Physical 
Laboratory  of  the  University  of  Glasgow  to  determine  the  Surface  Conduc- 
tivity for  Ileat  of  a  Copper  Ball    44 

Mr.  William  Ladd  on  a  Respirator  for  Use  in  Extinction  of  Fires 44 

Professor  Balfoub  Stewart  on  the  Temperature-equilibrium  of  an  Enclosure 
in  which  there  is  a  Body  in  Visible  Motion 45 

Professor  Ch.  V.  Zexgee  on  a  new  Steam-gauge 45 

Electeicitt  and  Magnetism. 

Jlr.  Thomas  Bloxam  on  the  Influence  of  Clean  and  Unclean  Surfaces  in  Vol- 
taic Action    47 

Mr.  Latimeb  Clabk  on  a  new  Form  of  Constant  Galvanic  Battery 47 

Dr.  J.  P.  Joule's  Notice  of  and  Observations  with  a  New  Dip-circle    48 

Professor  Tait  on  Thermo-electricity 48 

INIr.  C.  F.  Varley  on  a  Metliod  of  Testing  Submerged  Electric  Cables 48 

Professor  Cn.  V,  Zengeb  on  a  New  Key  for  the  Morse  Printing  Telegraph  . .  48 

Meteokology. 

Dr.  Buys  Ballot  on  the  Importance  of  the  Azores  as  a  Meteorological  Sta- 
tion         49 

Dr.  Alexander  Brown  on  theMean  Temperatm-e  of  Arbroath.  Lat.  5(P33'35'' 
North,  Long.  2=  35'  30"  W.  of  Greenwich 60 

Dr.  William  B.  Carpenter  on  the  Thermo-Dynamics  of  the  General  Oceanic 
Circulation    " 61 

Rev.  Professor  Challis  on  the  Mathematical  Theory  of  Atmospheric  Tides  .     51 

Professor  Colding's  Remarks  on  Aerial  Currents 53 

Professor  J.  D.  Everett  on  Wet-  and  Dry-bidb  Formula 54 

on  the  General  Circulation  and  Distribution  of  the 

Atmosphere 64 

M.  Janssen's  Observations  Physiques  en  Ballon    65 

Mr.  W.  Pengelly  on  the  Influence  of  the  Moon  on  the  Rainfall 65 

Mr.  R.  Russell  on  the  Inferences  drawn  by  Drs.  !Rfagnxis  and  Tyndall  from 
their  Experiments  on  the  Radiant  Properties  of  Vapour  66 

Mr.  William  A,  Traill  on  Parhelia,  or  Mock  Suns,  observed  in  L-eland    . .     56 

The  Peogbess  of  Science. 

Lieut.-Col.  A.  Strange  on  Government  Action  on  Scientific  Questions  ....     56 
Kev.  W.  TuCKYTELL  on  the  Obstacles  to  Science-Teaching  in  Schools 57 


CHEMISTRY. 

Address  by  Professor  Andrews,  F.R.S.L.  &  E.,  President  of  the  Section. ...     59 
Mr.  Thomas  Ainsworth  on  the  Facts  developed  by  the  Working  of  Hsema- 
tite  Ores  in  the  Ulverstone  and  Whitehaven  Districts  from  1844-71 66 


CONTENTS.  VU 

Dr.  AjfDiiEWS  on  tlie  Dicliroism  of  the  Vapour  of  Iodine    "^ 

on  the  Action  of  Heat  on  Bromine qq 

Professor  Apjohn's   Remarks  upon  the  Proximate  Analysis  of  Saccharine 

Matters ' qq 

M.  GusTAV  BiscHOF  on  the  Examination  of  Water  for  Sanitary  purposes    . .  G7 

Mr.  Philip  Brahajx  on  the  Crystallization  of  Metals  by  Electricity G7 

Mr.  J.  Y.  Buchanan  on  the  Rate  of  Action  of  Caustic  Soda  on  a  watery  Solu- 
tion of  Chloracetic  Acid  at  100°  C (37 

Dr.  F.  Chace-Calyekt  on  the  Estimation  of  Sulphur  in  Coal  and  Coke 68 

Mr.  John  Dalzell  and  Dr.  T.  E.  Thoupe  on  the  Existence  of  Sulphur  Di- 

chloride go 

Mr.  Henry  Deacon  on  Deacon's  Chlorine  Process  as  applied  to  the  Manufac- 
ture of  Bleaching-powder  on  the  larger  Scale (59 

Professor  Delffs  on  Sorbit  qq 

on  the  Detection  of  Morphine  by  Iodic  Acid 69 

Dr.  J.  H.  Gladstone  and  Alfbed  Teihe's  Experiments  on  Chemical  Dy- 
namics       r-Q 

Dr.  J.  H.  Gladstone  on  Crystals  of  Silver    7X 

Dr.  John  Goodman  on  Fibrin 7.9 

• * t  ^ 

Mr.  William  Hareness's  Preliminary  Notice  on  a  New  Method  of  Testing- 
Samples  of  Wood-Naphtha   °  72 

The  Rev.  H.  Highton  on  a  Method  of  Preserving  Food  by  Muriatic  Acid  . .  73 

Dr.  J.  Sinclair  Holden  on  the  Aluminous  Iron-ores  of  Co.  Antrim  74 

Professor  N.  Story  Maskelyne  on  the  Localities  of  Dioptase   74 

on  Andrewsite    75 

Dr.  T.  Moffat  on  Ozonometry 7g 

The  Abb:^  Moigno  on  the  Photographic  Post    76 

Mr.  Pattison  Mulr  on  an  Antimony-ore  from  New  Zealand 76 

Dr.  T.  L.  Phipson  on  Regianic  Acid    76 

Dr.  J.  Emerson  Reynolds  on  the  Action  of  Aldehyde  on  the  two  Primary 

Ureas 76 

on  the  Analysis  of  a  singular  Deposit  from  Well- 
water 7g 

Dr.  Otto  Richter  on  the  Chemical  Constitution  of  Glycolic  Alcohol  and  its 

Ileterologues,  as  viewed  in  the  new  light  of  the  Typo-nucleus  Theory  ....  78 

Mr.  William  Chandler  Roberts  on  the  Molecular  aiTangement  of  the  Alloy 

of  Silver  and  Copper  employed  for  the  British  Silver  Coinage 80 

Mr.  E.  C.  C.  Stanford  on  the  Retention  of  Organic  Nitrogen  by  Charcoal  . .  81 

Mr.  John  Smyth,  Jun.,  on  Improvements  in  Chlorimetry    81 

Dr.  T.  E.  Thorpe's  Contributions  to  the  History  of  the  Phosphorus  Chlorides  81 

Mr.  C.  R.  C.  Tichbobne  on  the  Dissociation  of  Molecules  by  Heat 81 

Mr.  C.  ToMLiNSON  on  the  behaviom-  of  Supersatiu-ated  Saline  Solutions  when 

exposed  to  the  open  air  go 

Mr.  J.  A.  Wanklyn  on  the  Constitution  of  Salts 83 

Mr.  C.  Gilbert  Wheeler  on  the  Recent  Progress  in  Chemistry  in  the  United 

States    , , I ^ go 


VIU  CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr,  C.  R.  A.  Wright  and  Chaeles  H.  Piesse  on  the  Oxidation  products 
of  the  Essential  Oil  of  Orange-peel,  known  as  "  Essence  do  Portug-al  "  . . . .     83 

Sir.  C.  R.  A.  Wright  on  certain  new  Derivatives  from  Codeia 84 


GEOLOGY. 

Address  by  Archibald  Geikie,  F.R.S.,  President  of  the  Section 87 

The  Rev.  J.  F.  Blake  on  the  Yortshiro  Lias  and  the  Distribution  of  its 
Ammonites    90 

Mr.  D.  J.  Brown  on  the  Silurian  Rocks  of  the  South  of  Scotland 93 

on  the  Upper  Silurian  Rocks  of  the  Pentland  Hills  and 

Lesmahago    93 

Dr.  Robert  Brown's  Geological  IVotes  on  the  Noursoak  Peninsida  and  Disco 
Island  in  North  Greenland 94 

Dr.  Bryce  on  certain  Fossils  from  the  Durine  Limestone,  N.W.  Suther- 
land   ■* 94 

Mr.  W.  Carruthers  on  the  Vegetable  Contents  of  Masses  of  Limestone 
occurring  in  Trappean  Rocks  in  Fifeshire,  and  the  conditions  under  which 
they  are  preserved  94 

Mr.  John  Curry  on  the  General  Conditions  of  the  Glacial  Epoch ;  with  Sug- 
gestions on  the  formation  of  Lake-basins 95 

Mr.  R.  Dainteee  on  the  General  Geology  of  Queensland    96 

Mr.  W.  Boyd  Dawkins  on  the  Relation  of  the  Quaternary  Mammalia  to  the 
Glacial  Period 9o 

Prof.  Geikie  on  the  Progress  of  the  Geological  Survey  in  Scotland  9G 

Mr.  D.  Grieve  on  the  Fossiliferous  Strata  at  Lochend  near  Edinburgh    ....     98 

]\Ir.  G.  J.  Grieve  on  the  position  of  Organic  Remains  near  Burntisland  ....     98 

Sir  Richard  Griffith,  Bart.,  on  "The  Boulder  Drift  and  Esker  Hills  of 
Ireland,"  and  "  Onthe  position  of  Erratic  Blocks  in  the  Countiy  " 98 

The  Rev.  J.  Gtjnn  on  the  Agency  of  the  Alternate  Elevation  and  Subsidence 
of  the  Land  in  the  formation  of  Boulder-clays  and  Glaciers,  and  the  Exca- 
vation of  Valleys  and  Bays    100 

Mr.  John  Henderson  on  the  Age  of  the  Felstones  and  Conglomerates  of  the 
Pentland  Hills 101 

Professor  Edward  Hull  and  Mr.  William  A.  Traill  on  the  relative  ages 
of  the  Granitic,  Plutonic,  and  'N'olcanic  Rocks  of  the  Mourne  Mountains  and 
Slieve  Croob,  Co.  Down,  Ireland 101 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Hume  on  the  Coal-beds  of  Panama,  in  reference  mainly  to  their 
Economic  Importance 103 

Mr.  Charles  Lapworth  and  Jajies  Wilson  on  the  Silurian  Rocks  of  the 
Coimties  of  Roxbm-gh  and  Selkirk    103 

Mr.  Charles  Lapworth  on  the  Graptolites  of  the  Gala  Group    104 

Mr.  P.  W.  Stuabt  Menteath  on  the  Origin  of  Volcanoes 104 

Mr.  L.  C.  Miall's  further  Experiments  and  Remarks  on  Contortion  of  Rocks  106 

Mr.  John  Miller  on  the  so-called  Ilyoid  plate  of  the  Asteroleins  of  the  Old 
Red  Sandstone lOG 

Mr.  D.  Milne-Home  on  the  Conservation  of  Boulders 107 

Mr.  W.  S.  Mitchell's  further  Remarks  on  the  Denudation  of  the  Bath 
Oolite    107 


CONTEXTS.  IX 

Page 

Dr.  Moffat  on  Geological  Systems  and  Endemic  Disease   107 

Dr.  James  Murie  on  the  Systematic  Position  of  Sivatherium  giganteum,  Faulc. 
and  Caiit 108 

Mr.  C.  W.  Peach's  Additions  to  the  list  of  Fossils  and  Localities  of  the  Car- 
boniferous Formation  in  and  around  Edinbm'gh 109 

L'Abb:e  Richabd  on  Hydro-Geology 109 

The  Rev.  W.  S.  Symonds  on  the  Contents  of  a  Hyaena's  Den  on  the  Great 
Doward,  Whitchurch,  Ross  109 

on  a  New  Fish-spine  from  the  Lower  Old  Red 

Sandstone  of  Hay,  Breconshire 110 

IMr.  J.  S.  Tayxob  on  the  later  Crag-Deposits  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk 110 

Mr.  Jasies  Thomson  on  the  Stratified  Rocks  of  Islay 110 

Prof.  Traquair's  Additions  to  the  Fossil  Vertebrate  Fauna  of  Burdiehouse, 
near  Edinburgh    Ill 

Professor  W.  C.  Williamson  on  the  Structure  of  the  Diciyoxyhns  of  the 
Coal-measures Ill 

on  the  Structure  of  Diploxylon,  a  Plant  of  the 

Carboniferous  Rocks   112 

Mr.  Henry  Woodward  on  the  Discovery  of  a  new  and  very  perfect  Arachnide 
from  the  Ironstone  of  the  Dudley  Coal-field    112 

on  the  Relics  of  the  Carboniferous  and  other  old 

Land-surfaces 113 


BIOLOGY. 

Address  by  Dr.  Axlen  Thomson,  F.R.SS.  L.  &  R,  President  of  the  Section .  .  114 

Dr.  Charlton  Bastian  on  some  new  Experiments  relating  to  the  Origin  of 
Life    122 

Dr.  F.  Cbace-Oalvebt  on  the  Action  of  Heat  on  Germ-life 122 

on  Spontaneous  Generation,  or  Protoplasmic  Life  . .  12.3 

Dr.  John  Dougal  on  the  relative  Powers  of  various  Substances  in  preventing 
the  Generation  of  Animalcules,  or  the  Development  of  their  Germs,  with 
special  reference  to  the  Germ  Theory  of  Putrefaction    124- 

Sir  Walter  Elliot  on  the  advantage  of  Systematic  Cooperation  among  Pro- 
vincial Natural-History  Societies,  so  as  to  make  their  observations  available 
to  Naturalists  generally 124 

Dr.  Burdon  Sanderson  and  Dr.  Ferrier  on  the  Origin  and  Distribution  of 
Microzymes  {Bacteria)  in  water,  and  the  circumstances  which  determine 
their  Existence  in  the  Tissues  and  Liquids  of  the  Living  Body 125 

Mr.  T.  B.  Grierson  on  the  Establishment  of  Local  Museums    126 


Botany. 

Professor  Balfour  on  the  Cultivation  of  Ipecacuanha  in  the  Edinburgh  Bo- 
tanic Garden  for  transmission  to  India 127 

Mr.  Robert  Bhot^tst  on  the  Flora  of  Greenland    128 

on  the  Geographical  Distribution  of  the  Floras  of  North- 


west America  12 


X  CONTENTS. 

Page 

The  Rev.  Thomas  Bho'wn  on  Specimens  of  Fossil-wood  from  the  Base  of  the 
Lower  Carboniferous  Rocks  at  Langton,  Berwickshire 128 

Professor  A.  Dickson's  Suggestions  on  Fruit  Classification 128 

Mr.  W.  T.  Thiselton  Dyeb  on  the  minute  Anatomy  of  the  Stem  of  the 
Screw-Pine,  PandaniK  utilis  128 

on  the  so-called  '  Mimicry'  in  Plants    128 

Mr.  A.  G.  More  on  Spiranthes  Bomanzoviana,  Cham 129 

on  Eriophorum  aljnnum,  Linn.,  as  a  British  Plant    129 

Dr.  James  Mueie  on  the  Development  of  Fungi  within  the  Thorax  of  Living 
Birds 129 

Dr.  J.  BuiKBECK  Nevins  on  the  Changes  which  occur  in  Plants  during  the 
ripening  of  the  Seeds,  in  order  to  ensure  the  access  of  the  Air  and  Light  as 
well  as  Heat,  which  are  generally  reqmsite  for  this  purpose,  without  the 
loss  of  the  Seeds  before  the  ripening  is  completed 130 

on  the  Nature  of  the  Cruciferous  fruit,  with  refer- 
ence to  the  Replum 130 

Mr.  J.  Sadler  on  the  Species  of  Grimynia  (including  Schididiuni)  as  repre- 
sented in  the  neighboiu'hood  of  Edinburgh 131 

Mr.  Neil  Stewart's  Observations  on  the  intimate  Structure  of  Spiral  ducts 
in  Plants  and  their  relationship  to  the  Flower    131 

Inquiry  into  the  Fimctions  of  Colour  in  Plants  during 

different  Stages  of  their  Development , 131 

Prof.  W.  C.  Williamson  on  the  Classification  of  the  Vascular  Cryptogamia, 
as  affected  by  recent  Discoveries  amongst  the  Fossil  Plants  of  the  Coal- 
measures   131 

•    Zoology. 

Professor  J.  Duns's  Notice  of  two  Specimens  of  Echinorhinus  qmiosiis  taken 
in  the  Firth  of  Forth 132 

— — on  the  Rarer  Raptorial  Birds  of  Scotland 132 

Dr.  Grierson  on  the  Carahm  nitens  of  the  Scottish  Moors 132 

Ml".  W.  Saville  Kent  on  the  Zoological  Results  of  the  Dredging  Expedition 
of  the  Yacht  '  Norma  '  off  the  Coast  of  Spain  and  Portugal  in  1870 132 

Mr.  A.  W.  Lewis's  Proposal  for  a  Modification  of  the  strict  Law  of  Priority 
in  Zoological  Nomenclature  in  certain  cases    133 

Dr.  Christian  Lutken  on  some  resent  Additions  to  the  Arctic  Fauna  (a  new 
Antipathes  and  a  new  Apodal  Lophioid) 133 

Mr.  A.  G.  More  on  the  occun-ence  of  Brown  Trout  in  Salt  Water 133 

on  some  Dredgings  in  Kenmare  Bay 133 

Mr.  C.  W.  Peach  on  the  so-called  Tailless  Trout  of  Islay 1S3 

Colonel  Playfair  on  the  Hydrographical  System  of  the  Freshwater  Fish  of 
Algeria 134 

Dr.  P.  L.  Sclater's  Remarks  on  a  favourable  occasion  for  the  establishment 
of  Zoological  Observatories 134 

Professor  Wyville  Thomson  on  the  Structure  of  Crinoids    134 

on  the  Paleeontological  Relations  of  the  Fauna 

of  the  North  Atlantic ' 134 


CONTENTS.  XI 

Page 
Mr.  Roland  Thimen  on  a  curious  Soutli-Afiicau  Grasshopper,  Trachypetra 
bufo  (White),  which  mimics  with  much  precision  the  appearance  of  the 

stones  among  which  it  lives 13-4 

Professeur  Van  Beneden  sur  les  Chauves-souris  de  I'^poque  du  Mammouth 
et  de  I'epoque  actuelle     13*5 

The  Rev.  R.  B.  Watson's  Notes  on  Dredging  at  Madeira   137 

Anatomy  and  Physiology. 

Professor  A.  Buchanan  on  the  Pressure  of  the  Atmosphere  as  an  Auxiliary 
Force  in  carrying  on  the  Circulation  of  the  Blood 137 

Dr.  John  Chiene's  Experimental  Inquiry  into  some  of  the  Resxilts  of  Inocu- 
lation in  the  lower  Animals   138 

Professor  W.  H.  Flower  on  the  Composition  of  the  Carpus  of  the  Dog  ....  138 

Dr.  Arthitr  Gamgee  on  the  Magnetic  and  Diamagnetic  Properties  of  the 
Blood     138 

Sir  Duncan  Gibb  on  the  Uses  of  the  Uvula 139 

on  some  Abnormalities  of  the  Larynx 139 

Professor  Humphry  on  the  Caudal  and  Abdominal  Muscles  of  the  Crypto- 
branch  140 

Mr.  E.  Ray  Lankesteh  on  the  Existence  of  Haemoglobin  in  the  Muscular 
Tissue,  and  its  relation  to  Muscular  Activity 140 

Mr.  B.  T.  LowNE  on  the  Ciliated  Condition  of  the  Inner  Layer  of  the  Blasto- 
derm in  the  Ova  of  Birds  and  in  the  Omphalo-mesenteric  Vessels 140 

Professor  A.  Macalisteh  on  the  Bearing  of  Muscular  Anomalies  on  the  Dar- 
winian Theory  of  the  Origin  of  Species 140 

Dr.  M'Kendbiok  on  a  New  Form  of  Tetanometer    , 140 

Dr.  William  Mahcet  on  the  Nutrition  of  Muscular  and  Pulmonary  Tissue 
in  Health  and  in  Phthisis,  with  Remarks  on  the  Colloid  Condition  of  Mat- 
ter    140 

Dr.  Edward  Smith  on  Dietaries  in  the  Workhouses  of  England  and  Wales  .  141 

Professor  Stbuthers  on  some  Rudimentary  Structures  recently  met  with  in 
the  Dissection  of  a  large  Fin-Whale 142 

on  the  Cervical  Vertebrte  in  Cetacea  142 

Professor  R.  H.  Traquair  on  the  Restoration  of  the  Tail  in  Protopterus  an- 
nectens    143 

Dr.  J.  Batty  Tuke  and  Professor  Rutherford  on  tlie  Morbid  Appearances 
noticed  in  the  Brains  of  Insane  People 144 

Professor  Turner  on  the  Placentation  in  the  Cetacea 144 

's  Notes  on  the  Cervical  Vertebrae  of  Steypirethyr  {JBala- 

noptera  Sihbaldii) 144 

Dr.  M.  Watson's  Contributions  to  the  Anatomy  of  the  Thoracic  Viscera  of 
the  Elephant    144 

Anthropology. 

Professor  Turner's  Address  to  the  Department  of  Anthropology 144 

Dr.  John  Beddoe  on  the  Anthropolygy  of  the  Merse 147 

on  Degeneration  of  Race  in  Britain    148 

Dr.  Charnock  on  Le  Sette  Communi,  a  German  Colony  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Viceuza 148 


Xn  CONTENTS. 

Pa 

Dr.  Chaenock  and  Dr.  Carter  Blake  on  tlie  Physical,  Mental,  and  Philo- 
logical Characteristic  of  the  Wallons  , , 1-48 

Dr.  Eugene  A.  Coxwell  on  an  Inscribed  Stone  at  Newhaggard,  in  the 
County  of  Meath 149 

Mr.  W.  Boyd  Dawkins  on  the  Origin  of  the  Domestic  Animals  of  Europe . .   149 

on  the  attempted  Classification  of  the  Palaeolithic 

Age  by  means  of  the  Mammalia   119 

Mr.  Walter  Dendy  on  a  Gleam  of  the  Saxon  in  the  Weald 150 

Mr.  J.  W.  Flower  on  the  Eelative  Ages  of  the  Flint-  and  Stone-Implement 
Periods  in  England 150 

Sir  Duncan  Gibb  on  Centenarian  Longevity 151 

on  the  Fat  Woman  exhibiting  in  London 152 

Ml-.  George  Harris  on  the  Hereditary  Transmission  of  Endowments  and 
Qualities  of  different  kinds     152 

on  the  Comparative  Longevity  of  Animals  of  difierent 

Species  and  of  Man,  and  the  probable  Causes  which  mainly  conduce  to  pro- 
mote this  difierence 153 

Mr.  J.  W,  Jackson  on  the  Adantean  Eace  of  Western  Europe 153 

Mr.  J.  Kaines  on  the  Anthropology  of  Auguste  Comte    153 

Dr.  E.  King  on  the  Lapps 153 

Lieut. -Col.  Forbes  Leslie  on  Megalithic  Circles , 154 

on  Ancient  Hierogh'phic  Sculptui'es    155 

Eev.  J.  M'^Cann  on  the  Origin  of  the  Moral  Sense    155 

]SIr.  W.  D.  MiCHELL,  Is  the  Stone  Age  of  LyeU  and  Lubbock  as  yet  at  all 
proven  ?     155 

Mr.  M.  MoGGRiDGE  on  Bones  and  Flints  foimd  in  the  Caves  at  Mentone  and  in 
the  adjacent  Eailway  Cutting    155 

Ml'.  J.  Wolfe  Murray  on  a  Cross  traced  upon  a  hill  at  Criugletie,  near  Peebles  156 

Mr.  George  Pethie  on  Ancient  Modes  of  Sepultm-e  in  the  Orkneys 15G 

Mr.  John  S.  Phene  on  an  Expedition  for  the  Special  Investigation  of  the 
Hebrides  and  West  Highlands,  in  search  of  Evidences  of  Ancient  Serpent- 
Worship    158 

on  some  indications  of  the  Manners  and  Customs  of  the 

early  Inhabitants  of  Britain,  deduced  from  the  Eemains  of  their  towns  and 
villages 159 

The  Abbe  Eichard  on  the  Discoveiy  of  Flint  Implements  in  Eg3pt,  at  Moimt 
Sinai,  at  Galgala,  and  in  Joshua's  Tomb ' 160 

Professor  Struthers  on  Skulls  presenting  Sagittal  Sj-nostosis   160 

The  Eev.  W.  S.  Symonds  on  Implements  found  in  King  Arthui-'s  Cave,  near 
Whitchm-ch 160 

Professor  Turner  on  Human  and  Animal  Bones  and  Flints  from  a  Cave  at 
Oban,  Ai-gyleshire    160 

Mr.  C.  Staniland  Wake  on  Man  and  the  Ape 162 

The  Eev.  W.  Webster  on  certain  Points  concerning  the  Origin  and  Eelations 
of  the  Basque  Eace t 162 


CONTENTS.  XIU 


GEOGRAPHY. 


Address  by  Colonel  Henry  Yule,  C.B.,  President  of  the  Section 162 

Major-General  jLtbeamof  on  the  Principality  of  Karategin 174 

Major  Basevi  on  Minicoy  Island 174 

Captain  L.  Bbine  on  the  Euined  Cities  of  Central  America    175 

Dr.  Eobekt  BnowN  on  the  Interior  of  Greenland    175 

Captain  Chimmo  on  Cagayan  Sulu  Island  176 

Dr.  CoPELAND  on  the  Second  German  Arctic  Expedition 176 

Captain  F.  Elton  on  the  Limpopo  Expedition 178 

JNIi-.  Chhistopher  George  on  a  Self-replenishing  Artificial  Horizon   178 

Dr.  Ginsburg's  Further  disclosxu-es  of  the  Moabite  Stone    179 

Dr.  J.  D.  Hooker's  Ascent  of  the  Atlas  Eauge 179 

Ibrahim  Khan's  Journey  from  Yassin  to  Yarkand  . . .  i .i...> 180 

Captain  "B.  Lovett  on  the  Interior  of  Mekran    180 

Colonel  E.  Maclagan  on  the  Geographical  Distribution  of  Petroleum  and 
allied  products 180 

Dr.  E.  J.  Mann  on  the  Formation  of  Sand-bars 184 

Pandit  Manphal's  Eeport  on  Badakolan 184 

ISIx.  C.  E.  Mahkham  on  the  Eastern  Cordillera,  and  the  Navigation  of  the 
Eiver  Madeira 184 

—  on  the  Geographical  Positions   of  the  Tiibes  which 

formed  the  Empire  of  the  Yncas 185 

Captain  JNIiles  on  the  Somali  Coast 186 

Eev.  F.  0.  Morris  on  the  Encroachments  of  the  Sea  on  the  East  Coast  of 
Yorkshire 187 

Mr.  S.  Mossman  on  the  Inundation  and  Subsidence  of  the  Yang-tsze  Eiver, 
in  China    187 

Archimandrate  Pallakius's  Letters  from  Vladivostok  and  Nikolsk,  South 
Ussuri  District , 187 

]\Ii-.  E.  H.  Palmer  on  the  Geography  of  Moab 187 

Captain  H.  S.  Palmer  on  an  Acoustic  Phenomenon  at  Jebel  Nagiis,  in  the 
Peninsula  of  Sinai 188 

Capt.  A.  Pullan's  Notes  on  British  Gm-whal    189 

Dr.  Eae  on  the  Saskatchewan  Valley 189 

Mr,  W.  B.  Eichardson  on  the  Volcan  de  Agua,  near  Guatemala 189 

Major  E.  C.  Eoss,  A  Journey  through  Mekran 189 

Mr.  George  St.  Clair  on  the  Topography  of  Ancient  Jerusalem 189 

Mr.  Thela-svney  Saunders  on  the  Himalayas  and  Central  Asia   189 

Major  Sladen  on  Ti-ade  Eoutes  between  Burmah  and  China 189 

Commander  A.  Dundas  Taylor  on  the  Proposed  Ship-Canal  between  Ceylon 
and  India 189 

Capt.  Ward  on  the  American  Arctic  Expedition 190 

M.  Arthur  Wertherman  on  the  Exploration  of  the  Headwaters  of  the 
Maranon 190 

Colonel  Henry  YuLEon  Captain  Garnier's  Expedition  up  the  Camboja , . , .  190 


^^^  CONTENTS. 

ECONOMIC  SCIENCE  and  STATISTICS. 

Addi-ess  by  Lohd  Neaves,  one  of  the  Lords  of  Session,  President  of  the  Sec- 
tion      191 

Colonel  Sir  J.  E.  Alexander  on  Sanitary  Measures  for  Scottish  Villages    . .  200 
Lydia  E.  Becker  on  some  Maxims  of  Political  Economy  as  applied  to  the 
Employment  of  Women,  and  the  Education  of  Girls     201 

Mr.  William  Botley  on  Land  Tenure 202 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Boyd  on  Educational  Hospital  Reform  :  The  Scheme  of  the 
Edinburgh  Merchant  Company 202 

Mr.  Samuel  Brown  on  the  Measurement  of  Man  and  his  Faculties 210 

Sheriff  Cleghorn  on  the  Wellington  Reformatory 211 

Mr.  F.  P.  Fellowes  on  a  proposed  Doomsday  Book,  giving  the  Value  of  the 
Governmental  Property  as  a  basis  for  a  sound  system  of  National  Finance 
and  Accounts  211 

Mr.  William  Hoyt:,e  on  Political  Economy,  Pauperism,  the  Labour  Question, 
and  the  Liquor  Traffic    212 

Mr.  A.  Jyram-Row  on  the  present  state  of  Education  in  India,  and  its  bear- 
ings on  the  question  of  Social  Science 212 

:Mr.  Charles  Lamport  on  Naval  Efficiency  and  Dockyard  Economy  212 

Mr.  W.  M'Bean  on  the  Edinburgh  Industrial  Home  for  Fallen  Women,  Aln- 
wick Hill,  near  Liberton    212 

Mr.  James  Meikle  on  the  Mode  for  Assessing  for  the  Poor-Rates    213 

Mr.  W.  A.  Peterkin  on  the  Administration  of  the  Poor  Law 213 

Mr.  George  Seton  on  the  Illegitimacy  of  Banffshire 214 

■ — on  the  Expediency  of  recording  Still-Births    215 

• on  certain  Cases  of  Questioned  Legitimacy  under  the 

Operation  of  the  Scottish  Registration  Act  (17  &  18  Vict.  c.  80)    217 

Dr.  George  Smith  on  Indian  Statistics  and  Official  Reports 220 

Mr.  William  Stephenson  on  the  Scientific  Aspects  of  Children's  Hospitals  221 

Mr.  G.  Johnstone  Stoney  on  the  Relation  between  British  and  Metrical 
Measures  222 

Mr.  W.  Taylor  on  the  Manual  Labour  Classes  of  England,  Wales,  and 
Scotland 223 

Mr.  James  Valentine  on  Census  Reform 223 

Mr.  R.  Bailey  Walker  on  the  Organization  of  Societies,  nationally  and  locally 
considered    223 

Mr.  William  Westgabth  on  the  Law  of  Capital 223 


MECHANICAL  SCIENCE. 

Address  by  Professor  Fleeming  Jenkin,  F.R.S.,  President  of  the  Section  . ,  225 
Mr.  Philip  Braham  on  an  Apparatus  for  working  Torpedoes 229 

Mr.  F.  J.  BRAMm-ELL's  Account  of  some  Experiments  upon  a  "  Carr's  Disin- 
tegrator" at  work  at  Messrs.  Gibson  and  Walker's  Flour-mills,  Leith  ....  229 


CONTENTS.  XV 

Mr.  A.  B.  Brom'N  ou  a  direct-acting  Combined  Steam  and  Hydraulic  Crauo  .  231 

Mr.  Alexakdeb  Buchan  on  the  Rainfall  of  Scotland 232 

— on  the  Rainfall  of  the  Northern  Hemisphere  in  July, 

as  contrasted  with  that  of  January,  with  Remarks  on  Atmospheric  Circula- 
tion      232 

on  the  Great  Heat  of  August  2nd-4th,  18G8 232 

Mr.  TuoMAS  Carr  on  a  new  iNIill  for  Disintegrating  Wheat    233 

Mr.  R.  Douglas  on  the  Corliss  Engine 234 

Mr.  R.  F.  Fairlie  on  the  Gauge  of  Railways    234 

Mr.  A.  E.  Fletcher  on  the  Rhysimeter,  an  Instrument  for  Measuring  the 
Speed  of  Flowing  Water  or  of  Ships     234 

Mr.  Lavington  E.  Fletcher  on  Steam-boiler  Legislation     236 

Mr.  Thomas  Gillott  on  Designing  Pointed  Roofs 239 

Mr.  jAiiES  Leslie's  Description  of  a  Salmon-ladder  meant  to  suit  the  vary- 
■  ing  levels  of  a  Lake  or  Reservoir 239 

J\Ir.  J.  D.  Morrison  on  a  new  S3-stem  of  Warming  and  Ventilation 240 

Mr.  R.  A.  Peacock  on  Chain-Cable  Testing,  and  lu-oposed  New  Testing-Link   240 

Mr.  E.  C.  C.  Stanford  on  the  Carbon  Closet  System 240 

Mr.  C.  William  Siemens  on  the  Steam  Blast 240 

Mr.  Thomas  Ste-st<:nson,  Automatic  Gauge  for  the  Discharge  of  Water  over 
Weirs 241 

Thermometer  of  Translation  for  recording  the  Daily 

Changes  of  Temperatm-o    241 

Mr.  MiCHAL  Scott  on  improved  Ships  of  War 241 

Mr.  W.  Thomson  on  a  Road  Steamer 241 


APPENDIX. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Boog  Watson's  Notes  on  Dredgings  at  Madeira 242 

Mr.  B.  T.  LowNE  on  the  Ciliated  Condition  of  the  Inner  Layer  of  the  Blasto- 
derm and  of  the  Omphalo -mesenteric  Vessels  in  the  Egg  of  the  Coumion 
Fowl 242 


EREATA  IN  EEPOET  FOE  1870. 

^^^"^ 

s,  offer  line  32,  inseri  Anatomy  and  rinsiOLOCY. 

si,        ,,         37,      ,,      Etiixology  and  Akthropoi.ogy. 

XV,         „         25,      „      Address  by  Mr.  Jolm  Evans  lo  the  Department  of  Ethno- 
logy and  Anthropology, 
xxxii,  line  31,  fur  Glasgow  read  Edinburgli. 
129,  Transactions  of  Sections,  afier  line  11,  insert  Anatomy  and  Puysiology. 
1^3,  „  „  ,,         „         35,     „      Ethnology  and  ANTimoroLOGY. 


EERATUM  IN  THE  PEESENT  VOLUME. 

Page  177,  Traneaetious  of  the  Sections,  line  33, /yr  0'-58  read  0"-5S. 


OBJECTS    AND    RULES 


OP 


THE  ASSOCIATION. 


OBJECTS. 

The  Association  contemplates  no  interference  with  the  ground  occupied  by 
other  institutions.  Its  objects  are  : — To  give  a  stronger  impulse  and  a  more 
systematic  direction  to  scientific  inquiry,— to  promote  the  intercourse  of  those 
who  cultivate  Science  in  different  parts  of  the  British  Empire,  with  one  an- 
other and  with  foreign  philosophers, — to  obtain  a  more  general  attention  to 
the  objects  of  Science,  and  a  removal  of  any  disadvantages  of  a  public  kind 
which  impede  its  progress. 

RULE  S. 

Admission  of  Members  and  Associates. 

All  persons  who  have  attended  the  first  Meeting  shall  bo  entitled  to  be- 
come Members  of  the  Association,  upon  subscribing  an  obligation  to  con- 
form to  its  Rules. 

The  Fellows  and  Members  of  Chartered  Literary  and  Philosophical  So- 
cieties publishing  Transactions,  in  the  British  Empii-e,  shall  be  entitled,  in 
like  manner,  to  become  Members  of  the  Association. 

The  Officers  and  Members  of  the  Councils,  or  Managing  Committees,  of 
Philosophical  Institutions  shall  be  entitled,  in  lilie  manner,  to  become  Mem-  * 
bers  of  the  Association. 

All  Members  of  a  Philosophical  Institution  recommended  by  its  Council 
or  Managing  Committee  shall  be  entitled,  in  Hke  manner,  to  become  Mem- 
bers of  the  Association. 

Persons  not  belonging  to  such  Institutions  shaU  be  elected  by  the  General 
Committee  or  Coimcil,  to  become  Life  Members  of  the  Association,  Annual 
Subscribers,  or  Associates  for  the  year,  subject  to  the  approval  of  a  General 
Meeting. 


^£>- 


Compositions,  Subscriptions,  and  Privileges. 

Life  Mehbers  shall  pay,  on  admission,  the  sum  of  Ten  Pounds.     They 
shall  receive  gratuitously  the  Reports  of  the  Association  which  may  be  pub- 
1871.  6 


Xviii  RULES  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION. 

lished  after  the  date  of  such  payment.  They  arc  eligible  to  all  the  offices 
of  the  Association. 

Annual  Stibsceibers  shall  pay,  on  admission,  the  sum  of  Two  Pounds, 
and  in  each  following  year  the  sum  of  One  Pound.  They  shall  receive 
(iratultoushj  the  Reports  of  the  Association  for  the  year  of  theii-  admission 
and  for  the  yeai-s  in  which  they  continue  to  pay  tvithout  intermission  their 
Annual  Subscription.  By  omitting  to  pay  this  Subscription  in  any  particu- 
lar year,  Members  of  this  class  (Annual  Subscribers)  Jose  for  that  and  all 
future  years  the  pri\ilege  of  receiving  the  volumes  of  the  Association  r/ratis: 
but  they  may  resume  their  Membership  and  other  privileges  at  any  sub- 
sequent Meeting  of  the  Association,  paying  on  each  such  occasion  the  sum  of 
One  Pound.     They  are  eligible  to  all  the  Offices  of  the  Association. 

Associates  for  the  year  shall  pay  on  admission  the  sum  of  One  Pound. 
They  shall  not  receive  (jratuitoushj  the  Reports  of  the  Association,  nor  be 
eligible  to  serve  on  Committees,  or  to  hold  any  office. 

The  Association  consists  of  the  following  classes : — 

1.  Life  Members  admitted  from  1831  to  1845  inclusive,  who  have  paid 
on  admission  Five  Pounds  as  a  composition. 

2.  Life  Members  who  in  1846,  or  in  subsequent  years,  have  paid  on  ad- 
mission Ten  Pounds  as  a  composition. 

3.  Annual  Members  admitted  from  1S31  to  1839  inclusive,  subject  to  the 
payment  of  One  Pound  annually.  [May  resume  their  Membership  after  in- 
termission of  Annual  Payment.] 

4.  Annual  Members  admitted  in  any  year  since  1839,  subject  to  the  pay- 
ment of  Two  Pounds  for  the  fii-st  year,  and  One  Pound  in  each  following  year. 
[May  resume  their  Membership  after  intermission  of  Annual  Payment.] 

5.  Associates  for  the  year,  subject  to  the  payment  of  One  Pound. 

6.  Corresponding  Members  nominated  by  the  Coimcil. 

And  the  Members  and  Associates  will  be  entitled  to  receive  the  annual 
volume  of  Reports,  gratis,  or  to  purchase  it  at  reduced  (or  Members')  price, 
according  to  the  foUo-ning  specification,  viz.  : — 

1.  Gratis. — Old  Life  Members  who  have  paid  Pive  Pounds  as  a  compo- 

sition for  Annual  Payments,  and  previous  to  1845  a  further 
sum  of  Two  Pounds  as  a  Book  Subscription,  or,  since  1845,  a 
further  sum  of  Five  Pounds. 

New  Life  Members  who  have  paid  Ten  Pounds  as  a  composition. 

Annual  Members  who  have  not  intermitted  their  Annual  Sub- 
scription. 

2.  At  reduced  or  Memhers'  Prices,  viz.  two-thirds  of  the  Publication 

Price. — Old  Life  Members  who  have  paid  Five  Pounds  as  a 

composition  for  Annual  Payments,  but  no  ftirther  sum  as  a 

Book  Subscription. 
Annual  Members  who  have  intermitted  theii*  Annual  Subscription. 
Associates  for  the  year.     [Privilege  confined  to  the  volume  for 

that  year  only.] 

3.  M<nubcrs  may  purchase  (for  the  purpose  of  completing  theii'  sets)  any 

of  the  fii'st  seventeen  volumes  of  Transactions  of  the  Associa- 
tion, and  of  wJiich  more  than  100  copies  remain,  at  one-third  of 
the  Publication  Price.  Application  to  be  made  at  the  Office 
of  the  Association,  22  Albemarle  Street,  London,  "W. 


RULES  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION.  XIX 

Volumes  not  clp,imed  -within  two  years  of  the  date  of  publication  can  only 
be  issued  by  directioji  of  the  Coiincil. 

Subscriptions  shall  be  received  by  the  Treasurer  or  Secretaries. 

Meetinys. 

The  Association  shall  meet  annually,  for  one  week,  or  longer.  The  plac6 
of  each  Meeting  shall  be  appointed  liy  the  General  Committee  two  years  in 
advance ;  and  the  Arrangements  for  it  shall  be  entrusted  to  the  Officers  of 
the  Association. 

General  Committee, 

The  General  Committee  shall  sit  during  the  week  of  the  Meeting,  or 
longer,  to  transact  the  business  of  the  Association.  It  shall  consist  of  the 
following  persons : — 

Class  A.  Peemanent  Members. 

1.  Members  of  the  Council,  Presidents  of  the  Association,  and  Presidents 
of  Sections  for  tlie  present  and  preceding  years,  with  Authors  of  Reports  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Association, 

2.  Members  who  by  the  publication  of  AVorks  or  Papers  have  furthered 
the  advancement  of  those  subjects  which  are  taken  into  consideration  at  the 
Sectional  Meetings  of  the  Association.  With  a  vieiv  of  stihiniiilruj  new  claims 
under  this  Hide  to  the  decision  of  the  Council,  thei/  must  he  sent  to  the  Assistant 
Genercd  Secretari/  at  least  one  month  before  the  Meeting  of  the  Association. 
The  decision  of  the  Council  on  the  claims  of  any  Member  of  tli^e  Association  to 
he  placed  on  the  list  of  the  General  Committee  to  he  final. 

Class  B.  Temposaey  Mejibebs. 

1.  Presidents  for  the  time  being  of  any  Scientific  Societies  pubhshing  Trans- 
actions or,  in  liis  absence,  a  delegate  representing  him.  Claims  under  this  Rule 
to  be  sent  to  the  Assistant  General  Secretary  before  the  openiwj  of  the  Meeting. 

2.  Office-bearers  for  the  time  being,  or  delegates,  altogether  not  exceeding 
tliree,  from  Scientific  Institutions  established  in  the  place  of  Meeting. 
Claims  tinder  this  Eide  to  be  approved  by  the  Loccd  Secretaries  before  the 
openiny  of  the  Meeting. 

3.  Foreigners  and  other  individuals  whose  assistance  is  desired,  and  who 
are  specially  nominated  in  writing,  for  the  Meeting  of  the  year,  by  the  Pre- 
sident and  General  Secretaries. 

4.  Yice-Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  Sections. 

Oi'gamzing  Sectional  Commiite^s^, 

The  Presidents,  Yice-Presidents,  and  Secretaries  of  the  several  Sections 
are  nominated  by  the  Council,  and  have  power  to  act  until  their  names  are 
submitted  to  the  General  Committee  for  election. 

From  the  time  of  their  nomination  they  constitute  Organizing  Committees 
for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  information  upon  the  Memoirs  and  Eeports 
Hkely  to  be  submitted  to  the  Sections f,  and  of  preparing  Eeports  thereon, 

*  Passed  by  the  General  Committee,  Edinburgh,  1871. 

t  l\oticc  to  Contributors  of  Memoirs.—  kwihova  are  reminded  that,  nndpi"  an  arrange- 
ment dating  from  1871,  the  acceptance  of  Memoirs,  and  the  days  on  -which  they  are  to  be 


XX  RULES  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION. 

and  on  the  order  in  -which  it  is  desirable  that  they  should  be  read,  to  be  pre- 
sented to  the  Committees  of  the  Sections  at  their  first  Meeting. 

An  Orgauiziug  Committee  may  also  hold  snch  preliminary  Meetings  as  the 
President  of  the  Committee  thinks  expedient,  but  shall,  under  any  circum- 
stances, meet  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  at  11  a.m.,  to 
settle  the  terms  of  their  Report,  after  which  their  functions  as  an  Organizing 
Committee  shall  cease. 


Constitution  of  the  Sectional  Committees''^. 

On  the  first  day  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  the  President,  Vice-Presidents, 
and  Secretaries  of  each  Section  having  been  appointed  by  the  General  Com- 
mittee, these  Officers,  and  those  previous  Presidents  and  Vice-Presidents  of 
the  Section  who  may  desire  to  attend,  are  to  meet,  at  2  p.m.,  in  their  Com- 
mittee Eooms,  and  enlarge  the  Sectional  Committees  by  selecting  individuals 
from  among  the  Members  (not  Associates)  present  at  the  Meeting  whose  as- 
sistance they  may  particularly  desire.  The  Sectional  Committees  thus  con- 
stituted shall  have  power  to  add  to  their  number  from  day  to  day. 

The  List  thus  formed  is  to  be  entered  daily  in  the  Sectional  Minute-Book, 
and  a  copy  forwarded  without  delay  to  the  Printer,  who  is  charged  with 
publishing  the  same  before  8  a.m.  on  the  next  day,  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Sectional  Proceedings. 

Business  of  the  Sectional  Committees. 

Committee  Meetings  are  to  be  held  on  the  Wednesday  at  2  p.m.,  on  the 
following  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  Monday,  and  Tuesday,  from  10  to 
11  A.M.,  punctually,  for  the  objects  stated  in  the  Pules  of  the  Association, 
and  specified  below. 

The  business  is  to  be  conducted  in  the  following  manner : — 

At  the  first  meeting,  one  of  the  Secretaries  will  read  the  Minutes  of  last 
year's  proceedings,  as  recorded  in  the  Minute-Book,  and  the  Synopsis  of 
Recommendations  adopted  at  the  last  Meeting  of  the  Association  and  printed 
in  the  last  volume  of  the  Transactions.  He  will  next  proceed  to  read  the 
Report  of  the  Organiziug  Committee  f.  The  List  of  Communications  to  be 
read  on  Thursday  shall  be  then  arranged,  and  the  general  distribution  of 
business  throughout  the  week  shall  be  provisionally  appointed.  At  the  close 
of  the  Committee  Meeting  the  Secretaries  shall  forward  to  the  Printer  a  List 
of  the  Papers  appointed  to  be  read.  The  Printer  is  charged  with  publishing 
the  same  befoi-e  8  a.m.  on  Thursday  in  the  Journal. 

On  the  second  day  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  the  following  days,  the 

read,  are  now  as  far  as  possible  determined  by  Organizing  Committees  for  the  several 
Sections  heforc  the  h'cginning  of  the  Meeting.  It  has  therefore  bccorao  necessary,  in  order 
to  give  an  opportunity  to  tlie  Committees  of  doing  justice  to  the  several  Communications, 
that  each  Author  should  in-epare  an  Abstract  of  his  Memoir,  of  a  lengtli  suitable  for  in- 
sertion in  the  published  Transactions  of  the  Association,  and  that  he  should  send  it,  toge- 
ther with  the  original  Memoir,  by  book-post,  on  or  before ,,  addressed 

thus — "General  Secretaries,  British  Association,  22  Albemarle  Street,  London,  W.     For 

Section _.."     If  it  should  be  inconvenient  to  the  Author  tliat  his  Paper  should  be  read 

on  any  particular  days,  he  is  requested  to  send  information  thereof  to  the  Secretaries  in  a 
se)5arate  note. 

*  Passed  by  the  General  Committee,  Edinburgh,  187L 

t  This  and  the  following  sentence  were  added  by  the  General  Committee,  1871. 


RULES  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION.  XXI 

Secretaries  are  to  correct,  on  a  copy  of  the  Journal,  the  list  of  papers  which 
have  been  read  on  that  day,  to  add  to  it  a  list  of  those  appointed  to  be  read 
on  the  next  day,  and  to  send  this  coi^y  of  the  Journal  as  early  in  the  day  as 
possible  to  the  Printers,  who  are  charged  with  printing  the  same  before  8  a.m. 
next  morning  in  the  Journal.  It  is  necessary  that  one  of  the  Secretaries  of 
each  Section  should  call  at  the  Printing  Office  and  revise  the  proof  each 
evening. 

Minutes  of  the  proceedings  of  every  Committee  are  to  be  entered  daily  in 
the  Minute-Book,  which  should  be  confirmed  at  the  next  meeting  of  the 
Committee. 

Lists  of  the  Eeports  and  Memoirs  read  in  the  Sections  are  to  be  entered 
in  the  Minute-Book  daily,  which,  with  all  Memoirs  and  Copies  or  Abstracts 
of  Memoirs  furnished  by  Authors,  are  to  be  forwarded,  at  the  close  of  the  Sec~ 
tional  Meetings,  to  the  Assistant  General  Secretary. 

The  Vice-Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  Sections  become  ex  officio  temporary 
Members  of  the  General  Committee  {vide  p.  xix),  and  will  receive,  on  ap- 
phcation  to  the  Treasurer  in  the  Eeception  Eoom,  Tickets  entitling  them  to 
attend  its  Meetings. 

The  Committees  will  take  into  consideration  any  suggestions  which  may 
be  offered  by  their  Members  for  the  advancement  of  Science.  They  are 
specially  requested  to  review  the  recommendations  adopted  at  preceding 
Meetings,  as  published  in  the  volumes  of  the  Association  and  the  communi- 
cations made  to  the  Sections  at  this  Meeting,  for  the  purposes  of  selecting 
definite  points  of  research  to  which  individual  or  combined  exertion  may  be 
usefully  directed,  and  branches  of  knowledge  on  the  state  and  progress  of 
which  Eeports  are  wanted ;  to  name  individuals  or  Committees  for  the  exe- 
cution of  such  Eeports  or  researches  ;  and  to  state  whether,  and  to  what  de- 
gree, these  objects  may  be  usefully  advanced  by  the  appropriation  of  the 
funds  of  the  Association,  by  application  to  Government,  Philosophical  Insti- 
tutions, or  Local  Authorities. 

In  case  of  appointment  of  Committees  for  special  objects  of  Science,  it  is 
expedient  that  all  Members  of  the  Committee  should  be  named,  and  one  of 
them  appointed  to  act  as  Secretary,  for  insurinr/  attention  to  business. 

Committees  have  power  to  add  to  their  number  persons  whose  assistance 
they  may  require. 

The  recommendations  adopted  by  the  Committees  of  Sections  are  to  be 
registered  in  the  Forms  furnished  to  their  Secretaries,  and  one  Copy  of  each 
is  to  be  forwarded,  without  delay,  to  the  Assistant-General  Secretary  for  pre- 
sentation to  the  Committee  of  Eecommendations.  Unless  this  be  done,  the 
Recommendations  cannot  receive  the  sanction  of  the  Association. 

N.B. — Eecommendations  which  may  originate  in  any  one  of  the  Sections 
must  first  be  sanctioned  by  the  Committee  of  that  Section  before  they  can  be 
referred  to  the  Committee  of  Eecommendations  or  confirmed  by  the  General 
Committee. 

Notices  Regarding  Grants  of  Money. 

Committees  and  individuals,  to  whom  grants  of  money  have  been  entrusted 
by  the  Association  for  the  prosecution  of  particular  researches  in  Science, 
are  reqiiired  to  present  to  each  following  Meeting  of  the  Association  a  Eeport 
of  the  progress  which  has  been  made  ;  and  the  Individual  or  the  Member  first 
named  of  a  Committee  to  whom  a  money  grant  has  been  made  must  (pre- 
viously to  the  next  meeting  of  the  Association)  forward  to  the  General 

1871.  c 


XXII  RULES  OF  THE   ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries  or  Treasurer  a  statement  of  tiie  sums  which  have  been  expended, 
and  the  balance  which  remains  disposable  on  each  grant. 

Grants  of  money  sanctioned  at  any  one  meeting  of  the  Association  expire 
a  iveelc  before  the  opening  of  the  ensuing  Meeting ;  nor  is  the  Treasurer 
authorized,  after  that  date,  to  allow  any  claims  on  account  of  such  grants, 
unless  they  be  renewed  in  the  original  or  a  modified  form  by  the  General 
Committee. 

No  Committee  shall  raise  money  in  the  name  or  under  the  auspices  of  the 
British  Association  without  special  permission  from  the  General  Committee 
to  do  so ;  and  no  money  so  raised  shall  be  expended  except  in  accordance 
with  the  rules  of  the  Association. 

In  each  Committee,  the  Member  fii-st  named  is  the  only  person  entitled  to 
call  on  the  Treasurer,  W.  Spottiswoode,  Esq.,  50  Grosvenor  Place,  London, 
S.W.,  for  such  portion  of  the  sums  granted  as  may  from  time  to  time  be 
required. 

In  grants  of  money  to  Committees,  the  Association  does  not  contemplate 
the  pajTnent  of  personal  expenses  to  the  members. 

In  aU  cases  where  additional  grants  of  money  are  made  for  the  continua- 
tion of  Kesearches  at  the  cost  of  the  Association,  the  sum  named  is  deemed 
to  include,  as  a  part  of  the  amount,  whatever  balance  may  remain  unpaid  on 
the  former  grant  for  the  same  object. 

All  Instruments,  Papers,  Drawings,  and  other  property  of  the  Association 
are  to  be  deposited  at  the  Office  of  the  Association,  22  Albemarle  Street, 
Piccadilly,  London,  W.,  when  not  employed  in  carrying  on  scientific  inquiries 
for  the  Association. 

Business  of  the  Sections. 

-The  Meeting  Eoom  of  each  Section  is  opened  for  conversation  from  10  to 
11  daily.  The  Section  Booms  and  approaches  thereto  can  he  used  for  no  notices, 
exliihitions,  or  other  pxoposes  than  those  of  the  Association. 

At  11  pi-ecisely  the  Chaii-  wiU  be  taken,  and  the  reading  of  communica- 
tions, in  the  order  pre^•iousiy  made  public,  be  commenced.  At  3  p.m.  the 
Sections  will  close. 

Sections  may,  by  the  desire  of  the  Committees,  divide  themselves  into 
Departments,  as  often  as  the  number  and  nature  of  the  communications  de- 
livered in  may  render  such  divisions  desirable. 

A  Eeport  presented  to  the  Association,  and  read  to  the  Section  which 
originally  called  for  it,  may  be  read  in  another  Section,  at  the  request  of  the 
Officers  of  that  Section,  with  the  consent  of  the  Author. 

Duties  of  the  Dooi'heepers. 

1. — To  remain  constantly  at  the  Doors  of  the  Rooms  to  -nhicli  tht;y  are  ap- 
pointed during  the  whole  time  for  which  they  are  engaged. 
2. — To  rcquii'c  of  every  person  desirous  of  entering  the  Piooms  the  exhibi- 
tion of  a  Member's,  Associate's  or  Lady's  Ticket,  or  Reporter's  Ticket, 
signed  by  the  Treasui-er,  or  a  Special  Ticket,  signed  by  the  Assistant- 
General  Secretary. 
3. — Persons  unprovided  with  any  of  these  Tickets  can  only  be  admitted  to 
any  particular  Eoom  by  order  of  the  Secretary  in  that  Room, 
No  person  is  exempt  from  these  Rules,  except  those  Officers  of  the  Asso- 
ciation whose  names  are  printed  in  the  Programme,  p.  1 , 


RULES  OV  THE  ASSOCIATION.  XXIU 

Duties  of  the  Messengers. 

To  remain  constantly  at  the  Eooms  to  which  they  are  appointed,  during 
the  whole  time  for  which  they  are  engaged,  except  when  employed  on  mes- 
sages bj'  one  of  the  Officers  directing  these  Eooms. 

Committee  of  Recommendations. 

The  General  Committee  shall  appoint  at  each  Meeting  a  Committee,  which 
shall  receive  and  consider  the  Eecommendations  of  the  Sectional  Committees, 
and  report  to  the  General  Committee  the  measures  which  they  would  advise 
to  be  adopted  for  the  advancement  of  Science. 

All  Eecommendations  of  Grants  of  Money,  Eequests  for  Special  Eesearches, 
and  Eeports  on  Scientific  Subjects  shall  be  submitted  to  the  Committee  of 
Eecommendations,  and  not  taken  into  consideration  by  the  General  Committee 
miless  previously  recommended  by  the  Committee  of  Eecommendations. 

Local  Committees. 

Local  Committees  shall  be  formed  by  the  Officers  of  the  Association  to 
assist  in  making  arrangements  for  the  Meetings. 

Local  Committees  shall  have  the  power  of  adding  to  their  numbers  those 
Members  of  the  Association  whose  assistance  they  may  desire. 

Officers. 

A  President,  two  or  more  Vice-Presidents,  one  or  more  Secretaries,  and  a 
Treasurer  shall  be  annually  appointed  by  the  General  Committee. 

Council. 

In  the  intervals  of  the  Meetings,  the  affairs  of  the  Association  shall  be  ma- 
naged by  a  Coimcil  appointed  by  the  General  Committee.  The  Council  may 
also  assemble  for  the  despatch  of  business  duiing  the  week  of  the  Meeting. 

Papers  and  Communications. 

The  Author  of  any  paper  or  communication  shall  be  at  liberty  to  reserve 
his  light  of  property  therein. 

Accounts. 

The  Accounts  of  the  Association  shall  be  audited  annually,  by  Auditors 
appointed  by  the  General  Committee. 


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XXX 


KEPORT 1871. 


Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  the  Sections  of  the  Association, 


Date  and  Place. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


MATHEMATICAL  AND  PHYSICAL  SCIENCES. 


COMMITTEE  OF  SCIENCES,  I. MATHEMATICS  AND  GENERAl  PHYSICS. 


1832. 

1833. 
1834. 


Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 


Davies  Gilbert,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S....|Re7.  H.  Coddiugton. 

SirD.  Brewster,  RE.S Prof.  Porbes. 

Kev.  W.  Wliewell,  F.E.S |Prof.  Forbes,  Prof.  Llnjd. 


SECTION  A. ^MATHEMATICS  AND  PHYSICS. 


1835. 

1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 


Dublin... 

Bristol  ... 

Liverpool . . , 

Newcastle.. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow    . . . 

Plymouth. . . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge. . 

Southampton 

Oxford... 


Swansea  . 
Birmingham 


1850.  Edinburgh.. 


1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 


Ipswich 

Belfast  

Hull 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow  . . . 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 


Eev.  Dr.  Eobinson 

Eev.  William  Wliewell,  F.E.S,... 

Sir  D.  Brewster,  F.E.S 

Sir    J.  F.  W.   Hersohel,    Bart., 

Eev!  Prof.  Whewell,  F.E.S 

Prof.  Forbes,  F.E.S 

Eev.  Prof.  Lloyd,  F.E.S 

Very  Eev.    G.    Peacock,    D.D., 
FES 

Prof.  MCulloch,  M.E.I. A 

The  Earl  of  Eosse,  F.E.S 

The  Very  Eev.  the  Dean  of  Ely  . 

Sir  John  F.  W.  Herschel,  Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Eev.  Prof.  Powell,  M.A.,  F.E.S.  . 

Lord  Wrottesley,  F.E.S 

William  Hopkins,  F.E.S 

Prof.  J.  D.  Forbes,  F.E.S.,  Sec. 
E.S.E. 

Eev.  W.  ^Vliewell,  D.D.,  F.E.S., 

&c. 
Prof.  W.  Thomson,  M.A.,  F.E.S. 

L.  &E. 
The  Dean  of  Ely,  F.E.S 

Prof.   G.   G.  Stokes,  M.A.,  Sec. 

E.S. 
Eev.  Prof.  Kelland,  M.A.,  F.E.S. 

L.&E. 
Eev.  E.  Walker,  M.A.,  F.E.S.  ... 

Eev.T.  E.  Eobinson,D.D., F.E.S., 
M.E.I.A. 


Prof.   Sh-   W.    E.    Hamilton,    Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof.  Forbes,  W.  S.  Harris,  F.  W. 

Jerrard. 
W.  S.  Harris,  Eev.  Prof.  PoweU,  Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev.  Prof.  Chcvallier,  Major  Sabine, 

Prof.  Stevelly. 
J.  D.  Chance,  W.  Snow  Harris,  Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev.  Dr.  Forbes,  Prof.  Stevelly,  Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof.  Stevelly. 
Prof.  M'Cuilocb,  Prof.  Stevelly,  Eev. 

W.  Scoresby. 
J.  Nott,  Prof.  Stevelly. 
Eev.  Wm.  Hey,  Prof.  Stevelly. 
Eev.  H.  Goodwin,  Prof.  Stevelly,  G. 

G.  Stokes. 
John    Drew,    Dr.    SteveUy,    G.    G. 

Stokes. 
Eev.  H.  Price,  Prof.  Stevelly,  G.  G. 

Stokes. 
Dr.  Stevellv,  G.  G.  Stokes. 
Prof.    Stevelly,    G.   G.    Stokes,    W. 

Eidout  Wills. 
W.    J.    Macquorn    Eankine,    Prof. 

Smyth,  Prof.  Stevelly,  Prof.  G.  G. 

Stokes. 
'S.  Jackson,  W.  J.  Macquorn  Eankine, 

Prof.  Stevelly,  Prof.  G.  G.  Stokes. 
Prof.  Dixon,  W.  J.  Macquorn  Ean- 
kine, Prof.  SteveUy,  J.  Tyndall. 

B.  Blaydes  Haworth,  J.  D.  Sollitt, 
Prof.  Stevellv,  J.  Welsh. 

J.   Hartnup,   H.   G.    Puckle,    Prof. 

Stevelly,  J.  Tyndall,  J.  Welsh. 
Eev.  Dr.  Forbes,  Prof.  D.  Gray,  Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C.  Brooke,   Eev.   T.  A.   Southwood, 
Prof.  SteveUy,  Eev.  J.  C.  TurnbuU. 

Prof.  Curtis,  Prof.  Hennessy,  P.  A. 
Ninnis,  W.  J.  Macquorn  Eankine, 
Prof.  SteveUy. 


PRESIDENTS  AND  SECRETARIES  OF  THE  SECTIONS. 


XXXI 


Date  and  Place. 


1858.  Leeds 


1859.  Aberdeen  ... 

1860.  Oxford 

1861.  Manchester, 

1862.  Cambridge. 

1863.  Newcastle... 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1864.  Bath 

1865.  Birmingham 

1866.  Nottingham 

1867.  Dundee 

1868.  Norwich   ... 

1869.  Exeter  

1870.  Liverpool . . . 

1871.  Edinburgh. 


Eer.  W.WheweU,  D.D,,  V.P.E.S. 


The  Earl  of  Eosse,  M.A,,  K.P., 

Eev.  B.  Price,  M.A.,  F.E.S 

G.  B.  Airy,  M.A.,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S. 

Prof.  G.  G.  Stokes,  M.A.,  F.E.S 

Prof.  W.  J.  Macquorn  Eankine, 
C.E.,  F.E.S. 

Prof.     Cayley,     M.A.,     F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 
W.  Spottiswoode,  M.A.,  F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 

Prof.  Wlieatstone,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S 

Prof.  Sir  W.  Thomson,  D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Prof.  J.  Tyndall,  LL.D.,  F.E.S... 

Prof.   J.    J.    Sylvester,    LL.D., 

J.  Clerk  Maxwell,  M.A.,  LL.D., 
F.E.S. 

Prof.  P.  G.  Tait,  F.E.S.E 


Eev.  S.  Earnshaw,   J.  P.  Hennessy, 
Prof  Stevelly,  H.  J.  S.  Smith,  Prof. 
Tyndall. 
J.  P.  Hennessy,  Prof.  Maxwell,  H.  J.  S. 

Smith,  Prof  Stevelly. 
Eev.  G.  C.  Bell,  Eev.  T.  Eennison, 

Prof.  Stevelly. 
Prof  E.  B.  Clifton,  Prof.  H.  J.  S. 

Smith,  Prof.  Stevelly. 
Prof  E.  B.  CUfton,   Prof.  H.  J.  S. 

Smith,  Prof.  Stevelly. 
Eev.  N.  Ferrers,  Prof.  Fuller,  F.  Jen- 
kin,    Prof.   Stevelly,    Eev.    C.  T. 

Whitley. 
Prof.    Fuller,    F.    Jenkin,    Eev.    G. 

Buckle,  Prof  SteveUy. 
Eev.  T.  N.  Hutchinson,  F.  Jenkin,  G. 

S.  Mathews,  Prof.  H.  J.  S.  Smith, 

J.  M.  Wilson. 
Fleeming  Jenkin,  Prof.  H.  J.  S.  Smith, 

Eev.  S.  N.  Swann. 
Eev.  G.  Buckle,  Prof.  G.  C.  Foster, 

Prof.  Fuller,  Prof.  Swan. 
Prof.  G.  0.  Foster,  Eev.  E.  Harley, 

E:  B.  Hayward. 
Prof  G.  C.  Foster,  E.  B.  Hayward, 

W.  K.  Clifford. 
Prof.  W.  G.  Adams,  W.  K.  ChfTord, 

Prof.  G.  C.  Foster,  Eev.  W.  Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof.  W.  G.  Adam.s,  J.  T.  Bottomlcv, 

Prof.  W.  K.  Clifford,  Prof.  J.  D. 

Everett,  Eev.  E.  Harley. 


CHEMICAL  SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE  or  SCIENCES,  II. —  CHEMISTKT,  JIINERALOGT. 
1832.  Oxford [John  Dalton,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S 


1833.  Cambridge..! John  Dalton,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S 

1834.  Edinbiu'gh...]Dr.  Hope 


James  F.  W.  Johnston. 

Prof.  Miller. 

Mr.  Johnston,  Dr.  Christison. 


1835.  Dublin  . 

1836.  Bristol . 


1837.  Liverpool... 

1838.  Newcastle... 

1839.  Birmingham 

1840.  Glasgow   .. 

1841.  Plymouth.. 

1842.  Manchester 

1843.  Cork 

1844.  York 

1845.  Cambridge.. 


SECTION  B. — -CHEMISTRY  AND  MINEEALOGY. 

Dr.  T.  Thomson,  F.E.S 

Eev.  Prof.  Cumming 


1846.  Southampton 


Michael  Faraday,  F.E.S 

Eev.  William  Whewell,  F.E.S., 

Prof.  T.  Graham,  F.E.S 

Dr.  Thomas  Thomson,  F.E.S. 

Dr.Daubeny,  F.E.S 

John  Dalton,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S 

Prof.  Apjohn,  M.E.I. A 

Prof.  T.  Graham,  F.E.S 

Eev.  Prof,  dimming 


Michael  Faraday,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S. 


1847.  Oxford  lEev.W.Y.Harcoiu-t,  M.A.,  F.E.S 


Dr.  Apjohn,  Prof  Jolmston. 

Dr.  Apjohn,  Dr.  C.  Henry,  W.  Hera» 

path. 
Prof.   Johnston,    Prof.    Miller,    Dr. 

Eeynolds. 
Prof,  ililler,  E.  L.  Pattinson,  Thomas 

Eichardson. 
Gokling  Bird,  M.D.,  Dr.  J.B.  MeLson. 
Dr.  E.  D.  Thomson,  Dr.  T.  Clark, 

Dr.  L.  Playfair. 
J.   Prideaux,   Eobert  Hunt,   W.  M. 

Tweedy. 

Dr.  L.  Playfair,  E.  Hunt,  J.  Graham. 
E.  Hvmt,  Dr.  Sweeny. 
Dr.  E.  Playfair,  E.  Solly,  T.  H.  Barker. 
E.  Hunt,  J.  P.   Joule,  Prof.  Miller, 

E.  Solly. 
Dr.  Miller,  E.  Hunt,  W.  Eandall. 
B.  C.  Brodie,  E.  Hunt,  Prof.  Solly. 


xxxu 


REPOKT 1871. 


Date  and  Place. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1848.  Swansea    ...Richard  Phillips,  F.R.S T.  H.  Henry,  R.  Hunt,  T. William.s, 


1849.  Birmingham  .John  Percy,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

18.50.  Edinburgh  .ICr.  Christison,  V.P.R.S.E 

1851.  Ipswich     ...IProf.  Thomas  Graham,  F.R.S. ... 

1852.  Belfast Thomas  Andrews,  M.D.,  F.R.S. . 

1853.  Hull 

1854.  Lirerpool 


1855.  Glasgow    ... 

1856.  Cheltenham 


1857.  DubUn 

1858.  Leeds    

1859.  Aberdeen  ... 

1860.  Oxford 


1861.  Manchester. 

1862.  Cambridge  . 

1863.  Newcastle... 

1864.  Bath 

1865.  Birmingham 

1866.  Nottingham 

1867.  Dundee 

1868.  Norwich 

1869.  Exeter  ... 

1870.  Liverpool 


Prof.  J.  F.  W.  Johnston.  M.A., 

Prof.  W.  A.  Miller,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

Dr.  Lyon  Playfair,  C.B.,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  B.  C.  Brodie,  F.R.S 

Prof.    Apjohn,     M.D.,    F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir  J.   F.   W.   Herschel,   Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr.  Lyon  Playfair,  C.B.,  F.R.S. . 

Prof.  B.  C.  Brodie,  F.E.S 

Prof.  W.  A.  Miller,  M.D.,  F.R.S 
Prof.  W.  A.  Miller,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

Dr.  Alex.  W.  WUliamson,  F.R.S. 

W.  Odling,  M.B.,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S 

Prof.  W.  A.  Miller,  M.D.,  V.P.E.S. 

H.  Bence  Jones,  M.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 

Prof.T.Anderson,M.D.,r.R.S.E. 

Prof.E  .Frankland,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S. 

Dr.  H.  Debus,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S.  ... 


Prof.  H.  E.  Eoscoe,  B.A.,  F.R.S. 
F  C  S 
1871.  Edinburgh  iProf.  T.' Andrews,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 


R.  Hunt,  G-.  Shaw. 

Dr.  Anderson,  R.  Hunt,  Dr.  Wilson. 

T.  J.  Pearsall,  W.  S.  Ward. 

Dr.  Gladstone,   Prof.  Hodges,   Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H.  S.  Bluudell,  Prof  R.  Hunt,  T.  J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr.    Edwards,    Dr.  Gladstone,    Dr. 

Price. 
Prof.  Frankland,  Dr.  H.  E.  Roscoe. 
J.    Horsley,    P.    J.   Worsley,    Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr.  Davy,  Dr.  Gladstone,  Prof.  Sul- 
livan. 
Dr.  Gladstone,  W.  Odlmg,  E.  Rey- 
nolds. 
J.  S.  Brazier,   Dr.  Gladstone,  G.  D. 

Liveing,  Dr.  Odling. 
A.  Vernon  Harcom-t,  G.  D.  Liveing, 

A.  B.  Northcote. 
A.  Vernon  Harcourt,  G.  D.  Liveing. 
H.  W.  Elpliinstone,  W.  Odling,  Prof. 

Eoscoe. 
Prof.  Liveing,  H.  L.  Pattinson,  J.  C. 

Stevenson. 
A.  V.   Harcourt,   Prof.   Liveing,   E. 

Biggs. 
A.  V.   Harcourt,    H.   Adkins,    Prof. 

Wanklyn,  A.  Winkler  Wills. 
J.  H.  Atherton,  Prof.  Liveing,  W.  J. 

Eussell,  J.  White. 
A.  Crum  Brown,  Prof.  G.  D.  Liveing, 

W.  J.  Russsll. 
Dr.  A.  Crum  Brown,   Dr.  W.  J.  Rus- 

9?11,  F.  Sutton. 
Prof.  A.  Crum  Brown,  M.D.,  Dr.  W. 

J.  Russell,  Dr.  Atkinson. 
Prof.  A.  Crum  Brown,  M.D.,  A.  E. 

Fletcher,  Dr.  W.  J.  Russell. 
J.  T.  Buchanan,  W.  N.  Hartley,  T.  E. 

Thorpe. 


GEOLOGICAL  (akd,  untii,  1851,  GEOGRAPHICAL)  SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE  OF  SCrENCES,  IH. — GEOLOGY  AJfD  GEOGEAPHT. 


1832.  Oxford IE.  I.  Murchison,  F.E.S. 

1833.  Cambridge  .'G.  B.  Greenough,  F.E.S. 

1 834.  Edinburgh  . '  Prof.  Jameson    


John  Taylor. 

W.  Lonsdale,  John  Phillips. 
Prof.  Phillips,    T.  Jameson   Torrie, 
Eev.  J.  Yates. 


1835.  DubUn , 

1836.  Bristol  , 


1837.  Liverpool.. 

1838.  Newcastle.. 


1839.  Birmingham 


SECTION  c 

R.  J.  Griffith  

R«v.  Dr.  Buckland,  F.E.S.— Gco- 

graphy.  E.I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
Rev  .Prof.  Sedgwick,F.E.S.— Gco- 

qraphy.  G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
C.'Lyell,  F.R.S.,  V.P.G.S.— Gpo- 

graphy.  Lord  Prudliope. 
Rev.  Dr.  Buckland,  F.R.S.— frfo- 

gmi)hy.  G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 


GEOLOGY  AND  GEOGEArHY. 

Captain  Portlock,  T.  J.  Torrie. 


William  Sanders,  S.  Stutchbury,  T.  J. 

Torrie. 

Captain  Portlock,  R.  Hunter. — Gio- 

graphy.  Captain  H.  M.  Denham,R.N. 

W.  C.  Trevelyan,    Capt.  Portlock.— 

Geography.  Capt.  Washington. 
George  Lloyd,  M.D.,H.  E.  Strickland, 

Charles  Darwin. 


PRESIDENTS  AND  SECRETARIES  OF  THE  SECTIONS. 


XXXIU 


Date  and  Place. 

1840.  Glasgow    ... 

1841.  Plymouth.. 

1842.  Manchester 

1843.  Cork 

1844.  York 

1845.  Cambridge  |. 

1846.  Southampton 

1847.  Oxford 

1848.  Swansea    ... 

1849.  Birmingham 

1850.  Edinburgh* 


Presidents. 


Charles  Lyell,   F.n.S.—Geogra- 
fhy.  G.  B.  Greenough,  F.R.S. 

H.  T.  DelaBeche,r.E.S. 

E.  I.  Murchison,  F.R.S 

Richard     E.      Griffith,     F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry  Warburton,   M.P.,  Pres. 

Geol.  Soc. 
Rev.  Prof.  Sedgwick,  M.  A.,  F.R.S. 

LeonardHorner,F.R.S.— (rw^'ra- 
fhy.  G.  B.  Greenough,  F.R.S. 

Very  Rev.  Dr.  Buckland,  F.R.S. 

Sir   H.  T.  De  la   Beche,    C.B., 

Sir  Charles  Lyell,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.| 

Sir  Roderick  I.  Murchison.F.R.S. 


Secretaries. 


W.  J.  Hamilton,  D.  Milne,  Hugh 
Murray,  H.  E.  Strickland,  John 
Scoular,  M.D. 

W.  J.  Hamilton,  Edward  Moore.M.D., 
R.  Hutton. 

E.  W.  Binney,  R.  Hutton,  Dr.  R. 
Lloyd,  H.  E.  Strickland. 

Francis  M.  Jennings,  H.  E.  Strick- 
land. 

Prof.Ansted,  E.  H.  Bunbury. 

Rev.  J.  C.  Cumming,  A.  C.  Ramsay, 

Rev.  W.  Thorp. 
Robert  A.  Austen,  J.  H.  Norten,  M.D., 

Prof.  Oldham. — Geography.  Dr.  C. 

T.  Beke. 
Prof.  Ansted,    Prof.  Oldham,  A.   C. 

Ramsay,  J.  Ruskin. 
Starling  JBenson,  Prof.  Oldham,  Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J.  Beete  Jukes,  Prof  Oldliam,  Prof. 

A.  C.  Ramsay. 
A.  Keith  Johnston,  Hugh  Miller,  Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 


1851.  Ipswich 

1852.  Belfast  .. 


1853.  Hull 

1854.  Liverpool .  . 

1855.  Glasgow   ... 

1856.  Cheltenham 

1857.  Dublin 

1858.  Leeds    

1859.  Aberdeen  ... 

1860.  Oxford 

1861.  Manchester 
1802.  Cambridge 

1863.  Newcastle  ... 

1864.  Bath      


SEcxiox  c  {continued). — geoiogy, 
WiUiam  Hopkins,  M.A.,  F.R.S... 

Lieut.-Col.Poraock,R.E.,  F.R.S. 


C.  J.  F.  Bunbury,  G.  W.  Ormerod, 
Searles  Wood. 

James  Bryce,  James  MacAdam,  Prof. 
M'Coy,  Prof  Nicol. 

Prof.  Harkness,  William  Lawton. 

John  Cunningham,  Prof.  Harkness, 
G.  W.  Ormerod,  J.  W.  Woodall. 

James  Bryce,  Prof.  Harkness,  Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev.  P.  B.  Brodie,  Rev.  R.  Hepworth, 
Edward  Hull,  J.  Scougall,  T.Wright. 

Prof  Harkness,  Gilbert  Sanders,  Ro- 
bert H.  Scott. 

Prof.  Nicol,  H.  C.  Sorby,  E.  W. 
Shaw. 

Prof  Harkness,  Rev.  J.  Longmuir,  H. 
C.  Sorby. 

Prof  Harkness,  Edward  HuU,  Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof.  Harkness,  Edward  Hull,  T.  Ru- 
pert Jones,  G.  W.  Ormerod. 

Lucas  Barrett,  Prof  T.  Rupert  Jones, 
H.  C.  Sorby. 

E.  F.  Boyd,  John  Daglish,  H.  C.  Sor- 
by, Thomas  Sopwith. 

W.  B.  Dawkins,  J.  Johnston,  H.  C. 
Sorby,  W.  Pengelly. 

Rev.  P.  B.  Brodie,  J.  Jones,  Rev.  E. 
Myers,  H.  C.  Sorby,  W.  Pengelly. 

*  At  the  Meeting  of  the  General  Committee  held  in  Edinburgh,  it  was  agreed  "  That  the 
subject  of  Geography  be  separated  from  Geology  and  combined  with  Ethnology,  to  consti- 
tute a  separate  Section,  under  the  title  of  the  "  Geographical  and  Ethnological  Section," 
for  Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  vt'hioh  see  page  ixxvi. 


1865.  Birmingham 


Prof.  Sedgwick,  F.R.S 

Prof.  Edward  Forbes,  F.R.  S.    ... 

Sir  R.  I.  Murchison,  F.R.S 

Prof  A.  C.  Ramsay,  F.R.S 

The  Lord  Talbot  de  Malahide  ... 

WilUam  Hopkins,  M.A.,  LL.D., 

F  R  S 
Sir  Charles  Lyell,  LL.D.,  D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev.    Prof.     Sedgwick,    LL.D., 

F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
Sir  R.    I.    Murchison,    D.C.L., 

LL.D.,  P.R.S.,  &c. 
J.  Beete  Jukes,  M.A.,  F.R.S 

Prof.    Warington     W.    Smyth, 

F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
Prof  J.  Phillips,  LL.D.,  F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir  R.  I.  Murchison,  Bart.,K:.C.B. 


XXXIV 


REPORT — 1871. 


Date  and  Place. 


1866.  Nottingham 

1867.  Dundee 

1868.  Norwich  ... 

1869.  Eseter  

1870.  Liverpool... 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


Prof.A.C.Eamsay.LL.D.,  F.R.S.E.  Etheridge,  W.  Pcngelly,  T.  Wil- 
son, G.  H.  Wright. 

Archibald  Geikie,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S.  Edward  Hull,  W.  PengeUy,  Henry 

Woodward. 

R.  A.  C.  Godwin-Austen,  E.R.S.,lReT.  O.  Fisher,  Rev.  J.  Gunn,  W. 


F.G.S 
Prof.  R.  Harkness,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S. 


Sir  Philip  de  M.  Grey  Egerton, 
I     Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
1871.  Edinburgh  ..Prof.  A.  Geikie,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S... 


Pengelly,  Rev.  H.  H.  Winwood. 
W.  Pengelly,  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Rev. 

H.  H.  Winwood. 
W.  Pengelly,  Rev.  H.  H.  Winwood, 

W.  BoydDawkins,  G.  H.  Morton. 
E.  Etheridge,  J.  Geikie,  J.  McKeuny 

Hughes,  L.  C.  Miall. 


BIOLOGICAL  SCIEIs^CES. 

COMJIITTEE  OF  SCIEXCES,  IT. ZOOLOGY,  BOTANY,  PHTSIOLOGT,  ANATOMT. 

Rev.  p.  B.  Duncan,  F.G.S. 


1832.  Oxford 

1833.  Cambridge* 

1834.  Edinburgh 


1835.  DubHn  , 

1836.  Bristol 


1837.  Liverpool.. 

1838.  Newcastle... 

1839.  Brimingham 

1840.  Glasgow    ... 

1841.  Plymouth... 

1842.  Manchester 

1843.  Cork 

1844.  York 


184.5.  Cambridge 

1846.  Southampton 

1847.  Oxford 


Rev.  Prof.  Henslow 

W.  S.  MacLeay 

Sir  W.  Jardine,  Bart. 


Rev.  Prof.  J.  S.  Henslow. 
Rev.  W.  L.  P.  Garnons,  F.L.S....|C.  C.  Babingtou,  D.  Don. 
Prof.  Graham [ W.  Tarrell,  Prof.  Burnett. 

SECTION  D. ZOOIOGT  AND  BOTAST. 

Dr.  Allman IJ.  Curtis,  Dr.  Litton. 

J.Curtis,  Prof.  Don,  Dr.  Eiley,  S. 
Rootsey. 

0.  C.  Babingtou,  Rev.  L.  Jenyns,  W. 
Swainson. 

.J.  E.  Gray,  Prof.  Jones,  E.  Owen,  Dr. 
Richardson. 

E.  Forbes,  W.  Ick,  R.  Patterson. 

Prof.  W.  Couper,  E.  Forte,  E.  Pat- 
terson. 

J.  Couch,  Dr.  Lankester,  E.  Patterson. 

Dr.  Lankester,  R.  Patterson,  J.  A. 
Turner. 

G.  J.  Allman,  Dr.  Lankester,  E.  Pat- 
terson. 

Prof  Allman,  H.  Goodsir,  Dr.  King, 
Dr.  Lankester. 

Dr.  Lankester,  T.  V.  Wollaston. 

Dr.  Lankester,  T.  V.  WoUaston,  H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr.  Lankester,  Dr.  M«lville,  T.  V. 
Wollaston. 


Prof.  Owen,  F.E.S 

Sir  W.  J.  Hooker,  LL.D  , 


John  Eichard.son,  M.D.,  F.R.S. . 
Hon.  and  Very  Rev.  W.  Herbert, 

LL.D.,  F.L.S. 
William  Thompson,  F.L.S 

VeryEev.  The  Dean  of  Manches- 
ter. 

Eev.  Prof.  Henslow,  F.L.S 

Sir  J.  Eichardson,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

H.  E.  Strickland,  M.A.,  F.E.S... . 


SECTION  B  (continued). — zoology  anb  BOXAinr,  inclitbikg  bhysiologt, 

•    [For  the  Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  the  Anatomical  and  Physiological  Subsections 
and  the  temporary  Section  E  of  Anatomy  and  Medicine,  see  pp.  ssxv,  xxxvi.] 


1848.  Swansea    ... 

1849.  Birmingham 

1850.  Edinburgh.. 


1851.  Ipswich. 

1852.  Belfast  . 


L.  W.  Dillwyn,  F.R.S. 


William  Spence,  F.E.S 

Prof.  Good.sir,  F.E.S.  L.  &  E. 


W.  Ogilby 


Dr.  E.  Wilbraham  Falconer,  A.  Hen- 
frey.  Dr.  Limkester. 

Dr.  Lankester,  Dr.  Eussell. 

Prof.  J.  II.  Bennett,  M.D.,  Dr.  Lan- 
kester, Dr.  Douglas  Ullaclagan. 
Rev.  Prof.  Henslow,  M.A.,  F.E.S.  Prof.  Allman,  F.  W.  Johnston,  Dr.  E. 

Lankester. 

Dr.  Dickie,  George  C.  Hyndman,  Dr. 
Edwin  Lankester. 

Robert  Harrison,  Dr.  E.  Lankester. 

Isaac  Byerley,  Dr.  E.  L.ankcster. 

WiUiam  Keddie,  Dr.  Lankester. 


185.3.  HuU  

1854.  Liverpool 

1855.  Glasgow 

*  At  this  Meeting  Physiology  and  Anatomy  were  made  a  separate  Committee,  for 
Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  wMch  see  p.  xxsv. 


C.  C.Babington,  M.A.,  F.R.S.... 

Prof.  Baliom-,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

Eev.  Dr.  Fleeming,  F.E.S.E.   ... 


PRESIDENTS  AND  SECRETARIKS  OF  THE  SECTIONS. 


XXXV 


Date  and  Place. 


1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

18G4. 

1865. 


Cheltenliam 

Dublin  

Leeds 

Aberdeen  .. 

Oxford  

Manchester. 

Cambridge.. 
Newcastle  . . 

Bath  

Birmingham 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1808.  Nottingham. 

1867.  Dmidee 

1868.  Norwich    ... 

1809.  Exeter   


1870.  Liverpool . . 


1871.  Edinburgh 


Thomas  Bell,  F.R.S.,  Pres.L.S.... 

Prof.  W.H.  Harvey,  M.D.,  F.E.S. 

C.  C.Babington,  M.A.,  F.E.S.... 

Sir  W.  Jardine,  Bart.,  F.R.S.E. , 

Rev.  Prof.  Henslow,  F.L.S 

Prof.  C.  C.  Babington,  F.R.S. .. 

Prof.  Huxley,  F.R.S 

Prof.  Balfour,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

Dr.  John  E.  Gray,  F.R.S 

T.  Thomson,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

SECTION  D  (continued).- 
Prof.  Husley,   LL.D.,  F.R.S.— 

Phi/sioloqical  Dq>.  Prof.  Hum- 

phvj,Mll>.,F.B,.S.—A}ifhropo- 

lofficalDi'p.  Alfred  R.  Wallace, 

F  R  G-  S 
Prof.  Sharpey,  M.D.,  Sec.  R.S.— 

Bep.  of  Zool.  and  Bot.    George 

Busk,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 
Rev.    M.  J.  Berkeley,  F.L  S.— 

Brp.  of   Physiology.      W.  H 

Flower,  F.R.S. 

George  Busk,  F.R.S.,  F.L.S.— 
Bcp.  of  Bot.  and  Zool.  C.  Spencc 
Bate,  F.R.S.— i)c^.  of  Eihno. 
E.  B.  Tvlor. 

Prof.  G.  Rolleston,  M.A.,  M.D., 
P.R.S.,F.L.S.— Dfp.  Anat.  and 
Physio.  Prof.  M.  Foster,  M.D., 
F.L.S.— Df?^.  of  Ethno.  J. 
Evans,  F.R.S. 

Prof  Allen  Thomson,M.D.,F.R.S. 
— Bep.  of  Bot.  and  Zool.  Prof 
Wyville  Thomson,  F.R.S.— 
Bep.  of  Anthropo.  Prof.  W. 
Turner,  M.D. 


Dr.  J.  Abercronibie,  Prof  Buckman, 

Dr.  Lankester. 
Prof  J.  R.Ejnahan,Dr.  E.  Lankeister, 

Robert  Patterson,  Dr.  W.  E.  Steele. 
Henry   Denny,  Dr.   Hcaton,  Dr.  E. 

Lankester,  Dr.  E.  Perceval  Wright. 
Prof.  Dickie,  M.D.,  Dr.  E.  Lankester, 

Dr.  Ogilvy. 
W.  S.  Church,  Dr.  E.  Lankester,  P. 

L.  Sclater,  Dr.  E.  Percoval  Wright. 
Dr.  T.  Alcock,  Dr.  E.  Lankester,  Dr. 

P.  L.  Sclater,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 
Alfred  Newton,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 
Dr.  E.  Charlton,  A.  Newton,  Rev.  H. 

B.  Tristram,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 
H.  B.  Brady,   C.  E.  Broom,  H.  T. 

Stainton,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 
Dr.  J.  Anthony.  Rev.  C.  Clarke,  Rev. 

H.  B.  Tristram,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 

-BIOLOGY*. 

Dr.  J.  Beddard,  W.  Felkin,  Rev.  H. 

B.    Tristram,   W.   Turner,   E.   B. 

Tylor,  Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 


C.  Spence  Bate,  Dr.  S.  Cobbold,  Dr. 
M.  Foster,  H.  T.  Stainton,  Rev.  H. 

B.  Tristram,  Prof.  W.  Turner. 

Dr.  T.  S.  Cobbold,  G.  W.  Firth,  Dr. 

M.  Foster,    Prof.  Lawson,   H.   T. 

Stainton,  Rev.  Dr.  H.  B.  Tristram, 

Dr.  E.  P.  Wright. 
Dr.  T.  S.  Cobbold,  Prof  M.  Foster, 

M.D.,  E.  Ray  Lankester,  Professor 

Lawson,  H.  T.  Stainton,  Rev.  H.  B. 

Tristram. 
Dr.  T.  S.  Cobbold,  Sebastian  Evans, 

Prof.  Lawson,  Thos.  J.  Moore,  H. 

T.  Stainton,  Rev.  H.  B.Tristram, 

C.  Staniland  Wake,  E.  Ray  Lan- 
kester. 

Dr.  T.  R.  Fraser,  Dr.  Arthur  Gamgee, 
E.  Ray  Lankester,  Prof.  Lawson, 
H.  T.  Stainton,  C.  Staniland  Wake, 
Dr.  W.  Rutherford,  Dr.  Kelburne 
King. 


ANATOMICAL  AND  PHYSIOLOGICAL  SCIENCES. 

COinilTTEE  or  SCIEXCES,  T. ANAT03IT  AND  PHTSIOIOGT. 


J833.  Cambridge... 
1834.  Edinburgh... 


Dr.  Haviland IDr.  Bond,  Mr.  Paget. 

Dr.  Abercrombie    |Dr .  Eoget,  Dr.  William  Thomson. 


SECTION  E.  (until  1847.) — .VNAT05IY  AND  MEDICnfE. 

1835.  Dublin  IDr.  Pritcbard     Dr.  Harrison,  Dr.  Hart. 

1836.  Bristol  Dr.  Rogct,  F.R.S Dr.  Symonds. 

18.37.  Liverpool ...  Prof.  W.  Clark,  M.D Dr.  J.  Carson,  jun.,  James  Long,  Dr. 

I  J.  E.  W.  Vose. 

*  At  the  Meeting  of  the  General  Committee  at  Birmingham,  it  was  resolved :— "  That  the 
title  of  Section  D  be  changed  to  Biology ;  "  and  "That  for  the  word  '  Subsection,'  in  the 
rules  for  conducting  the  business  of  the  Sections,  the  word  '  Department'  be  substituted." 


XXXVl 


REPORT 1871. 


Date  and  Place. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1838.  Newcastle  . . .  T.  E.  Headlam,  M.D 

1839.  Birmingbam'jolm  Yelloly,  M.D.,  F.E.S. 

1840.  Glasgow    . . .  James  Watson,  M.D 


1841.  Plymouth... 

1842.  Manchester. 

1843.  Cork 

1844.  York 


P.  M.  Eoget,  M.D.,  Sec.E.S. 

Edward  Holme,  M.D.;  F.L.S. 

Sir  James  Pitcairn,  M.D 

J.  C.  Pritchard,  M.D 


...:T.  M.  Greenhow,  Dr.  J.  R.W.  Vose. 

...Dr.  G.  O.  Eces,  F.  Eyland. 

. . .  Dr.   J.  Brown,   Prof.  Couper,   Prof. 

Eeid. 
...Dr.  J.  Butter,   J.  Fuge,   Dr.  E.  S. 

Sargent. 
...  Dr.  Chaytor,  Dr,  E.  S.  Sargent. 
...JDr.  John  Popham,  Dr.  E.  §.  Sargent. 
...|l.  Erichsen,  Dr.  E.  S.  Sargent. 


SECTION  E. PHYSIOLOGY. 


1845.  Cambridge  .'Prof.  J.  Haviland,  M.D.  . 
1846.Southampton!Prof.  Owen,  M.D.,  F.E.S.. 
1847.  Oxford*   ...Prof.  Ogle,  M.D.,  F.E.S.'. 


Dr.  E.  S.  Sargent,  Dr.  Webster. 
C.  P.  Keele,  Dr.  Laycock,  Dr.  Sargent. 
Dr.   Thomas    K.   Chambers,    W.    P. 
Ormerod. 


1850.  Edinburgh 
1855.  Glasgow    ... 

1857.  Dublin 

1858.  Leeds    

1859.  Aberdeen  ... 

1860.  Oxford 

1861.  Manchester. 

1862.  Cambridge  . 

1863.  Newcastle... 

1864.  Bath 

1865.  Birminghmf. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL  SUBSECTIONS  OF  SECTION  D. 

Prof.  Bennett,  M.D.,  F.E.S.E. 
Prof.  Allen  Thomson,  F.E.S.    ... 

Prof.  E.  Harrison,  M.D 

Sir  Benjamin  Brodie,  Bart.  .F.E.S. 
Prof.  S'harpey,  M.D.,  Sec.E.S.  ... 
Prof.  G.  EoUeston,  M.D.,  F.L.S. 
Dr.  John  Davy,  F.E.S.L.  &  E. ... 

C.E.Paget,  M.D 

Prof  Eolleston,  M.D.,  F.E.S.  ... 
Dr. Edward  Smith,  LL.D.,  F.E.S. 
Prof  Acland,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S. 


Prof  J.  H.  Corbett,  Dr.  J.  Struthers. 
|Dr.  E.  D.  Lyons,  Prof.  Eedfern. 
C.  G.  Wheelliouse. 
Prof.  Bennett,  Prof.  Eedfern. 
Dr.  E.  M'Donnell,  Dr.  Edward  Smith. 
Dr.  W.  Eoberts,  Dr.  Edward  Smith. 
G.  F.  Helm,  Dr.  Edward  Smith. 
Dr.  D.  Embleton,  Dr.  W.  Turner. 
J.  S.  Bartrum,  Dr.  W.  Turner. 
Dr.  A.  Fleming,  Dr.  P.  Heslop,  Oliver 
Pemblcton,  Dr.  W.  Turner. 


GEOGEAPHICAL  AND  ETHNOLOGICAL  SCIENCES. 
[For  Presidents  and  Secretaries  for  Geography  preTious  to  1851,  see  Section  0,  p.  xxxii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL  SUBSECTIONS  OF  SECTION  D. 


1846.  Southampton 

1847.  Oxford 

1848.  Swansea    ... 

1849.  Birmingham 

1850.  Edinburgh.. 


Dr.  Pritchard 

Prof.  H.  H.  Wilson,  M.A. 


Vice-Admiral  Sir  A.  Malcolm  ... 


Dr.  King. 
Prof.  Buckley. 
G.  Grant  Francis. 
Dr.  E.  G.  Latham. 
Daniel  Wilson. 


SECTION  E. GEOGEAPHY  AND  ETHNOLOGY. 


1851.  Ipswich    .. 

1852.  Belfast 

1853.  Hull 

1854.  Liverpool.. 

1855.  Glasgow  .. 

1856.  Cheltenham 


.  Sir  E.  L  Murchison,  F.E.S.,  Pres.  E.  Cull,  Eev.  J.  W.  Donaldson,  Dr. 

E.G.S.  I     Norton  Shaw. 

,  Col.     Chesney,     E.A.,     D.C.L.,  E.  Cull,   E.  MacAdam,   Dr.  Norton 

F.E.S.  I     Shaw. 

.  E.  G.  Latham,  M.D.,  F.E.S.    ...U.  Cull,  Eev.  H.  W.  Kemp,  Dr.  Nor- 

(     ton  Shaw. 
.  Sir    E.    I.    Murchison,   D.C.L.,'Eichard  Cull,  Eev.  H.  Higgins,  Dr. 

F.E.S.  Ihne,  Dr.  Norton  Shaw. 

,  Sir  J.  Eichardson,  M.D.,  F.E.S.  Dr.  W.  G.  Blackie,  E.  Cull,  Dr.  Nor- 

ton  Shaw. 
Col.  Sir  H.  C.  Eawlinson,  K.C.B.  E.  Cull,  F.  D.  Hartland,  W.  H.  Eum- 
)  I     sey,  Dr.  Norton  Shaw. 

*  By  direction  of  the  General  Committee  at  Oxford,  Sections  D  and  E  were  incorporated 
under  the  name  of  "  Section  D — Zoology  and  Botany,  including  Physiology  "  (seep,  xxxiv). 
The  Section  being  then  vacant  was  assigned  in  1851  to  Geography. 

t   Vide  note  on  preceding  page. 


Presidents  and  gECRKTAftiEg  op  the  sections. 


XXXVll 


Date  and  Place. 


18.57. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
18G4. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 


Dublin ; 
Leeds   , 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


Aberdeen  .. 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge  . 

Newcastle... 

Batli... 

Birmingliam 

Nottingbiim 

Dundee 

Norwich   ... 


Eev.  Dr.  J.  HenthawnTodd,  Pres 

E.I.A. 
Sir  E.  I.  Murchison,  G.C.St.S., 

RR.S. 

Rear-Admir.al  Sir  James  Clerk 

Ross,  D.C.L.,  RR.S. 
Sir    R.    I.    Murchison,    D.C.L., 

RR.S. 
John  Crawfurd,  RR.S 

'Francis  Galton,  F.R.S 

Sir    R.   I.   Murcliisou,    K.C.B, 

RR.S. 
Sir    R.    I.   Murchison,    K.C.B., 

RR.S. 
Major-General  Sir  R,  Rawliuson, 

M.P.,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 
Sir    Charles    Nicholson,    Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir  Samuel  Baker,  F.R.G.S 

Capt.  G.  H.  Richards,  R.N.,  F.R.S. 


R.  Cull,  S.  Ferguson,  Dr.  R.  R.  Mad- 
den, Dr.  Norton  Sliaw. 
R.  Cull,   Francis  Galton,   P.  O'Cal- 

laghan.  Dr.  Norton  Shaw,  Tliomas 

Wriglit. 
Richard  Cull,  Professor  Geddcs,  Dr. 

Norton  Shaw. 
Capt.  Burrows,  Dr.  J.  Hunt,  Dr.  C. 

Lempriere,  Dr.  Norton  Shaw. 
Dr.  J.  Hunt,  J.  Kingsley,  Dr.  Norton 

Shaw,  W.  Spottiswoode. 
J.  W.   Clarke,  Rev.  J.  Glover,  Dr. 

Hunt,  Dr.  Norton  Shaw,  T.  Wright. 
C.  Carter  Blake,  Hume   Greenfield, 

C.  R.  Markham,  R.  S.  Watson. 
H.  W.  Bates,  C.  R.  Markham,  Capt. 

R.  M.  Murchison,  T.  Wright. 
H.  W.  Bates,  S.  Evans,  G.  Jabct,  C. 

R.  Markham,  Tliomas  Wright. 
H.  W.  Bates,  Rev.  E.  T.  Cusins,  R. 

H.  Major,  Clements  R.  Markliam, 

D.  W.  Nash,  T.  Wright. 
H.  W.  Bates,    Cyril  Graham,  C.  R. 

Markham,  S.  J.  Mackie,  R.  Sturrock. 
T.  Baines,  H.  W.  Bates,  C.  R.  Mark- 
ham, T.  Wright. 


1869.  Exeter 


1870.  Liverpool.. 

1871.  Edinburgh, 


1833.  Cambridge  . 

1834.  Edinburgh  . 


SECTION  E  (continued). — geography. 

Sir  Bartle  Frere,  KC.B.,  LL.D., 

F.R.G.S. 
Sir  R,  I.  Murchison.  Bt.,  K.C.B., 

LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
Colonel  Yule,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S.  ... 


H.  W.  Bates,  Clements  E.  Markliam, 

J.  H.  Thomas, 
H.  W.  Bates,  David  Buxton,  Albert 

J.  Mott,  Clements  R.  Markham. 
Clements  R.  Markhain,   A    Buc'nnn, 

J.  II.  Thomas,  A.  Keith  Jolmslon. 


STATISTICAL  SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE  OF  SCIENCES,  TI. STATISTICS, 


Prof.  Babbage,  RR.S.    .., 
Sir  Charles  Lemon,  Bart. 


J.  E.  Drinkwater. 

Dr.  Cleland,  C.  Hope  Maclean. 


SECTION  F. STATISTICS. 


18.35.  Dublin  , 
1836.  Bristol . 


1837.  Liverpool... 

18.38.  Newcastle... 

1839.  Birmingham 

1840.  Glasgow   ... 

1841.  Plymouth... 

1842.  Manchester. 

1843.  Cork 

1844.  York 

1845.  Cambridge  . 
1840.  Southampton 


Charles  Babbage,  F.R.S.    ... 
Sir  Charles  Lemon,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 

Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Sandon 

Colonel  Sykes,  F.R.S '.... 

Henry  ILillam,  F.R.S 

Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Sandon,  F.R.S. 

M.P. 
Lieut. -Col.  Sykes,  F.R.S 

G.  W.  Wood,  M.P.,  RL.S 

Sir  C.  Lemon,  Bart.,  M.P 

Lieut.-Col.  Sykes,  RR.S.,  RL.S. 
Rt.  Hon.  The  Earl  Fitzwilliam. . . 
G.  R.  Porter,  RR.S 


1871. 


W.  Greg,  Prof.  Longfield. 

Rev.   J.   E.   Bromby,    C.   B.   Fripp, 

James  Heywood. 
W.  R.  Greg,  W.  Langton,  Dr.  W.  C. 

Tayler. 

W.  Cargill,  J.  Heywood,  W.  R.  Wood. 
F.  Clarke,  R.  W.  Raw.son,  Dr.  W.  C. 

Tayler. 
C.  R.  Baird,   Prof.   Ramsay,  E.  W. 

Rawson. 
Rev.  Dr.  Byrth,  Rev.  R.  Luney,  R. 

W.  Rawson. 
Rev.  R.  Luney,  G.  W.  Ormerod,  Dr. 

W.  C.  Tayler. 
Dr.  D.  Bullen,  Dr.  W.  Cooke  Tayler. 
J. Fletcher,  J.  Heywood,  Dr.  Lavco;k. 
J.  Fletcher,  W.  Cooke  Tayler,  LL.D. 
J.  Fletcher,  F.  G.  P.  Neison,  Di-.  W. 

C.  Tavler,  Rev.  T.  L.  Shapcotr. 
d 


XXXVlll 


REPORT 1871. 


Date  and  Place. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1847.  Oxford, 


1848. 
1849. 


Swansea    . . . 
Birmingham 


Travers  Twiss,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S. .. 

J.  H.  Vivian,  M.P.,  F.RS 

Et.  Hon.  Lord  Lyttelton  


1850.  Edinburgh ., 


1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 


Ipswich. 
Belfast  . 


Rev.  W.  H.  Cox,  J.  J.  Danson,  F.  G. 

P.  Neison. 
J.  Fletcher,  Capt.  E.  Shortrede 
Dr.  Finch,  Prof.  Hancock,  F.  G.  P. 

Neison. 
Prof.   Hancock,   J.  Fletcher,   Dr. 

Stark. 
J.  Fletcher,  Prof  Hancock. 
His   Grace    the  Archbishop    of  Prof.  Hancock,  Prof  Ingram,  James 


Very    Eev.    Dr.    John    Lee, 

V.P.E.S.E. 
Sir  John  P.  Boileau,  Bart. 


Hull  

Liverpool 


1855.  Glasgow 


Dublin 

James  Heywood,  M.P.,  F.E.S. . . . 
Thomas  Tooke,  F.E.S 

E.  Monckton  Milnes,  M.P 


Mac  Adam,  Jun. 

Edward  Cheshii-e,  WiUiam  Newmarch. 

E.  Cheshii-e,  J.  T.  Danson,  Dr.  W.  H, 
Duncan,  W.  Newmarch. 

J.  A.  CampbeU,  E.  Cheshire,  W.  New- 
march,  Prof  E.  H.  Walsh. 


SECTION  r  (continued), — economic  science  and  statistics. 


1856.  Cheltenham 


1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 


Dublin  

Leeds 

Aberdeen  .. 

Oxford  

Manchester 


Cambridge . 
Newcastle  .. 


Bath. 


Et.  Hon.  Lord  Stanley,  M.P. 


His    Grace    the    Archbishop   of 

Dublin,  M.E.I.A. 
Edward  Bainea  


Col.  Sjkes,  M.P.,  F.E.S.  . 
Nassau  W.  Senior,  M.A.  . 
William  Newmarch,  F.E.S 


Edwin  Chadwick,  C.B 

William  Tite,  M.P.,  F.E.S. 


William    Farr,     M.D.,    D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Birmingham  Et.  Hon.   Lord  Stanley,  LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof  J.  E.  T.  Sogers 


Eev.  C.  H.  Bromby,  E.  Cheshire,  Dr. 

W.  N.  Hancock  Ne^vmarch,  W.  M. 

Tartt. 
Prof  Cairns,  Dr.  H.  D.  Hutton,  W. 

Newmarch. 
T.  B.  Baines,  Prof  Cairns,  S.  Brown, 

Capt.  Fishbourne,  Dr.  J.  Strang. 
Prof.  Cairns,  Edmund  Macrory,  A.  M. 

Smith,  Dr.  John  Strang. 
Edmmid  Macrory,     W.   Newmarch, 

Eev.  Prof  J.  E.  T.  Rogers. 
David  Chadwick,  Prof  E.  C.  Clu-istie, 

E.   Macrory,   Rev.  Prof  J.  E.  T. 

Roger.?. 
H.  D.  Macleod,  Edmund  Macrory. 
.It.    Doubleday,     Edmund    Macrory, 

Frederick  Purdy,  James  Potts. 
E.  Macroi7,  E.  T.' Payne,  F.  Purdy. 


Nottingham 
Dundee 


M.  E.  Grant  Duff,  M.P. 


Norwich  ...  Samuel  Brown,  Pres.  Instit.  Ac- 

I     tuaries. 
Exeter   Rt.  Hon.  Sir  Stafford  H.  North- 

1     cote,  Bart.,  C.B.,  M.P. 
Liverpool... [Prof.  W.  Stanley  Jevons,  M.A.  .. 


Edinburgh   |Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Neaves., 


G.  J.  D.  Goodman,  G.  J.  Johnston, 

E.  Macrory. 
R.  Birkin,  Jun.,  Prof  Leone  Levi,  E. 

Macroiy. 
Prof.  Leone  Levi,  E.  Macrory,  A.  J. 

Warden. 
Rev.  W.  C.  Davie,  Prof  Leone  Levi. 

Edmund  Macrory,  Frederick  Purdy, 

Charles  T.  D.  Acland. 
Chas.  R.  Dudley  Baxter,  E.  Macrory, 

J.  Miles  Moss. 
J.  G.  Fitch,  James  Meiklo. 


MECHANICAL  SCIENCE. 


section  G. MECHANICAl  SCIENCE. 


1836.  Bristol  Davies  Gilbert,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S, 

1837.  Liverpool  . . .  Rev.  Dr.  Eobinson 

1838.  Newcastle  ...  Charles  Babbage,  F.E.S 

1839.  Birmingham  Prof  WilUs,  F.E.S.,  and  Eobert 

Stephenson. 

1840.  Gkisgow    ...  Sir  John  Robinson 


T.  G.  Bunt,  G.  T.  Clark,  W.  West. 

Charles  Vignoles,  Thomas  Webster. 

E.  Hawthorn,  C.  Vignoles,  T.  Webster. 

W.  Carpmael,  WiUiam  Hawkes,  Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J.  Scott  Eussell,  J.  Thomson,  J.  Tod, 
C.  Vignoles. 


PRESIDENTS  AND  SECRETARIES  OF  THE  SECTIONS. 


XXXIX 


Date  and  Place. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1S50. 
1S51. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 


Plynioutli . . . 
Manchester . 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford  

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast  

Hull 

LiTerpool  ... 

Glasgow    . . . 

Cheltenham 

Dublin  

Leeds 

Aberdeen  ... 

Oxford 

Manchester  . 

Cambridge  .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich    ... 

Exeter    

Liverpool . . . 

Edinburgh 


Henry  Chatfield,  Thomas  Webster. 
J.  E.  Bateman,  J.  Scott  Eussell,   J. 

Thomson,  Charles  Vignoles. 
James  Thomson,  Eobert  Mallet. 
Charles  Vignole.s,  Thomas  V/ebster. 
Eev.  W.  T.  King,sley. 
William  Betts,  Jim.,  Charles  Manbj. 
J.  Glynn,  R.  A.  Le  Mesurier. 
R.  A.  Le  Mesiu-ier,  W.  P.  StruTi5. 
Charles  Manby,  W.  P.  Marshall. 
Dr.  Lees,  David  Stephenson. 
John  Head,  Charles  Manby. 


John  Taylor,  E.R.S 

Rev.  Prof.  Willis,  E.R.S 

Prof  J.  Macneill,  M.R.I.A 

John  Taylor,  F.R.S 

George  Rennie,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Prof.  WiUis,  M.A.,  E.R.S. . 
Rev.  Prof.  Walker,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 
Rev.  Prof.  Walker,  M.A.,  E.R.S. 
Robert  Stephenson,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 

Rev.  Dr.  Robinson     

William  Cubitt,  F.R.S ' 

John  Walker,C.E.,LL.D.,  F.R.S.  John  F.   Bateman,    C.  B^  Hancock, 

Charles  Manby,  James  Thomson. 
James  Oldham,  J.Thomson,  W.  Sykcs 

Ward. 
John  Grantham,  J.  Oldham,  J.  Thom- 
son. 
L.   Hill,  Jan.,  William  Ramsay,  J. 

Thomson. 
C.  Atherton,  B.  Jones,  Juu.,  H.  M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof.  Dovming,  W.  T.  Doyne,  A.  Tate, 

James  Thomson,  Henry  Wright. 
J.  C.  Dennis,  J.  Dixon,  H.  Wright. 
R.  Abernethy,  P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  H. 

Wright. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  Rev.  E.  Harrison, 

Henry  Wright. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  John  Robinson,  H. 

Wright. 
W.  M.  Fawcett,  P.  Le  Neve  Foster. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  P.  Wcstmacott,  J. 

F.  Spencer. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  Robert  Pitt. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  Henry  Lea,  W.  P. 

Marshall,  Walter  May. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  J.  'E.  Iselin,  M. 

A.  Tarbottoni. 
P.  Le  Neve  Fo.-5ter,  Jor.n  P.   Smith, 

W.  W.  TJrquhart. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  J.  E.  Iselin,  G. 

Manby,  W.  Smith. 
P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  H.  Bauormau. 
H.  Bauerman,  P.  Le  Neve  Foster,  T. 

King,  J.  N.  Shoolbred. 
H.  Ba\iernian,  Alexander  Leslie,  J.  P, 
Smith. 


William  Fairbairn,  C.E.,  E.R.S.. 

John  Scott  Russell,  F.R.S 

W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankine,  C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George  Rennie,  F.R.S 

The  Right  Hon.   The    Earl  of 
Rosse,  F.R.S. 

WilUam  Fan-bairn,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Prof.  Willis,  M.A.,  F.R.S.  . 

Prof.  W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankine, 

LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
J.  F.  Bateman,  C.E.,  F.R.S 

William  Pan-bairn,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Rev.  Prof.  Willis,  M.A.,  F.R.S.  . 


LL.D.. 


J.  Hawkshaw,  F.R.S.    . 
Sir  W.   G.   Armstrong. 

E.R.S. 
Thomas     Hawksley,     V.P.Inst, 

C.E.,  F.G.S. 
Prof.  W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankine 

LL.D.,  E.R.S. 
G.  P.  Bidder,  C.E.,  P.R.G.S.   .. 


C.  W.  Siemens,  F.R.S.  . 
Chas.  B.  Vignoles,  C.E., 


F.R.S. 


Prof.  Fleeming  Jenkin,  F.R.S.. 


List  of  Evening  Lectures. 

Date  and  Place. 

Lecturer. 

Subject  of  Discourse. 

1842.  Manchester . 

Charles  Vignoles,  E.R.S 

Sir  M.  I.  Brunei  

The  Principles  and  Construction  of 

Atmospheric  Railways. 
The  Thames  Tunnel. 

i?,i  I.  IVTurchison.  ..  . 

The  Geology  of  Russia. 

The  Dinornis  of  New  Zealand. 

The  Distribution  of  Animal  Life  in 

the  .3igean  Sea. 
The  Earl  of  Rosse's  Telescope. 
il2 

1843.  Cork 

Prof.  Owen,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

trof.  E.  Forbes,  F.R.S 

t)  r .  Robinson    ...,.,.... 

xl 


REPORT 1871. 


1844.  York  . 


1845.  Cambridge .. 

1846.  Southampton 


1847.  Oxford 


1848.  Swansea    ... 

1849.  Birmingham 

1850.  Edinburgh. 


1851.  Ipswich. 

1852.  Belfast  . 

1853.  Hull  .... 


1854.  Liverpool  .. 

1855.  Glasgow 

1856.  Cheltenham 


1857.  Dublin  

1858.  Leeds 

1859.  Aberdeen  .. 


1860.  Oxford  

1861.  Manchester 
18G2,  Cambridge 


Charles  Lyell,  F.E.S 

Dr.  Falconer,  RR.S 

a.  B.  Airy,  P.R.S.,Astron. Royal 

R.  L  Murchison,  RR.S 

Prof.  Owen,  M.D.,  RR.S 

Charles  Lyell,  F.R.S 

W.  R.  Grove,  F.R.S 


Rev.  Prof.  B.  Powell,  F.R.S.  .. 
Prof.  M.  Faraday,  F.R.  S 

Hugh  E.  Strickland,  F.G.S.    .. 
John  Percy,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

W.  Carpenter,  M.D.,  F.R.S.    . . . 

Dr.  Faraday,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Prof.  WiUis,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 

Prof.    J.    H.   Bennett,     M.D. 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr.  Mantell,  F.R.S 

Prof.  R.  Owen,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

G.  B.  Airy,  F.R.S.,  Astron.  Roy. 
Prof  G.G.  Stokes,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Colonel  Portlock,  R.E.,  F.R.S. 


Prof.  J.  Phillips,  LL.D.,  F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert  Hunt,  F.R.S 

Prof.  R.  Owen,  M.D.,  F.R.S.  .. 
Col.  E.  Sabine,  V.P.R.S 

Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter,  F.R.S.  .. 
Lieut.-Col.  H.  Rawlinson    


Col.  Sir  H.  Rawlinson  , 


W.  R.  Grove,  F.R.S 

Prof.  W.  Thomson,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Dr.  Livingstone,  D.C.L.  ... 
Prof.  J.  Phillips,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 
Prof.  R.  Owen,  M.D.,  RR.S.  .., 

Sir  R.I. Murchison,  D.C.L 

Rev.  Dr.  Robinson,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Prof.  Vv^alker,  F.R.S 

C:iptain  Sherard  Osborn,  R.N. 
Prof.  W.  A.  Miller,  M.A.,  F.R.S 
G.  B.  Airv,  F.R.S.,  Astron.  Roy. . 
Prof.  Tvndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 
Prof.  Odling,  RR.S 


Subject  of  Discourse. 


Geology  of  North  America. 

The  Gigantic  Tortoise  of  the  Siwalik 
Hills  in  India. 

Progress  of  Terrestrial  Magnetism. 

Geology  of  Russia. 

Fossil  Mammalia  of  the  British  Isles. 

Valley  and  Delta  of  the  Mississippi. 

Properties  of  the  Explosive  substance 
discovered  by  Dr.  Schonbein ;  also 
some  Researches  of  his  own  on  the 
Decomposition  of  Water  by  Heat. 

Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic  and  Diamagnetic  Pheno- 
mena. 

The  Dodo  (Bidus  inepfus). 

Metallurgical  operations  of  Swansea 
and  its  neighbourhood. 

Recent  Microscopical  Discoveries. 

Mr.  Gassiot's  Battery. 

Transit  of  diflerent  Weights  with 
varying  velocities  on  Railways. 

Passage  of  the  Blood  through  the 
minute  vessels  of  Animals  in  con- 
nexion with  Nutrition. 

Extinct  Birds  of  New  Zealand. 

Distinction  between  Plants  and  Ani- 
mals, and  their  changes  of  Form. 

Total  Solar  Eclipse  of  July  28,  1851. 

Recent  discoveries  in  the  properties 
of  Light. 

Recent  discovery  of  Rock-salt  at 
Carrickfergus,  and  geological  and 
practical  considerations  connected 
with  it. 

Some  peculiar  phenomena  in  the  Geo- 
logy and  Physical  Geography  of 
Yorkshire. 

The  present  state  of  Photography. 

Anthropomorphous  Apes. 

Progress  of  researches  in  Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters  of  Sjiecies. 

As.syrian  and  Babylonian  Antiquities 
and  Ethnology. 

Recent  discoveries  in  Assyria  and 
Babylonia,  with  the  results  of  Cunei- 
form research  up  to  the  present 
time. 

Correlation  of  Physical  Forces. 

The  Atlantic  Telegraph. 

Recent  discoveries  in  Africa. 

The  Ironstones  of  Yorkshire. 

The  Fossil  Mammalia  of  Australia. 

Geology  of  the  Northern  Highlands. 

Electrical  Discharges  in  highly  rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical  Constitution  of  the  Sun. 

Arctic  Discovery. 

Spectrum  Analysis. 

The  late  Eclipse  of  the  Sun. 

The  Forms  and  Action  of  Water, 

Organic  Chemistry. 


LIST  OF  EVENING  LECTUllES. 


ili 


1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 


Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 


Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham. 
Dundee 


Norwich  .... 

Exeter  

Liverpool  ... 
Edinburgh 


Prof.  Williamson,  F.E.S. 


James  Glaisher,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  Eoscoe,  RR.S 

Dr.  Livingstone,  F.R.S. 
J.  Beete  Jukes,  F.R.S. ... 


William  Huggins,  F.R.S 

Dr.  J.  D.  Hoolcer,  F.R.S 

Archibald  Geikie,  F.R.S 

Alexander  Herschel,  F.R.A.S. . 

J.  Fergusson,  F.R.S 

Dr.  W.  Odling,  F.R.S 

Prof.  J.  Phillips,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 
J.  Norman  Lockyer,  F.R.S... 

Prof.  J.  Tyndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 
Prof.  W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankine, 

LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
F.  A.  Abel,  F.R.S 

E.  B.  Tylor,  F.R.S 


The  chemistry  of  the  Galvanic  Bat- 
tery considered  in  relation  to  Dy- 
namics. 

The  Balloon  Ascents  made  for  the 
British  Association. 

The  Chemical  Action  of  Light. 

Recent  Travels  in  Africa. 

Probabilities  as  to  the  position  and 
extent  of  the  Coal-measures  beneath 
the  red  rocks  of  the  Midland  Coun- 
ties. 

The  results  of  Spectrura_  Analysis 
applied  to  Heavenly  Bodies. 

Insular  Floras. 

The  Geological  origin  of  the  present 
Scenery  of  Scotland. 

The  present  state  of  knowledge  re- 
garding Meteors  and  IMeteorites. 

Archaeology  of  the  early  Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse  Chemical  Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The  Physical  Constitution  of  the 
Stars  and  Nebulaj. 

The  Scientific  Use  of  the  Imagination . 

Stream-lines  and  Waves,  in  connexion 
with  Naval  Architecture. 

On  some  recent  investigations  and  ap- 
plications of  Explosive  Agents. 

On  the  Relation  of  Primitive  to  Mo- 
dern Civilization. 


1867.  Dundee.. 

1868.  Norwich 

1869.  Exeter  .. 


1870.  Liverpool , 


Lectures  to  the  Ojjerative  Classes. 


Prof  J.  Tyndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S, 
Prof  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 
Prof.  MiUer,  M.D.,  F.R.S 


Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  M.P., 
F.R.S, 


Matter  and  Force. 

A  piece  of  Chalk. 

Experimental  illustrations  of  the 
modes  of  detecting  the  Composi- 
tion of  the  Sun  and  other  Heavenly 
Bodies  by  the  Spectrum. 

Savages. 


xlii 


EEPORT 1871. 


Table  showing  the  Attendance  and  Receipts 


Date  of  Meeting. 

Where  held. 

Presidents. 

Old  Life      New 
Members.    Mem 

Life 

bers. 

1831,  Sept.  27    ... 

1832,  June  19    ... 

1833,  June  25    ... 

1834,  Sei^t.  8      ... 

1835,  Aug.  10    ... 

1836,  Aug.  22    ... 

1837,  Sept.  11    ... 

1838,  Aug.  10    ... 

1839,  Aug.  26    ... 

1840,  Sept.  17   ... 

1 841,  July  20    ... 

1842,  June  23    ... 

1843,  Aug.  17    ... 

1844,  Sept.  26   ... 

1845,  June  19    ... 

1846,  Sept.  10    ... 

1847,  June  23    ... 

1848,  Aug.  9 

1849,  Sept.  12   ... 

1850,  July  21    ... 

1851,  July  2  

1852,  Sept.  I 

1853,  Sept.  3      ... 

1854,  Sept.  20    ... 

1855,  Sept.  12    ... 

1856,  Aug.  6 

1857,  Aug.  26    ... 

1858,  Sept.  22   ... 

1859,  Sept.  14   ... 
i860,  Juno  27    ... 

1861,  Sept.  4 

1862,  Oct.  I  

1863,  Aug.  26    ... 

1864,  Sept.  13    ... 

1865,  Sept.  6      ... 

1866,  Aug.  22    ... 

1867,  Sept.  4     ... 

1568,  Aug.  19    ... 

1569,  Aug.  18    ... 

1 8 70,  Sept.  14   ... 

1871,  Aug.  2 

York  

The  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  D.C.L.  ... 
The  Eev.  W.  Buekland,  F.R.S. .. 
The  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  F.R.S.... 

Sir  T.  M.  Brisbane,  D.C.L 

The  Eev.  Provost  Lloyd,  LL.D. 

The  Marquis  of  Lansdovme 

The  Earl  of  Burlington,  F.E.S. . 
The  Duke  of  Northumberland... 
The  Eev.  W.  Vernon  Harcourt . 
The  Marquis  of  Breadalbane  . . . 
The  Eev.  W.  Whewell,  F.E.S.... 

The  Lord  Francis  Egerton  

The  Earl  of  Eosse,  F.E.S 

The  Eev.  G.  Peacock,  D.D 

Sir  John  F.  W.  Herschel,  Bart. . 
Sir  Eoderick  I.  Mui'chison,  Bart. 

Sir  Eobert  H.  Inglis,  Bart 

The  Marquis  of  Northampton . . . 
The  Eev.  T.  R.  Robinson,  D.D. . 

Sir  David  Brewster,  K.H 

G.  B.  Airy,  Esq.,  Astron.  Roval . 
Lieut.-General  Sabine,  F.R.S. ... 
William  Hopkins,  E.sq.,  F.E.S. . 
Tlie  Earl  of  Harrowby,  F.E.S.  .. 

The  Duke  of  Argyll,  F.E.S 

Prof  C.  G.  B.Daubenv,  M.D.... 
The  Rev.  HumiDhrey  Lloyd,  D.D. 
Eicliard  Owen,  M.D.,  D.C.L.  ... 
n.R.H.  The  Prince  Consort    ... 

The  Lord  Wrotteslev,  M.A 

William  Fairbairn,  LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  Prof  WiUis,  M.A.    ... 
Sir  William  G.  Armstrong,  C.B. 
Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  M.A.... 
Prof  J.  Phillips,  M.A.,LL.D.... 
William  E.  Grove,  Q.C.,  F.E.S. 
The  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  K.C.B. 
Dr.  Joseph  D.  Hooker,  F.E.S.  . 

Prof.  G.  G.  Stokes,  D.C.L 

Prof.  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D 

Prof.  Sir  W.  Thomson,  LL.D.... 

^9 
18 

50 
J6 
to 
[8 

3 
12 

9 

g 

to 

'3 
^3 
33 
'4 
'5 

1.2 
ZI 

13 
«S 

56 
^0 

31 
25 
18 
11 

39 
i8 

Oxford   

169                 < 
303               i( 
109                 : 
226                I 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

23s 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222                  I 

184 

286 

321                I 

239 

203 

287 

292                 - 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

2,J  fi 

Cambridge      

Edinbureh     

Dublin    

Bristol    

Liverpool  

Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Birmingham 

Glasgow     

Plymouth  

Manchester    

Cork   

York  

C  ambridgo      

Southampton     

Oxford    

Swansea 

Birmingham  

Edinburgh     

Ipswich  

Belfast    

HiiU    

Liver^jool   

Glasgow      

Cheltenham  

Dublin    

Leeds  

Aberdeen    

Oxford    

l\Ianchester    

Cambridge     

Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Bath    

Birmingham  

Nottingham    

Dundee  

Norwich     

Exeter 

Liverpool   

Edinburgh 

ATTENDANCE  AND  RECEIPTS  AT  ANNUAL  MEETINGS. 


xliii 


at  Annual . 

Meetings  of  the  Association. 

Attended  by 

Amount 
received 

Sums  paid  on 
Accoimt  of 
Grants  for 

Old 

New- 

during  the 

Seientitle 

Annual 

Annual 

Asaociates. 

Ladies.   Fore 

igners.   Total. 

Meeting. 

Purposes. 

Members. 

Members. 

£     .s.  d. 

£      s.   d. 

... 

353 

900 
129S 

20  0  0 

. . . 

167  0  0 

434  14  0 
918  14  6 

1350 
1840 

1 1 00* 

2400 

34      1438 

40      1353 

891 

956  12  2 
1595  II  0 
1546  16  4 
1235  10  II 

•• 

r. 

"60* 

4<j 

31/ 

376 

33t 

331* 

i8      1315 

1449  17  8 

75 

185 
190 

160 
260 

1565  10  2 
981  12  8 

71 

9t 

45 

22 

407 

172 

35       1079 

830  9  9 

94 

65 

39 

270 

196 

36       857 

685  16  0 

40 

495 

203 

53       1260 

208  5  4 

275  I  8 

197 

54 

25 

376 

197 

15       929 

707  0  0 

93 

33 

447 

237 

22       1071 

963  0  0 

159  19  6 

12S 

4- 

510 

273 

44      I 241 

1085  0  0 

345  iS  ° 

61 

47 

244 

141 

37       710 

620  0  0 

391  9  7 

63 

60 

510 

292 

9      1108 

iog5  0  0 

304  6  7 

56 

57 

367 

236 

6       876 

903  0  0 

205  0  0 

121 

121 

765 

524 

10       i8o2 

1882  0  0 

330  19  7 

142 

loi 

1094 

543 

26     2133 

231 100 

480  16  4 

104 

48 

412 

346 

9       1H5 

1098  0  0 

734  13  9 

156 

lao 

900 

569 

26      2022 

2015  0  0 

507  IS  3 

I  I  I 

91 

710 

509 

13       1698 

1931  0  0 

618  18  2 

125 

179 

1206 

821 

22      2564 

2782  0  0 

684  II  I 

177 

59 

636 

463 

47      1689 

1604  0  0 

124 1  7  0 

1S4 

125 

1589 

791 

15      3139 

3944  0  0 

iiii  5  10 

150 

57 

433 

242 

25       1161 

1089  0  0 

1293  16  6 

154 

209 

1704 

1004 

25      3335 

3640  0  0 

1608  3  10 

182 

103 

11 19 

1058 

13      2802 

2965  0  0 

1289  15  8 

215 

149 

766 

508 

23       1997 

2227  0  0 

1591  7  10 

218 

105 

960 

771 

II       2303 

2469  0  0 

1750  13  4 

193 

118 

1163 

771 

7     '  2444 

2613  0  0 

1739  4  0 

226 

117 

720 

682      J 

45      2004 

2042  0  0 

1940  0  0 

229 

107 

678 

600 

17       1856 

1931  0  0 

1572  0  0 

3°3 

1^95 

1103 

910 

14      2878 

3096  0  0 

1472  2  6 

311 

127 

976 

754 

21      2463 

2575  0  0 

*  Ladies  were  not  admitted  by  purchased  Tickets  until  1843. 

t  Tickets  for  admission  to  Sections  only.  %  Including  Ladies 


xliv 


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LIST  01"  OFFICliRS. 

OFFICERS  AND  COUNCIL,  1871-72. 


xlv 


TRUSTEES  (PERMANENT). 
General  Sir  Edward  Sabine,  K.C.B.,  E.A.,  D.C.L.,  Tres.K.S. 
Sir  PiilLir  DE  il.  Gi!Ei-  Egebtox,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.E.S. 


PRESIDENT. 
SIR  WILLIAM  THOMSON,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.H.SS.L.  &  E., 

the  UniTcrsity  of  Glasgow. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 


Professor  of  Katural  Philosoiihy  iu 


His  Grace  The  DUKE  OF  BucCLEUCir,  K.G.,  D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  Provost  of  Edinburgh. 
The  Eight  Hon.  John  Inglis,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Lord 

Justice  General  of  Scotland. 
Sir  Alexander  Grant,  Bart.,  M,A,,  Principal  of 

the  UniTersity  of  Edinburgh. 


Sir  EoDERiCK  I.  Mur.cnisox,  Bart,,  K.C.B., 

G.C.St.S.,  D.C.L.,  F.H.S. 
Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  D.C.L.,  P.E.S.,  F.G.S. 
Dr.  Lyon  Playfair,  M.P.,  C.B.,  F.E.S. 
Professor  Chkistison,  M.D.,  D.C.L.,  Prcs.  E.S.E. 
Professor  Balfour,  F.B.SS.  L,  &  E. 


PRESIDENT  ELECT. 
DR.  W.  B.  CARPENTER,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  F.L.S.,  r.G,S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS  ELECT. 


The  Earl  of  Chichester,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  the 

County  of  Sussex. 
The  Duke  of  Norfolk. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  DuKE  of  Eiciimoxd,  K.G., 

P.C.D.C.L. 


The  Eight  Hon.  The  Duke  OF  Devonshiee,  E.G., 

D.C.L.,  F.E.S. 
Sir  John  LuBBOCK,Bart.,M.P.,F.E.S.,P.L,S.,F.G.S. 
Dr.  Shari'EY,  LL.D.,  Sec.  E.S.,  F.L.S. 
J.  Prest-wich,  Esq.,  F.E.S.,  Pres.  G.S. 


LOCAL  SECRETARIES  FOR  THE  MEETING  AT  BRIGHTON. 

Charles  Carpenter,  Esq. 
The  Eev.  Dr.  Griffith. 
Henry  Willett,  Esq, 

LOCAL  TREASURER  FOR  THE  MEETING  AT  BRIGHTON. 

William  Hexry  Hallett,  Esq.,  F.L.S. 

ORDINARY  MEMBERS  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


BatemAN,  J.  F.,  Esq.,  FE.S. 

Beddoe,  John,  M.D. 

Debus,  Dr.  H.,  F.R.S. 

Evans,  John,  Esq.,  F.E.S. 

Fitch,  J.  G.,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Foster,  Prof.  G.  C,  F.E.S. 

Foster,  Prof.  M.,  M.D. 

Galton,  Francis,  Esq.,  F.E.S. 

Gassiot,  J.  P.,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S, 

Godwin-Austen,  R.  A.  C,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Hirst,  Dr.  T.  A.,  F.E.S. 

HuGGiNS,  William,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S. 

Jeffreys,  J.  G.,  Esq.,  F.H.S. 

Lockyee,  J.  N.,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 


Merrifield,  C.  W.,  Esq.,  F.E.S. 
KoRTncoTE,Et.Hon.SirSTAFFORDH.,Bt.,M.P. 
'  Eamsay-,  Professor,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Rankine,  Professor  W.  J.  M.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Siemens,  C.  W.,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
Simon,  Dr.  John,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
Straciiky-,  Major-General,  F.R.S. 
Strange,  Lieut.-Colonel  A.,  F.R.S. 
Sykes,  Colonel,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
Tyndall,  Professor,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Wallace,  A.  E.,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S. 
Wiieatstone,  Professor  Sir  C,  F.R.S. 
Williamson,  Professor  A.  W.,  F.R.S. 


EX-OFFICIO  MEMBERS  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 

The  President  and  President  Elect,  the  Vice-Presidents  and  Vice-Presidents  Elect,  the  General  and 
Assistant  General  Secretaries,  the  General  Treasurer,  the  Trustees,  and  the  Presidents  of  former 
years,  \ii.: — 


Rev.  Professor  Sedgwick. 

The  Duke  of  Devonshire. 

The  Rev.  T.  R.  Robinson,  D.D. 

G.  B.  Airy,Esq.,AstrononierRoyal 

General  Sir  E.  Sabine,  K.C.B. 

The  Earl  of  Harrowby. 

The  Duke  of  Argyll. 

Dr.  Thomas  Thomson,  F.R.S. 


The  Rev.  H.  Lloyd,  D.D. 
Richard  Owen,  M.D.,  D.C.L. 
Sir  W.  Fairbairn,  Bait.,  LL.D. 
The  Rev.  Professor  Willis,  F.R.S. 
Sir  W.  G.  Armstrong,  C.B.,  LL.D. 
Sir  Chas.  Lyell,  Bart.,  M.A.,LL.D, 


Professor  Phillips,  M.A.,  D.C.I. 
William  R.  Gro^e,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
The  Duke  of  Buceleueh,  K.B. 
Dr.  Joseph  D.  Hooker,  D.C.L. 
Professor  Stok.'s,  C.B.,  D.C.L. 
Prof.  Huxley,  LL.D. 


GENERAL  SECRETARIES. 

F.L.S.,  The  Athen.TUm  Club,  Pall  Mall,  London,  S.W. 


Capt.  Douglas  Galton,  C.B.,  R.E.,  F.R.S.,  12  Chef:tcr  Street,  Grosvenor  Place,  London,  S.W. 

ASSISTANT  GENERAL  SECRETARY. 

George  Griffith,  Es^.,  M.A.,  Harrow. 

GENERAL  TREASURER. 
William  Spottievoode,  Esq.,  M.A., LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.R.G.S.,  cO  Grosvenor  Place,  London, S.W. 


G.  Busk,  Esq.,  F.E.S. 


AUDITORS. 

Warren  De  La  Rue,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 


John  Evans,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 


Xlvi  REPORT 1871. 

OFEICEES  OF  SECTIONAL  COMMITTEES  PRESENT  AT  THE 
EDINBURGH  MEETING.. 

SECTION  A. MATHEMATICS  AND  PHYSICS. 

P/-esiVfe;«f.— Professor  P.  G.  Tait,  F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor  J.  C.  Adams,  F.R.S. ;  Professor  Cayley,  F.R.S. ;  Rev. 
Professor  Challis,  F.R.S. ;  J.  P.  Gassiot,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. ;  Professor  R.  Grant, 
LL.D.,  F.R.S. ;  Dr.  Joule,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. ;  Professor  J.  Clerk  Maxwell,  LL.D., 
F.R.S. ;  Professor  W.  J.  M.  Rankine,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  L.  and  E. ;  Dr.  Spottiswoode, 
F.R.S. ;  Rev.  Professor  Kelland,  F.R.SS.  L.  and  E. ;  Professor  Stokes,  D.C.L., 
F.R.S. ;  Professor  Sylvester,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

iS'ec/-e!;«/-je.s.— Professor  W.  G.  Adams,  F.G.S. ;  J.  T.  Bottomlev,  M.A.,  F.C.S. ; 
Professor  W.  K.  Clifford,  M.A. :  Professor  J.  D.  Everett,  F.R.S.E. :  Rev.  R. 
Harley,  F.R.S. 

SECTION  B. CHEMISTEY  AND  MINERALOGY,  INCLrDING  THEIR  APPLICATIONS  TO 

AGRICULTURE  AND  THE  ARTS. 

P/-esj(feM!!.— Professor  T.  .^jidrevs's,  M.D.,  F.R.SS.  L.  and  E. 

Vice-Presidmits. — Professor  Abel,  F.R.S.;   Professor  Apjohn,  F.R.S.;  Professor 

Criim  Brown,  M.D.,  F.R.S.E. ;  Dr.  Ronalds,  F.R.S.E. ;  Professor  H.  E.  Roscoe, 

F.R.S. ;  Dr.  J.  Stenhouse,  F.R.S. ;  James  Young,  F.R.S.E. 
Secretaries.— J.  Y.  Buchanan,  F.R.S.E.;  W.  N.  Hartley;  T.  E.Thorpe,  F.R.S.E. 

SECTION  C. GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor  Archibald  Geikie,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr.  J.  Bryce,  F.R.S.E.,  F.G.S. ;  Thomas  Davidson,  F.R.S. ;  Su- 

Richard  Griffith,  Bart.,  F.R.S. ;   Professor  Harkuess,  F.R.S. ;  D.  Milne  Home, 

F.R.S.E. ;  J.  Can-ick  Moore,  F.R.S. ;  WiUiam  PengeUy,  F.R.S. ;  J.  Prestwich, 

F.R.S.,  Pres.  G.S.  Loud. ;  Professor  J.  Young,  M.D. 
Secretaries.— B..   Etheridge,  F.R.S.,    F.G.S.;  J.  Geikie,  F.R.S.E.;  T.  M 'Kenny 

Hughes,  M.A.,  F.G.S.;  L.  C.  Miall. 

SECTION  D. BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor  Allen  Thomson,  M.D.,  F.R.SS.  L.  and  E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor  WvviUe  Thomson,  F.R.S. ;  Professor  W.  Tm-ner, 
M.B.,  F.R.S.E. ;  Professor  "Owen,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. ;  Professor  Huxley, 
LL.D.,  F.R.S.;  Dr.  Beddoe;  Dr.  Hughes  Bennett;  Dr.  Carpenter,  LL.D., 
F.R.S. ;  Dr.  Shai-pey,  F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Dx.  T.  R.  Eraser,  F.R.S.E. ;  Dr.  Arthur  Gamgee,  F.R.S.E. ;  E.  Ray 
Lankester,  B.A. ;  Professor  Lawson,  M.A. ;  H.  T.  Staintou,  F.R.S. ;  C.  Staui- 
landAVake,  Dir.  A. I.;  Dr.  W.  Rutherford,  F.R.S.E.;  Dr.  Kelburne Eing. 

SECTION  E. GEOGRAPHY  AND  ETHNOLOGY. 

JVesK7«fi;.— Colonel  H.  Yule,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— '&IV  Walter  Elliot,   K.C.S.L ;    Sir  Arthur  Phayre,   K.C.S.L; 

Major-General   Sir  Andrew  Waugh,   F.R.S. ;    Dr.   Rae,  M.D. ;    Admiral  Sir 

Edward  Belcher,  K.C.B. ;  Sir  James  ^Uexander,  K.C.M.G. 
Secretaries. — Clements  R.  Markham,  C.B.,  Sec.  R.G.S. ;  A.  Buchan.  F.R.S.E. : 

J.  H.  Thomas,  F.R.G.S.;  A.  Keith  Johnston,  F.R.G.S. 

SECTION  F. ECONOMIC  SCIENCE  AND  STATISTICS. 

President. — Lord  Neaves. 

Vice-Presidents. — The  Lord  Advocate,  Sir  John  Bowring,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. ; 
Samuel  Brown,  Baron  Eotvos,  of  Pesth  ;  Edward  S.  Gordon,  M.P. ;  Sir  Alex- 
ander Grant,  Bart. ;  Sir  Willoughby  Jones,  Bart. ;  James  Heywood,  M.A., 
F.R.S. ;  Duncan  M'Laren,  [M.P. ;  Sir  William  Stirling  Maxwell,  Bart. ;  Lvon 
Playfair,  M.P.,  LL.D. ;  W.  NeHson  Hancock,  LL.D. ;  General  Sir  Andrew  Scott 
Waugh,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J.  G,  Fitch,  M.A. ;  James  Meikle,  F.I.A.,  F.S.S. 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL.  xlvi 

SECTION  G. MECHANICAL  SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor  Fleeiuing  Jenkin,  C.E.,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— J.  F.  Bateman,  F.R.S. ;  Admiral  Sir  E.  Belcher,  K.C.B. ;  F.  J. 
Bramwell,  O.E. ;  Peter  Le  Neve  Foster,  M.A. ;  Professor  W.  J.  Rankine, 
LL.D.,  F.R.S. ;  C.  W.  Siemens,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. ;  Thomos  Stevenson,  F.R.S.E, ; 
Professor  James  Thomson,  LL.I). 

Secretaries. — H.  Bauerman,  F.G.S. ;  Alexander  Leslie,  C.E. ;  J.  P.  Smith,  C.E. 

Report  of  the  Council  for  the  Year  1870-71,  presented  to  the  General 
Committee  at  Edinburgh,  on  Wednesday,  August  2nd,  1871. 

At  each  of  their  meetings  during  the  past  year  the  Council  have  as  usual 
received  a  report  froii  the  General  Treasurer,  as  well  as  one  from  the  Kew 
Committee.  A  resume  of  these  Reports  wiU  be  laid  before  the  General 
Committee  this  day. 

The  Council  have  had  under  their  consideration  the  several  resolutions,  five 
in  number,  referred  to  them  by  the  General  Committee  at  Liverpool.  They 
beg  to  report  as  follows  upon  the  action  they  have  taken  in  each  case  : — 

First  Resolution — "  That  the  discontinuance  of  the  maintenance  of  Kew 
Observatory  by  the  British  Association  having  been  determined  on,  the 
President  and  Council  be  authorized  to  communicate  with  the  President  and 
Council  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  with  the  Government,  so  that  the  future 
use  of  the  buildings  may  in  1872  be  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Royal 
Society,  in  case  the  Royal  Society  should  desire  it,  under  the  same  con- 
ditions as  those  buildings  are  at  present  held  by  the  British  Association." 

A  copy  of  this  resolution  was  forwarded  by  direction  of  your  Council 
to  the  President  and  Council  of  the  Royal  Society.  The  following  is  the 
reply  which  one  of  your  General  Secretaries  has  received  from  Dr.  Sharpey, 
Secretary  of  the  Royal  Society : — 

"  The  Eoyal  Society,  Burlington  House, 
July  8, 1871. 

"  Deab  De.  Hibst, — In  reply  to  your  letter  of  the  10th  December,  1870, 
enclosing  a  copy  of  a  resolution  of  the  General  Committee  of  the  British 
Association  relative  to  the  future  occupation  of  the  buildings  at  Kew  now 
held  by  the  British  Association,  I  am  directed  to  acquaint  you  that  the 
President  and  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  are  ready  to  take  possession  of 
the  Observatory  at  Kew  on  the  terms  it  is  at  present  held  from  Her  Majesty's 
Government,  as  stated  in  a  letter  dated  26th  March  1842,  addressed  to  the 
President  of  the  British  Association  from  the  Office  of  Woods,  &c.,  viz. : — 
'  during  the  pleasure  and  upon  the  conditions  usual  on  sach  occasions,  that 
no  walls  shall  be  broken  through,  and  no  alterations  made  that  can  afi'ect 
the  stability  of  the  building,  and  alter  its  external  appearance,  without  the 
previous  sanction  of  the  Board  of  Works.'  I  have  further  to  acquaint  you 
that  the  President  and  Council  have  appointed  a  Standing  Committee  of 
Fellows  of  the  Royal  Society  for  the  management  of  the  Kew  Observatory 
in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  Gassiot  Trust,  consisting  of  the  following 
gentlemen  : — 


Mr.  Warren  De  La  Rue. 
Mr.  Francis  Galton. 
Mr.  Gassiot. 
Admiral  Richards. 


Sir  Edward  Sabine. 
Colonel  Smythe. 
Mr.  Spottiswoode. 
Sir  Charles  Wheatstone. 


and  that  .£600  from  the  income  of  the  Gassiot  Fund  has  been  placed  at  the 
disposal  of  that  Committee  to  meet  the  expenses  of  the  establishment  for  the 
ensuing  year.  "  I  remain,  yours  very  truly, 

(Signed)         "  W.  Shaepey,  M.D.,  Secretary  B.  S." 


xlviii  REPOKT — 1871. 

Through,  the  munificence  of  Mr,  Gassiot,  tlicrefore,  tho  Association  can, 
^yithout  detriment  to  science,  give  up  possession  of  the  Kcw  Observatory  at 
once  instead  of  in  1872,  as  -was  originally  contemplated.  Your  Council 
accordingly  recommend  that  Government  should  be  informed  without 
further  delay  of  the  desire  of  the  Association  to  see  the  direction  and 
maintenance  of  the  Kew  Observatory  transferred  to  the  Roj-al  Society. 

Second  Resolution. — "  That  the  Council  be  empowered  to  cooperate  with 
the  Eoyal  and  Eoyal  Astronomical  Societies,  in  the  event  of  a  new  appli- 
cation being  made  to  Government  to  aid  in  the  observation  of  the  Solar 
Eclipse  of  December  1870." 

On  the  4tli  November  a  Joint  Committee  of  the  Royal  and  Royal  Astro- 
nomical Societies  decided  to  make  a  second  application;  on  the  5th  of 
November  your  Council  selected  a  few  of  their  body  to  accompany  the  new 
deijutation  to  Government  which  the  above  two  Societies  had  resolved  to 
send.  The  necessity  for  any  such  deputation  was  subscqiiently  obviated 
through  the  intervention  of  private  individuals,  and,  as  is  well  known,  aid 
was  promptly  and  liberally  granted  by  Government  to  the  Eclipse  Ex- 
pedition. 

Third  Resolution. — "  That  the  Council  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as 
they  deem  wisest,  in  order  to  urge  upon  Government  the  importance  of 
introducing  scientific  instruction  into  the  elementary  schools  throughout  the 
country." 

A  Committee  of  your  Council  having  considered  the  subject,  recommended 
the  appointment  of  a  deputation  to  wait  upon  the  Lord  President  of  tho 
Council  in  order  to  i;rge  upon  him  the  desirability  of  including  elementary 
natural  science  amongst  the  subjects  for  which  payments  are  made  by  the 
authority  of  the  Revised  Code.  The  Council  accordingly  formed  themselves 
into  a  deputation,  and  on  the  13tli  of  December  1870  had  an  interview  with 
the  Right  Hon.  "W.  E.  Eorstcr,  M.P.,  Vice-rresident  of  the  Committee  of 
Council  on  Education,  who  was  pleased  to  express  his  concurrence  with  tho 
objects  of  the  deputation  and  his  willingness  to  carry  out  those  objects  so  far 
as  circumstances  would  permit. 

Fourth  Resolution. — "  That  tho  Council  of  the  British.  Association  be 
authorized,  if  it  should  appear  to  be  desirable,  to  urge  upon  Her  Majesty's 
Government  the  expediency  of  jn-oposing  to  the  legislature  a  measure  to 
insure  the  introduction  of  the  metric  system  of  weights  and  measures  for 
international  purposes." 

The  Council  deemed  it  expedient  to  postpone  the  consideration  of  this 
resolution. 

Fifth  Resolution. — "  That  it  is  inexpedient  that  new  institutions,  such  as 
the  proposed  Engineering  College  for  India,  should  be  established  by  Govern- 
ment, until  the  Royal  Commission  now  holding  an  inquiry  into  the  relation 
of  the  State  to  scientific  instriictiou  shall  have  issued  their  report.  That  the 
Council  of  the  British  Association  be  requested  to  consider  this  opinion,  and, 
should  they  see  fit,  to  urge  it  upon  the  attention  of  Her  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment." 

The  Committee  appointed  without  loss  of  time  to  consider  and  report  on 
this  resolution  were  informed  at  their  first  meeting  tliat  the  arrangements 
for  the  establishment  of  the  College  had  been  virtually  completed.  Your 
President,  however,  in  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  this  Committee,  entered 
into  unofiicial  communication  with  tlic  authorities  at  the  India  Office,  relative 
to  the  proposed  examination  for  entrance  into  the  new  Engineering  College, 
and  succeeded  thereby  in  gaining  for  natural  science,  as  compared  with 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL.  xlix 

classics,  a  recognition,  in  the  form  of  allotted  marks,  which  it  prcviouslj-  did 
not  possess. 

Your  Council  has  given  considerable  attention  to  the  important  question 
(raised  at  the  last  meeting)  of  a  revision  of  the  regulations  relating  to  the 
proceedings  of  the  several  Sections  at  the  annual  meetings  of  the  Association. 
Hitherto,  it  has  been  justly  urged,  these  proceedings,  from  not  having  been 
sufficiently  pre-arranged,  have  fi-equently  been  of  too  desultory  and  mixed 
a  character.  It  is  hoped  that  by  a  proper  observance  of  the  Revised  Regu- 
lations which  are  this  day  to  be  submitted  to  the  General  Committee  for 
approval,  and  by  increased  vigilance  on  the  part  of  the  Sectional  Committees, 
much  of  this  may  bo  obviated,  and  that  greater  prominence  may  be  given  to, 
and  a  fuller  discussion  secured  for,  the  really  important  communications 
which  are  annually  made  to  the  several  Sections. 

The  Council  has  pleasure  in  informing  the  General  Committee  that  the 
Association  at  length  possesses  a  central  office  in  London.  The  Asiatic 
Society  has,  in  consideration  of  a  yearly  rent  of  £100,  granted  to  the  Asso- 
ciation entire  possession  of  four  of  their  rooms  at  22  Albemarle  Street,  and 
the  use  of  another  room  for  meetings  of  the  Council  and  Committees.  Your 
Council,  moreover,  acting  under  the  power  given  to  thera  by  the  General 
Committee  at  Liverpool,  have  engaged  Mr.  Askham  as  clerk  at  a  salary  of 
£120  a  year.  He  is  in  attendance  daily,  and  there  transacts  much  of  the 
business  which  was  formerly  done  at  the  office  of  Messrs.  Taylor  and  Francis, 
the  printers  to  the  Association.  With  the  exception  of  certain  works  of 
reference,  the  whole  of  the  books  and  MSS.  formerly  deposited  at  Kew  have 
been  transferred  to  22  Albemarle  Street,  and  are  being  catalogued  and 
rendered  available  for  reference  by  Members  of  the  Association.  One  of  the 
four  rooms  not  at  present  in  use  has  been  sub-let  to  the  London  Mathe- 
matical Society. 

The  Council  having  been  informed  by  Dr.  Hirst  of  his  desire  at  the  close 
of  the  present  Meeting  to  resign  his  ofRce  as  Joint  General  Secretary  of  the 
Association,  appointed  a  Committee,  consisting  of  the  General  Officers  and 
former  General  Secretaries,  to  select  a  successor.  This  Committee  unani- 
mously recommended  the  appointment  of  Captain  Douglas  Galton,  C.B., 
F.R.S.  The  Coimcil,  entirely  agreeing  with  the  Committee  as  to  the  high 
qualifications  of  Captain  Galton  for  the  office,  cordially  recommend  his 
election  by  the  General  Committee  at  their  meeting  on  Monday  next. 

The  Council  cannot  allow  this  occasion  to  pass  without  expressing  their 
sense  of  the  great  services  rendered  to  the  Association  by  Dr.  Hirst;  but 
they  abstain  from  saying  more,  as  they  are  unwilling  to  anticipate  a  more 
mature  expression  on  the  part  of  the  General  Committee. 

The  Council  have  added  the  following  names  of  gentlemen  present  at  the 
last  Meeting  of  the  Association  to  the  list  of  Corresponding  Members  : — 

Professor  Van  Beneden. 

Dr.  Crafts. 

Dr.  Anton  Dohrn. 


H.  H.  the  Rajah  of  Kolapore, 
M.  Plateau. 
Professor  Tchebichef. 


Governor  Gilpin,  Colorado. 

The  General  Committee  will  remember  that  Brighton  has  already  been 
selected  as  the  place  of  meeting  next  year.  Livitations  for  subsequent 
meetings  have  been  received  by  your  Council  from  Bradford,  Belfast, 
and  Glasgow. 

The  Coimcil,  lastly,  recommend  that  the  name  of  Professor  Balfour  be 
added  to  the  list  of  Vice-Presidents  of  the  present  Meeting. 


1  REPORT 1871. 

Report  of  the  Kew  Committee  of  the  British  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science  for  1870-71. 

The  Committee  of  the  Kew  Observatory  submit  to  the  Council  of  the  British 
Association  the  follomng  statement  of  their  proceedings  during  the  past 
year : — 

(A)   WOEK  BONT!  BY  KeW  ObSEEVATORT  UNDER  THE  DIRECTION  OF  THE 

British  Association. 

1.  Magnetic  ivorlc. — In  their  last  Eeport  the  Committee  stated  the  plan  on 
■which  they  proposed  to  reduce  their  Magnetic  observations  ;  they  now  report 
that  with  reference  to  the  reduction  of  the  Magnetic  Disturbances  from 
January  1865  to  December  1869,  the  period  foUowing  that  which  has  already 
been  published,  the  discussion  of  Declination  and  Horizontal  Force  Disturb- 
ances is  nearly  ready  for  presentation  to  the  Eoyal  Society,  and  that  of  the 
Vertical  Force  is  in  progress  ;  when  that  is  completed,  the  whole  period,  1865 
to  1869  inclusive,  will  have  been  discussed  at  Kew.  The  tabular  statement, 
which  is  herewith  presented  (see  Appendix  I.),  exhibits  the  exact  state  of 
the  reduction. 

Two  Dipping-needles  by  Dover  and  one  by  Adie  have  been  tested  for  Mr. 
Chambers,  Superintendent  of  the  Colaba  Observatory ;  and  one  needle  has 
been  procured  from  Dover  and  tested  for  Prof.  JeUnek,  of  Vienna. 

A  Dip-circle  by  Dover  has  been  verified  and  forwarded  to  Prof.  Jelinek, 
■who  ordered  it  on  behalf  of  the  K.  K.  mUitiir-geograpliisches  Institut. 

Major-General  Lefroy,  Governor  of  Bermuda,  having  applied  for  the  loan 
of  a  Dip-circle,  one  has  now  been  prepared  for  his  use,  and  will  be  forwarded 
to  Bermuda  as  soon  as  possible.  A  Dip-circle  has  been  obtained  from  Dover, 
and,  after  verification,  ^vill  be  forwarded  to  the  Survey  Department,  Lisbon. 

At  the  request  of  Prof.  Jelinek  the  Committee  have  undertaken  to  examine 
a  Dip-circle  by  Eepsold.  It  is  of  a  large  size  and  has  eight  needles,  but  Prof. 
Jelinek  reports  that  the  results  obtained  by  them  are  very  discordant. 

Copies  of  certain  specified  maguetograph  curves  have  been  made  and  for- 
warded to  the  late  Sir  J.  Herschel,  M.  DiamiUa  Miiller,  of  Florence,  and  Senhor 
CapeUo,  of  Lisbon,  at  the  request  of  those  gentlemen. 

The  usual  monthly  absolute  determinations  of  the  magnetic  elements  con- 
tinue to  be  made  by  Mr.  "\Miipple,  the  Magnetic  Assistant. 

The  Self-recording  Magnetographs  are  in  constant  operation  as  heretofore, 
also  nuder  his  charge. 

2.  Meteorological  ivorh. — The  meteorological  work  of  the  Observatory 
continues  in  the  charge  of  Mr.  Baker. 

Since  the  Liverpool  Meeting,  113  Barometers  (including  17  Aneroids)  have 
been  verified,  and  2  rejected ;  1320  Thermometers  and  215  Hydrometers  have 
like^wise  been  verified. 

Two  Standard  Thermometers  have  been  constructed  for  Owens  College, 
Manchester,  one  for  the  Bugby  School,  one  each  for  Profs.  Harkness  and 
Eastmanu,  of  the  Washington  Observatory,  four  for  Dr.  Draper,  of  the  New 
York  Central  Park  Observatory,  one  for  Major  Norton,  of  the  Chief  Signal 
Office,  "Washington,  one  for  Mr.  G.  J.  Symons,  and  three  for  the  Meteorolo- 
gical Committee. 

Three  Thermograph  Thermometers  have  been  examined  for  Mr.  Chambers, 
of  the  Colaba  Observatory,  and  three  for  the  Meteorological  Committee. 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  li 

Two  Standard  Barometers  have  been  purchased  from  Adie,  and  tested  at 
Kew,  one  of  which  has  becu  forwarded  to  the  Chief  Signal  Office,  Washington, 
and  the  other  to  Prof.  Jack,  of  Fredricton,  New  Brunswick. 

Tubes  for  the  construction  of  a  Welsh's  Standard  Barometer  on  the  Kew 
pattern,  together  with  the  necessary  metal  mountings,  and  a  Cathetometer, 
have  been  made  under  the  superintendence  of  the  Committee  for  the  Chief 
Signal  Office,  Washington. 

The  Committee  have  likewise  superintended  the  purchase  of  meteorological 
instruments  for  Owens  College,  Manchester,  and  for  the  ObseiTatory  attached 
to  the  University  of  Fredricton,  New  Brunswick. 

The  Kew  Standard  Thermometer  (M.  S.  A.),  divided  arbitrarily  by  the  late 
Mr.  Welsh,  and  employed  for  many  years  past  as  the  standard  of  reference 
in  the  testing  of  thermometers,  was  accidentally  broken  on  the  3rd  of  January. 
Since  then  a  Kew  Standard,  of  the  ordinary  construction,  made  in  1866,  and 
which  had  been  compared  on  several  occasions  with  M.  S.  A.,  has  been  used 
to  replace  it. 

Copies  of  some  of  the  meteorological  observations  made  at  Kew  during  the 
years  1869  and  1870  have  been  supplied  to  the  ^Institution  of  Mining 
Engineers  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  and  the  Editor  of  Whitaker's  Almanac, 
the  cost  of  the  extraction  being  paid  by  the  applicants  in  both  instances. 

A  set  of  self-recording  meteorological  instruments,  the  property  of  the 
Meteorological  Committee,  have  been  erected  in  the  Verification-house,  and 
are  now  undergoing  examination.';' 

The  self-recording  metereological  instruments  now  in  work  at  Kew  will  be 
again  mentioned  in  the  second  division  of  this  Eeport.  These  are  in  the 
charge  of  Mr.  Baker. 

3.  PhotoJieJiocjraph.—Thc  Kew  Heliograph,  in  charge  of  Mr.  Warren  De 
La  Rue,  continues  to  be  worked  in  a  satisfactory  manner.  During  the  past 
year  362  pictures  have  been  taken  on  205  days.  The  prints  from  the 
negatives  alluded  to  in  last  Report  have  been  taken  to  date,  and  the  printing 
of  these  has  become  part  of  the  current  work  of  the  estabHshment.  A  paper 
by  Messrs.  Warren  De  La  Rue,  Stewart,  and  Loewy,  embodying  the  position 
and  areas  of  sim-groups  observed  at  Kew  during  the  years  1864,  1865,  and 
1866,  as  well  as  fortnightly  values  of  the  spotted  solar  area  from  1832  to 
1868,  has  been  published  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  and  distributed 
to  those  interested  in  solar  research.  A  Table  exhibiting  the  number  of 
sun -spots  recorded  at  Kew  during  the  year  1870,  after  the  manner  of 
Hofrath  Schwabe,  has  been  communicated  to  the  Astronomical  Society,  and 
published  in  their  '  Monthly  Notices.' 

An  apparatiis  is  being  constructed  under  the  direction  and  at  the  expense 
of  Mr.  Warren  De  La  Rue,  and  it  will  shortly  be  erected  on  the  Pagoda  in 
Kew  Gardens,  in  order  to  be  employed  in  obtaining  corrections  for  optical 
distortion  in  the  heliographical  measurements. 

4.  Miscellaneous  ivorl: — Experiments  are  being  made  on  the  heat  produced 
by  the  rotation  of  a  disk  in  vacuo. 

A  daily  observation  has  been  made  with  the  Rigid  Spectroscope,  the 
property  of  Mr.  J.  P.  Gassiot. 

Observations  have  been  made  with  two  of  Hodgkinson's  Actinometers, 
the  property  of  the  Royal  Society,  in  order  to  compare  them  with  the 
Actinometers  deposited  at  the  Observatory,  for  reference,  before  forwarding 
them  to  India. 

The  Committee  have  siiperintended  the  purchase  of  optical  apparatus, 
chemicals,  &c.  for  the  Observatories  at  Coimbra  and  Lisbon. 


lii  REPORT — 1871. 

An  invoiitory  lias  licoii  iiiiule  of  the  apparatus,  instruments,  &c.  at  present 
deposited  in  the  Observator}',  and  forms  Appendix  III.  of  the  present  llepoi+. 

In  Appendix  II.  a  list  is  given  of  the  books  at  present  in  the  Obsei'va- 
tory,  the  property  of  the  British  Association. 

List  B  (Appendix  II.)  is  a  rough  inventory  of  books,  the  property  of  the 
British  Association,  which  have  been  transferred  from  the  Observatory  to  the 
rooms  of  the  Association  in  London  for  the  purpose  of  being  catalogued. 

(B)  Work  D02fE  at  Kew  as  the  Centrai  Obseevatoet  op  the 
Meteokological  Committee. 

1.  Work  done  at  Keiv  as  one  of  the  Observatories  of  the  2Ieteorolof/tcal  Com- 
mittee.— The  Barograph,  Thermograph,  Anemograph,  and  Rain-gauge  arc 
kept  in  constant  operation.     Mr.  Baker  is  in  charge  of  these  instruments. 

From  the  first  two  instruments  traces  in  duplicate  are  obtained,  one  set  being 
sent  to  the  Meteorological  Office  and  one  retained  at  Kew.  As  regards  the 
Anemograph  and  llain-gaugc,  the  original  records  are  sent,  while  a  copy  by 
hand  of  tlicse  on  tracing-paper  is  retained.  The  tabulations  from  the  curves 
of  the  Ivew  instruments  are  made  by  Messrs.  Page  and  lligby. 

2.  Verification  of  Records. — The  system  of  checks  devised  by  the  Kew 
Committee  for  testing  the  accuracy  of  the  observations  made  at  the  different 
Observatories  continues  to  be  followed,  as  well  as  the  ruling  of  zero  lines  in 
the  Barograms  and  Thermograms  suggested  b}'  the  Meteorological  Office. 
Messrs.  Bigby  and  Page  perform  this  work,  3Ir.  Baker,  Meteorological 
Assistant,  having  the  general  supei-intendence  of  the  department. 

3.  Occasional  Assistance. — The  Meteorological  Committee  have  availed 
themselves  of  the  permission  to  have  the  occasional  services  of  Mr.  Beckley, 
Mechanical  Assistant  at  Xew ;  and  he  has  lately  been  visiting  the  various 
Observatories  of  the  Meteorological  Committee. 

The  self-recording  Eain-gauge,  as  mentioned  in  the  last  Heport,  has  been 
adopted  by  the  ileteorological  Committee,  and  instruments  of  this  kind  have 
been  constructed  for  the  various  Observatories. 

A  series  of  comparative  observations  was  commenced  in  April  1870  of 
two  Anemometers  erected  in  the  grounds  attached  to  the  Observatory, 
in  order  to  compare  the  indications  of  a  large  and  small  instrument ;  but  as 
a  discussion  of  the  result  showed  them  to  have  been  greatly  affected  by  the 
influence  of  the  neighbouring  buildings,  the  instruments  were  dismounted 
in  January  last  and  re-erected  in  an  open  part  of  the  Park,  at  a  distance 
from  the  Obscrvatorj-.  Three  months'  observations  were  made  in  this  posi- 
tion, and  as  these  proved  satisfactory,  the  instruments  have  been  dismounted. 
The  cost  of  this  experiment  has  been  defrayed  by  the  Meteorological 
Committee.  Owing  to  his  duties  in  Manchester,  and  to  a  railway  accident. 
Dr.  Stewart  has  not  been  able  during  the  last  j'car  to  devote  much  time 
to  the  Observatory.  During  his  absence  his  most  pressing  duties  were  dis- 
charged by  Mr.  "Whipple  in  an  efficient  manner. 

The  Obsei-vatorj-  was  honoured  on  the  9th  of  July  b}'  a  'vnsit  from  the 
Emperor  and  Empi-ess  of  Brazil.  Their  Majesties  were  received,  on  behalf 
of  the  Committee,  by  Sir  E.  Sabine  and  Mr.  W.  De  La  Rue. 

In  the  unavoidable  absence,  through  illness,  of  Dr.  Balfour  Stewart,  the 
Emperor  was  conducted  over  the  Observatory  by  the  above-named  gentlemen, 
and  the  various  instruments  &c.  were  explained  by  Mr.  Whipple  and  the 
other  members  of  the  staff  of  the  Observatory. 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE. 


liii 


APPENDIX  I. 

Tabular  statement  showing  state  of  Magnetic  Ecductions  at  the  present  date. 


Hourly  Tabulations  from 
Traces. 

Correct 
Monthly 

Disturb- 
ances ex- 
cluded and 

Lunar 
Diurnal 

Variation 

Tables  of 

Secular  and 

Annual 

Solar 

Diurnal 

Variation 

By  Tabula- 
tor. 

By  Subsidiary 
Scale. 

Means. 

aggregated.' 

Tables. 

Variation. 

Tables. 

('1865 

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1870* 

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*  The  reduction  of  the  tabulations  for  the  year  1870  is  being  performed  in  Sir  E.  Sabine's 
office. 

Arrears  of  Work. 


Hourly  Tabulations  from 
Traces. 

Correct 

Monthly 

Disturb- 
ances ex- 
cluded and 

Lunar 

Diurnal 

Variation 

Tables  of 

Secular  and 
Ajinual 

Solar 
Diurnal 
Variation 

By  Tabula- 
tor. 

By  Subsidiary 
Scale. 

Means. 

aggregated. 

Tables. 

Variation. 

Tables. 

n858 

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1858t 

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1864 

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t, 

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1864 

1864 

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1871. 


t  These  have  been  already  published  by  Sir  E.  Sabine. 


liv  REPORT 1871. 


APPENDIX    II. 


BOOKS  AT  PRESENT  IN  THE  KEW  OBSERVATOEY, 


THE  PEOPEBTT  OF 


THE  BRITISH  ASSOCIATION. 


LIST   A. 

Books  to  he  retained  at  Kew  for  reference. 

Britisli  Association  Keports,  1  vol.  for  the  following  years : — 
1831-32, 1833,  1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840,  1841,  1842,  1843,  1844,  1845,  1846,  1847, 
1848,  1849,  1850,  1851,  1852,  1853,  1854,  1855, 
1856,  1857,  1858,  1859,  1860,  1861,  1862,  1863, 
1864,  1865,  1866,  1867,  1868,  1869.- 

Philosophical  Transactions    88  vols. 

„  ,,  (Abstracts) 6     „ 

Proceedings  of  the  lloyal  Society 12     „ 

Royal  Society  Catalogue  of  Scientific  Papers    4     „ 

Philosophical  Magazine  (half-yearly)    21     „ 

»  „  (unbound) 11  parts. 

Logarithmic  Tables  (various)     6  vols. 

Royal  Astronomical  Society's  Proceedings    13 

Buchan's  Meteorology     2 

Dalton's  „  1 

Kaemtz's  ,,  , 1 

Meteorological  Papers    27  nos. 

Meteorology  of  England     18  nos. 

Papers  relating  to  the  Meteorological  Department  of  the 

Board  of  Trade 39     „ 

Instructions  for  taking  Meteorological  Observations  (Col, 

James)    1  vol. 

Quarterly  "Wuatner  Reports  3  vols. 

British  Almanac 2     „ 

Deviations  of  the  Compass  (Evana) 2     „ 


» 
» 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  Iv 

Miller's  Elements  of  Chemistry 2  vols. 

WiUiamson's  Chemistry  for  Students     1  vol. 

Elements  of  Chemistry  (Sir  E.  Kane) 1     ,, 

Mathematics  (Royal  Military  Academy  Course) 2  vols. 

Euler's  Letters  on  Mathematics  and  Physics    4     ,, 

Barlow  on  Magnetic  Attraction 1  vol. 

Treatise  on  Electricity  (De  La  Eive)    3  vols. 

"Woodhouse's  Astronomy    1  vol. 

The  Heavens  (Guillemin,  edited  by  Norman  Lockyer)     . .  1     „ 

Art  of  Photography  (Lake  Price) 1     „ 

Meteorological  Tables,  Smithsonian  (Guyot)     1     „ 

Treatise  on  Mathematical  Instruments  (Heather)    1     „ 

Sabine's  Pendulum  and  other  Experiments 2  vols. 

Chauvenet's  Astronomy 2     „ 

Timbs's  Year-Book  of  Facts,  1861-1871 11     „ 

Taylor's  Scientific  Memoirs    2     „ 

Manual  of  Surveying  for  India,  by  Capts.  Smythe  and 

ThmUier 1  vol. 

Nichol's  Cyclopaedia  of  Physical  Science   1 

Admiralty  Manual  of  Scientific  Enquiry 1 

Dictionary  of  Terms  of  Art  (Weale) 1 

Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Observations  at : — 

St.  Helena 3  vols 

Toronto  5 

Hobarton    5     „ 

Cape  of  Good  Hope     1  vol 

Observations  during  Magnetic  Disturbances,  1840-1841 . .  1     „ 
Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Observations,  Unusual  Dis- 
turbances    . , 1 


j> 


5> 


» 


Plates  to  Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Observations     ....  1     ,, 

Report  of  the  Astronomer  Royal  to  the  Board  of  Visitors . .  40  nos. 

Theory  of  Errors  of  Observations,  by  Airy   1  vol. 

Todhimter's  Conic  Sections    1     „ 

Distribution  of  Heat  (Dove) 1     „ 

Optics  (Potter)   1     „ 

Camus  on  the  Teeth  of  Wheels 1     „ 

Simmonds's  Meteorological  Tables     1     „ 

Observations  of  Sun-spots  (Carrington)    1 

Newton's  Principia     1 

Symons's  British  Rainfall  and  Meteorological  Magazine  .  . 

Experiences  sur  les  Machines  a  Vapeur  (Regnault)     ....  2 

Cours  Elementaii'e  de  Chimie  (Regnault)     4 


J5 

» 


e2 


J> 

J) 

» 

>) 

JJ 

J? 

5) 

J> 

?) 

)> 

3? 

>J 

>> 

JJ 

J5 

» 

5> 

>J 

J> 

J> 

» 

5> 

J? 

5> 

5> 

JJ 

Ivi  KEFORT ]871. 


LIST   B. 

Bools  to  he  sent  to  tJte  London  Office,  22  Albemarle  Street. 

British  Association  Report,  1831-32     20  vols. 

1833 20 

1834 20 

1835 20 

1836 20 

1837 20 

1838 20 

1839 20 

1840 20 

1841 20 

1842 20 

1843 20 

1844 20 

1845 20 

1846 20 

1847 39 

1848 19 

1849 19 

1850 18 

1851 19 

1852 20 

1853 21 

1854 21 

1855 22 

1856 23 

1857 22 

1858 22 

1859 22 

1860 22 

1861 22 

1862 22 

1863 22 

1864 23 

1865 22 

1866 22 

1867 92 

1868 22 

1869 ;;  22 

Lalande's  Catalogue  (MS.  Calculations)  96 

"  »         (MS.  copy)     3     ^^ 

La  Place's  Celestial  Mechanics 1  yof, 

Armagh,  Places  of  Stars    '  '  ' , 1 

Eadcliffe  Observatory  Catalogue  of  Stars  for  1845  '. '.  ". ".  '. '.      1 

Paramatta  Catalogue  of  7358  Stars 1 

Groombridge's  Catalogue  of  Circumpolar  Stars ..........     3  vo'L. 

Edinburgh  Astronomical  Observations 4 

Astronomical  Observations  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope ..  . .     1 


>} 

» 

r. 

>> 

y> 

)> 

jj 

REPORT  or  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  Ivil 

(MSS.)  Apparent  Places  of  Principal  Stars 1  vol. 

iJi-itish.  Association  Catalogue  (MS.  copy) 1  ,, 

(MSS.)  British  Association  Catalogue  (Calculations)     ....  24  vols. 

(MSS.)  British  Association  Catalogues,  Synonyms  and  Notes  23  „ 

(MSS.)  Lacaille's  Catalogue  (Calculations)   2-4  „ 

LacaiUe's  Catalogue  (MS.  copy)     1  ,, 

Proceedings  of  the  Eoyal  Institution  of  Great  Britain ....  33  nos. 

Ordnance  Survey,  Comparisons  of  Standards  of  Length   .  .  2  vols. 

EadclifFe  Observatory,  Meteorological  Observations      ....  3  „ 

Makerstoun,  Meteorological  Observations  and  Tables  ....  10  „ 

„           Abstracts  of  Meteorological  Observations    .  .  3  ,, 

Cambridge  Observations     8  „ 

Playfair's  Natural  Philosophy    2  „ 

Bland's  Algebraical  Problems    1  „ 

Lectures  on  Quaternions  (Sir  W.  Hamilton)    1  „ 

Meteorological  and  Nautical  Observations  at  Melbourne 

and  Victoria   1  „ 

Mastery  of  Languages  (Prendergast)     1  ,, 

La  Place's  Analytical  Mechanics   1  ,, 

Levelling  in  England  and  Wales   1  „ 

„                    „                   (Abstract) 1  „ 

Levelling  in  Scotland 1  „ 

„               „           (Abstract)   1  ,, 

Pasley  on  Measures,  Weights,  and  Money    1  ,, 

Cork  Savings-bank  Tables 1  ,, 

Weld's  History  of  the  Royal  Society 2  „ 

Bombay    Magnetical    and    Meteorological    Observations, 

1845    3  „ 

Meteorological  Results,  Toronto     8  „ 

Greenwich  Observations     52  ,, 

„  „  (Appendices  &.c.)    125  „ 

Catalogue  of  Reference,  Manchester  Free  Library   1  ,, 

Brisbane's  Star  Catalogue 2  ,, 

Johnson  and  Henderson's  Star  Catalogue 2  „ 

(MSS.)  Hartnup  Star  Catalogue    1  ,, 

Mayer's  Star  Catalogue 1  „ 

Wrottesley's  Star  Catalogue 1  „ 

Taylor's            „           „          8  ,, 

Everest's  Survey  of  India 2  ,, 

Ordnance  Survey    C  ,, 

Extension  of  Triangulation  into  Belgium  and  France  ....  2  ,, 

Yerification  and  Extension  of  Lacaille's  Arc  of  Meridian  .  .  2  ,, 

Schlagintweit's  India  and  Hi^li  Asia    2  „ 

Proceedings  of  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers    ....  8  ,, 

„                      „                  „             70  nos. 

Modern  Geology  Exposed 1  vol. 

Melbourne  Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Observations   ...  3  vols. 

Extracts  from  the  Great  Trigonometrical  Survey  of  India  5  „ 

Madras  Meteorological  Observations 2  „ 

Sydney             „                       „            38  nos. 

Calcutta  Hourly  Meteorological  Observations '/  ,, 

Bengal  Meteorological  Reports 5  ,, 


Iviii  REPORT — 1871. 

Statistics  of  New  Zealand 9  nos 

Tide  Tables  for  English  and  Irish  Ports   •.••.•■••  "* 

Reports  and  Transactions  of  the  Devonshire  As  ociation .  .  3  vols 

Annual  Reports  of  the  Royal  Polytechnic  Society  _ 17 

Transactions  of  the  Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and 

Cheshire 17 

Transactions  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Society  of  Arts 10 

Results  of  Trials  on  H.M.  Ships    5 

Trigonometrical  Survey  of  England  and  Wales    3 

Determination  of  Longitudes  of  England  and  Wales   ....  2 

La  Place's  Mathematical  Works    6 

Lagrange's           „                 „        6 

Euler's  Mathematical  Works 4 

Simpson's      „                 „      2 

Dupin's          „                 „      1  vol 

Carnot's         „                 „      1 

Shipbuilding,  by  Rankine 1 

Dublin  Mag-netical  and  Meteorological  Observations    ....  1 

Maxima  and  Minima  (Ramchundi'a)     1 

Meteorological  Results  Toronto,  1862 1 

Army  Meteorological  Register  1 

Mathematical  Tracts  from  Library  of  the  late  Mr.  Christio 
Magnetical    and    Meteorological    Observations    at    Lake 

Athabasca. 
Sundries  (English  Pamphlets). 

U,  S.  Coasts  Survey,  Report  of  Superintendent    25  vols. 

Annals  of  the  Dudley  Observatory    4     „ 

Transactions  of  the  Albany  Institute    5     „ 

Proceedings  of  the  American  Geological  and  Statistical 

Society    10     >, 

Reports  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences 5     „ 

Documents  of  the  U.  S.  Sanitary  Commission o     „ 

State  Transactions  of  the  Historic  Society  of  Wisconsin  .  .  G     „ 

Report  of  Geological  Reconnaisance  of  Arkansas 2     ,, 

Proceedings  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History ....  45     „ 
„          of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science 12     „ 

Monthly  Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Revenue  of 

U.  S.  A 5     „ 

Proceedings    of    the   American   Academy    of    Ai-ts    and 

Sciences 20     ,, 

Proceedings  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society 50     „ 

Papers  relating  to  Harvard  College 60     „ 

Proceedings  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Phila- 
delphia      71     „ 

Smithsonian  Miscellaneous  Collections 20     „ 

„           Contributions  to  Knowledge 26     „ 

Memoirs  of  the  American  Academy 9     „ 

Washington  Astronomical   and   Meteorological  Obsei-va- 

tions    9     „ 

Maury's  Sailing  Directions    3     „ 

Transactions  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society    ....  0     „ 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  lix 

Sundry  Volumes  (various  subjects) 16  vols. 

Smithsoman  Keports 22  ,, 

Explorations  and  Surveys,  Senate,  U.  S.  A 4  ,, 

Reports  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  U.  S.  A 8  „ 

Geology  of  Iowa 2  „ 

Catalogue,  Army  Medical  Museum,  U.  S.  A 1  „ 

Sundries.  (American  Pamphlets.) 

Bulletin  de  la  Societe  de  Geographie 42  „ 

J,             34  nos. 

Memoires  de  I'Academie  de  Dijon     13  vols. 

Bulletin  de  la  Federation  de  la  Societe  de  Horticulture  de 

Belgique 9  » 

Actes  de  la  Societe  Helvetique 7  „ 

Memoires  de  I'Academie  Royale  de  Metz 3  ,, 

Resume  Meteorologique  pour  Geneve  and  Le  Grand  St. 

Bernard 6  „ 

Extraits  de  I'Academie  Royale  de  BruxeUes     10  nos. 

Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Vaudoise 4  „ 

Memoires  de  la  Societe  des  Sciences 7  „ 

Revues  des  Cours  Scientifiques 19  ,, 

PanheUenium 20  ,, 

Quetelet  sur  le  Climat  de  la  Belgique   7  „ 

Extraits  de  I'Academie  de  Belgique 54  „ 

Commission  Hydrometrique  de  Lyon     16  „ 

Bulletin  de  I'Association  Scientifique  de  France   140  „ 

Memoires  de  I'Academie  des  Sciences  et  Lettres  de  Mont- 

pellier 5  „ 

Atlas  Meteorologiquo  de  I'Observatoire  Imperial,  1866- 

1869    4  „ 

La  Belgique  Horticole    6  „ 

Compte  Rendu  Annuel 15  vols. 

Annales  de  I'Observatoire  Physique  Central  (Russia)  ....  35  „ 

Annuaire  Magnetique  et  Mcteorologique  (Russia)    4  „ 

Annuaire  Mcteorologique  de  Franco     7  „ 

Cosmos    4  ,, 

Les  Mondes,  1863-70 8  „ 

Tables  de  la  Lune,  par  Hanseen    1  vol. 

Traite  de  Calcul  Differential,  par  Lubbe 1  ,, 

Histoire  Celeste,  par  Lalande    1  no. 

Sundries.     (French  Pamphlets.) 

Oversigt  over  det  K.  D.  V.  Sclskabs  af  Forchhammcr .  ...  33  ,, 

Videnskabernes  Selskabs  Skriftcr 6  vols. 

Sundries.     (Dutch  Pamphlets.) 
Archives  Neerlaudaises. 

Meteorologische  Waarnerningen    30  „ 

Helsingfors  Magnetical  and  Meteorological  Observations .  .  6  „ 

Acta  Societatis  Scientiarum  Fennicae     8  „ 

„                      „            Indo-Neerlandsch 7  „ 

Norsk  if eteorologisk  Aarbog _ 4  „ 

Meteorologische    Jagttagelser    paa   Christiania   Observa- 

torium     6  „ 


>5 


>} 


J> 


Ix  EEPOKT — 1871. 

Meteorologisclie  Eeobachtungen  Aiifgezeiclmct  auf  Chris- 

tiaiiia  Observatorium 3  vols. 

Beretning  om  en  Botauisk  Eeise  af  H.  L.  Lorensen 6     „ 

Judex  Scholarum  iu  Uiiiversitate  Christiaiiia    IS     „ 

Sundries.     (Norwegian  Pamphlets.) 

Sitzungsberichte  der  Mathematisch  N'aturwissenschaftliche 

Classe  der  Akademie  der  AVisseuschaften 280 

Sitzungsberichte  der  K.  B.  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  78 
Mittheilungen  der  Naturforschenden  GeseUschaft  iu  Bern  11     „ 
Monatsberichte  der  K.  P.  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  zu 

BerHn 80     „ 

Annalen  fiir  Meteorologie  und  Erdmagnetismus 6     „ 

Beobachtungen   Meteorologische   an   der  Wiener   Stem- 

warte 22 

Yerhandlungen  der  AUgemeinen  Sehweizerischen  GeseU- 
schaft der  Naturwissenschaften 16 

Zeitschrift   der  Osterreichischen  GeseUschaft  fiir  Mete- 
orologie   130 

Eeise  der  Osterreichischen  Frigatte  Novara,  Magnetische 

Beobachtungen   3     „ 

Magnetische  Beobachtungen  in  Wien   4     „ 

Tageblatt  der  32  Yersammlung  der  N.  "NY.  A.  in  "VYien, 

1856   9     „ 

Jahrbucher  der  K.-K.  Central  Anstalt  fiir  Meteorologie  und 
Erdmagnetismus  in  Wieu.     1856-1859,  1  of  each, 

1:866-1869,  2  of  each    10  nos, 

Det  KongeUge  Norske  XJniversitets  Aarberetunger,  1856 

to  1858   8  vols. 

Travaux  de  la  Commission  pour  fixer  les  mesures  ct  les 

poids  de  I'Emptre  de  Russic 3     „ 

Abhandlungen  der  Math-Physikal  Classe  der  K.  B.  Aka- 
demie dor  Wissenschaften 4     „ 

Bulletin  der  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  der  Miinchen.  47     „ 
Sundries.     (German  Pamphlets.) 

Annaes  do  Observatorio  do  Infante  D.  Luiz 46     „ 

Trabalhos  „  „  5     ,, 

Memoires  de  Academie  Beale  de  Sciences  de  Lisboa    ....      8     ,, 

Annaes  da  Academia  das  Sciencias  Lisboa     12     „ 

Coimbra,  Observacoes  Metcorologicas    21     „ 

Sundries.     (Portuguese  Pamphlets.) 

Russian  Nautical  Magazine    63     „ 

Harmonia  Mcnsuram. 

^l^ldes  HartweUiauffi   1  vol. 

Speculum  HartweUianum 1 

Diverse  Machine  (EameUi)    1 

Memorie  dell'  I.  R.  Istituto  Lombardo .5  vols. 

Memorie  deUa  Societa  Italiana  dellc  Scienzc     5     „ 

Momorie  dell'  Osservatorio  del  CoUegio  Romano 10     ,, 


}} 


Memorie  del  Rcale  Istituto  Lombardo 41 

Atti  dell'  Accademia  Pontificia  de'  Nuovi  Lincei 90 

Atti  del  Reale  Istituto  Lombardo      29 


j> 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTi  E. 


Ixi 


A<  ti  della  Reale  Accaclemia  delle  Scienze  di  Napoli 7  vols. 

JJuUetino   Meteorologico    dell'    Osservatorio    del   CoUegio 

Romano 9     „ 

Giornale  dell'  I.  R.  Istitiito  Lombardo 44     „ 

Rendiconti  del  Reale  Istituto  Lombardo 112     „ 

Sundries.     (Italian  Pamphlets.) 


APPENDIX    III. 


luventory  of  Apparatus  and  Instruments  at  present  in  the  Kew 
Observatoiy,  with  the  names  of  Owners  O]-  Funds  by  which 
they  were  purchased.     May  1871. 

[Abbreviations  adopted  in  col.  2 : — Brit.  Assoc,  for  British  Assciciation  ;  Don.  Fund  for 
Donation  Fund ;  Gov.  Grant  for  Government  Grant  Fund ;  Met.  Com.  for  Meteoro- 
logical Committee ;  Par.  Ex.  Fund  for  Paris  Exhibition  Fund ;  Eoy.  Ast.  Soc.  for 
Boyal  Astronomical  Society ;  Eoyal  Soc.  for  Eoyal  Society.] 

Entrance  Hall.  Property  of,  or 

Purchased  by, 

Bird's  Mercurial  Thermometer     Royal  Soc. 

Captain  Kater's  Hygrometer,  by  Robinson „ 

Dr.  Lind's  Portable  Wind  Gauge     „ 

Huygens's  Aerial  Telescope  (twelve  parts) „ 

Huygens's  Object-glass    „ 

Huygens's  Object-glass,  with  two  Eye-glasses  by] 

Scarlet J  " 

Plamsteed's  Object-glass  (Venetian) „ 

Dollond's  42-inch  Transit,  with  a  cast-iron  stand  . .  „ 

Short's  36-inch  Reflecting  Telescope,  with  an  Object- 1 

glass  Micrometer  by  DoUond  (nine  parts) j"  " 

Kater's  Convertible  Pendulum,  with  the  Agate  Planes  „ 

Captain  Sabine's  Cylindrical  Pendulum,  vibrating  on  ] 

Planes ;  with  the  Knife-edges J"  " 

Apparatus,  with  Leaden  Balls,  by  Paull  of  Geneva] 

(ten  parts)    J"  " 

Nairne  and  Bluut's  12-inch  Dipping  N^eedle  (two  1 

parts)    J  " 

A  12-inch  Yariation  Needle ,, 

Dr.  Godwin  Knight's  Battery  of  Magnets ,, 

Air-Pump,  with  Double  Barrel   ,, 

Nairne's  Air  Condenser  (three  parts) „ 

Ramsden's  Great  Theodolite,  with  other  Instruments ' 

and  Apparatus  employed  by  Major-General  Roy  in 

the  Trigonometrical  Survey  (sixty-six  parts,  in  four 

cases),  incomplete    


Ixii  I        REPORT — 1871. 

Gary's  Large  Levelliijig  Instrument  (twenty-one  parts)      Eoyal  Soc. 
Troughton  and  Simmis's  Large  Levelling  Instrument  "1 

(twenty  parts) J  " 

Adams's  5-incli  Tlieodolite  (two  parts) „ 

Bowles's  Trigonometer  (four  parts)     „ 

Trougbton's  Repeating  Circle,  of  1  foot  diameter  . .  „ 

Eamsden's  10-inch  Protractor,  with.  Yeruier  to  1' .  .  „ 

Bird's  12-inch.  Astronomical  Quadrant  (fifteen  parts)  „ 

Fordyce's  Hydrometer „ 

Cole's  Orrery,  explanatory  of  Eclipses „ 

Two  Miner's  Compasses   „ 

Armed  Loadstone „ 

Le  Cerf's  Brass  Instrument „ 

Curious  Steel  Callipers  for  very  accurate  measure-  "I 

ment,  by  Paull  of  Geneva :  1777    J 

Eowning's  Universal  Constructor  of  Equations  ....  „ 

Chronometer  Stove,  for  ascertaining  the  Influence  of  "1 

Temperature  on  the  Bate  of  Chronometers  (six  V  „ 

parts)    J 

Wedgewood's  Pyrometer ;  or  Thermometer  for  mea-  1 

suring  high  degrees  of  heat  (sixty-six  parts) ....  J  " 

Two  strong  Brass  PuUeys    ,, 

Bird's  4-feet  Eofracting  Telescope „ 

Dicas's  Hydrometer „ 

Hadley's  Metal   for   a  Newtonian  Eeflcctor,   with  l 

several  wooden  Eyepieces,  but  without  Tube  or  >■  „ 

Mounting J 

Troughton  and  Siinms's  6-inch  Circular  Protractor.  .  „ 

Baily's  Pendulum,  No.  2 Eoy.  Ast.  Soc. 

Standard  "Wrought-iron  bar  used  in  Mallet's  Expo-  1  -n  -i.    a 

riments,  1838-1842 |  ^"'^-  ^^'°''- 

Observing  Telescope  used  by  Schlagintweit. 

Experimental  Tubes  employed  in  the  construction  of  ]  p,       p       , 

"Welsh's  Standard  Barometers      J 

Six  39-inch  GlasB  Slabs. 

Sixty  Lamp  Chimneys Brit.  Assoc. 

Eight  14-inch  Magnets. 

Sundry  Lamps,  Plate  Boxes,  Daguerotypes  and  Ap-  I 

paratus  employed  with  Eonalds's  Self-recording  v  Donat.  Fund. 

Barograph  and  Magnetograph J 

Sundry  Chemical  Apparatus  used  with  Addams's  Car-  1  p       p       , 

bonic  acid  Gas  Generators    J 

Three  large  Magnetometers  with  Marble  Slabs,  Pil- 
lars, Eeading  Telescopes,  &c. 
Two  Thermometer  Testing -jars  (damaged).  .......      Brit.  Assoc. 

Two  6-uich  Bull's-eye  Lenses. 

Sir  W.  Thomson's  Portable   Atmospheric  Electro-  \  Prof.  Sir  W. 

meter j  Thomson. 

Sir  "W.  Thomsonis  Eecording  Atmospheric  Electro-  1 

meter    J J  " 

Various  pieces  of  Electrical  Apparatus   SirF.Eonalds. 

Sundry  Lenses, 


)} 


REPORT  OV  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  Ixiii 

Galton's  Dial  Anemometer,  with  Battery,  &c Met.  Com. 

Artificial  Horizon Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Heliostats  and  Reflectors  used  in  Mr.  Galton's  Sex-  ^  r<     „     o 

tant  Testing  Apparatus    : J         °  ' 

Apparatus  for  Trisecting  an  Arc. 

Saussure's  Hygrometer     SirF.Eonalds. 

Seven-inch  Protractor,  by  Jones. 

Marine  Barometer. 

Two  Patent  Compensated  Barometers,  by  Harris. 

One  30-inch  Steel  Bar. 

Two  EJriel's  SeLf-reeording  Barometers,  with  Spare  1  -n  ,-i.    a 

Tubes    J     ^^  ■     ^^  ^' 

Tube  of  Ronalds's  Photo-barograph     Gov.  Grant. 

Glass  Receiver  (damaged). 

Model  of  Sheerness  Tide-gauge   Royal  Soc. 

Mallet's  Model  of  the  Descent  of  Glaciers. 
Several  Models,  not  named. 

Appold's  Automatic  Hygrometer Royal  Soc. 

Appold's  Automatic  Temperature  Regidator   „ 

Lindley's  Patent  Central  Thermometer. 
Lindley's  Model  of  Fire  Escape. 

Perspective  Instrument    SirF.Eonalds. 

Barrow's  Dip  Circle,  No Sir  E.  Sabine, 

Robinson's  6-inch  Circle 

Two  Unifilars  and  a  Declinometer,  by  Gibson 

Seven  Tripods „ 

Balance  of  Torsion. 
A  "Watchman's  Clock. 

Oertling's  Balance    Gov.  Grant. 

Two  Aspirators     

Wooden  Wind-pressure  Gauge 

Altazimuth,  by  Cary     Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Ronalds's  Atmospheric  Electrical  Apparatiis Gov.  Grant. 

Model  of  Mr.  De  La  Rue's  Tower  for  supx)orting 

Huyghen's  Aerial  Telescope-lenses     Par.Ex.Fuud. 

Model  of  a  design  for  Photohehograph  Mounting   .  .      Brit.  Assoc. 
Leyden  Jars Mr.  Gassiot. 

Testing  Room. 

Six  frames  exhibiting  Kew  and  Lisbon  Magnetic  1  t.  -i.    * 
^                               °  ?  Brit.  Assoc. 

Curves  j 

Two  Welsh's  Standard  Barometers Gov.  Grant. 

Cathetometer    „ 

Receiver  for  testing  Barometers,  with  Air-Pump,  (fee.  ,, 

Apparatus  for  testing  Thermometers „ 

Newman's  Standard  Barometer,  No.  34 „ 

Brass  Mural  Quadrant Observatory. 

Spare  Tubes  for  Standard  Barometer  construction  .  .      Gov.  Grant. 

Thomson's  Galvanometer  and  Apparatus  employed  by  1 

Dr.  Stewart  in  Rotating  Disk  experiments J 

Siemens's  Air-Pump     

Sprengel's  Air-Pump    


>j 


j> 


» 


>y 


Ixiv  REPORT 18/1. 

Parts  of  Eonalds's  ilagnetographs Gov.  Grant. 

Air-Thermometer  (incomplete)     

MSS.,  Books,  Papers,  Documents,  and  Correspondence 
referring  to  Meteorological  work. 

Trcoisit  Room. 

Thermometer-waxing  Apparatus     Brit.  Assoc. 

Photographic  Paper  "Waxing  Apparatus „ 

Thomson's  Atmospheric  Eecording  Electrometer    .  .      Met.  Com. 

Thermograph    ,, 

Chronometer,  Arnold    Gov.  Grant. 

Invariable  Pendulum Eoyal  Soc. 

Pendulum,  No.  8 „ 

Dip  Circle,  by  Jordan Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Declinometer,  by  Eobinson  and  Barrow „ 

Eive  Daniell's  Hygrometers 

Four  Declinometers  (various  makers) 

Artificial  Horizon     

Eour  Thermometers 

Three  Herschel's  Actinometers    

10-inch  Azimuth  Compass 

Vertical  Force  Magnetometer „ 

Standard  Yard „ 

Three  Dip  Circles  and  one  Fox's  Circle „ 

Several   old  Observing  Telescopes   and   incomplete  ] 

Magnetic  Apparatus J  " 

Photograi)hic  Paper,  waxed  and  unwaxed Brit.  Assoc. 

Sundry  Bottles,  Chemicals,  and  Apparatus  employed 

in  the  ordinary  work  of  the  Observatory    „ 

Computing  Room. 

Dividing  Engine  by  Perreaux,  and  Apparatus  em-  1 

ployed  in  the  construction  of  Standard  Thermo-  I  Gov.  Grant, 
meters J 

Standard  Thermometers,  divided  and  undivided ....      Brit.  Assoc. 

Evaporation  Gauge  (exhibited  at  Paris) Par.Ex.Fund, 

Portable  Barometer,  by  Newman     Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Gay-Lussac  Barometer,  by  Bunter. 

Troughton  and  Simms's  Mercurial  Standard  Ther-  "I  -^       ,  ^ 
mometer    J       ^ 

Newman's  Spirit  Thermometer  for  very  low  Tempe- 
ratures   

Jones's  Hygrometer 

Set  of  Bar  Magnets  (six) „ 

Pair  of  Levelling  Staves,  by  Jones „ 

Sundry  old  Thermometers. 

Thermometer,  by  Greiner     Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Dry  and  Wet  Thermometer,  from  Hobarton. 

Thermometer,  No.  2,  from  Greenwich  Observatory. 

Actinometer  Tube     P^,^'  ^-  ^""^S- 

kinson. 


{ 


>) 


}> 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  IxV 

Actinometer  Tube    Royal  Soc. 

Two  Actinometers    j      ,  ."    '        °' 

Three  Actinometers Eoyal  Soc. 

Ten  Hydrometers. 

Spirit-level  used  in  Pendulum  experiments    Gov.  Grant. 

Small  Boiling-point  Apparatus    Par.Ex.Eund. 

Two  Mountain  Thermometers. 

One  Regnault's  Hygrometer    Gov.  Grant. 

One  Daniell's  Hygrometer. 

Several  Declinometers,  by  various  makers Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Several  TJnifilars,  by  various  makers 

Several  Dip  Circles,  by  various  makers   

Two  Altazimuth  Instruments Admii'alty. 

Eepeating  Circle,  by  Dollond Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Vertical  Force  Magnetometer 

Sundry  Magnets,  Dip  Needles,  Magnet  Fittings,  In-  "1 

ertia  Bars,  Eiugs,  &c.,  belonging  to  various  instru-  >  „ 

ments    J 

Magnets  and  Needles  in  use  at  the  Observatory.  ...  ,, 

Standard  Yard Gov.  Grant. 

Standard  Weights „ 

Jars  and  Standard  Solutions  used  in  Hydrometer- 
testing'  Brit.  Assoc. 

Chemicals  and  Chemical  Apparatus  used  in  the  Ob-  1 

servatory J  " 

Apparatus  employed  by  Prof.  Clerk  Maxwell. 

Telescope  support,  by  Goloz Koyal  Soc. 

Several  Tripods     

Surveying  Rods    

6-inch  Globe     ,, 

Model  of  Hydraulic  Anemometer    Mr.  Galton. 

Several  Rules  and  Scales  in  use Brit.  Assoc. 

Box  of  Ozonometer  Papers. 

Magnetograph  Curves Brit.  Assoc. 

Magnetic  Observation-books    „ 

MS.  Papers  of  Magnetic  Reductions    „ 

MS.  Papers  on  various  subjects   „ 

Surplus  copies  of  Publications  issued  by  Observatory  |  '^^■-f  °  ^  ^^^ 
"Wood  Engravings  of  Magnetograph  Drawings     ....     Brit.  Assoc. 

SoutJi  Hall. 

Cooke's  Sextant  Testing  Apparatus Gov.  Grant. 

Shelton's  Astronomical  Regulator,  with  Gridiron  Pen- 1  -r,       ,  „ 

dulum j  ^oy^l  S°<'- 

Gas  Governors  and  Regulators Don.  Fund. 


Magnetograph  Room. 

Magnetographs     Gov.  Grant. 

Earthenware  Stove Brit.  Assoc. 


Ixvi  REPORT — 1871. 

Deflecting  Apparatus   Brit.  Assoc. 

Barograph     Met.  Com. 

Eigid  Spectroscope   Mr.  Gassiot. 

Pendulum  Room. 

Vacuum  Chamber  and  Vibrating  Apparatus   Admiralty. 

Observing  Telescope     „ 

Shelton's  Astronomical  Eegulator    Eoyal  Soc. 

Transit  House. 

Portable  Transit  Instrument    Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Apparatus  for  determining  Scale  value  of  Levels    . .      Mr.  Adie. 

Lower  PliotograpMc  Room. 

Baths,  Dishes,  Bottles,  and  Chemical  Apparatus ....      Gov.  Grant. 

Chemicals  and  Paper    Brit.  Assoc. 

Printing  Frames  „ 

Meteorological  Room. 

Globe     Brit.  Assoc. 

Barograph,  Thermograph,  and  Anemograph  Curves .  .      Met.  Com. 

Ditto  (duplicates) Brit.  Assoc. 

Tabulations  of  ditto  (duplicates). 

Scales,  Eules,  &c.,  employed  in  tabulating  Curves  .  .      Met.  Com. 

Post  Cases,  MSS.  and  Documents  in  connexion  with  1 

the  Meteorological  Committee's  work J  " 

Working  Drawings  of  Instruments. 

Observatory  Correspondence. 

Furniture  and  Fittings     Met.  Com. 

Sun  Room, 

Sun  Pictures  (Negatives) Gov.  Grant. 

Sun  Pictures  (Prints) „ 

Thirty-seven  Vols.  Schwabe's  Observations  (MSS.) . .      Eoy.  Ast.  Soc. 

Sundry  Papers  connected  with  Solar  Eesearch. 

Sundry  Volumes  of  Kew  Electrical  and  Meteoro- 
logical Observations  (MSS.). 

Surplus  Lithographed  and  Engraved  copies  of  Kew  1  p       p       . 
Magnetic  Curves  /  ^°^-  ^^^^' 

Photo-galvanographed   Plates  of  Curves,   by   Paul  1 

Pretsch J  » 

Spare  Magnets  for  Magnetographs Mr.  Adie. 

One  Magnetic  Tabulator Brit.  Assoc. 

Two  Magnetic  Tabulators    j ^^'^Q^ggYo^t' 

Lofts. 
Old  Observing  Clock. 

Parts  of  old  Electrical  and  Meteorological  Apparatus     Brit.  Assoc. 
Parts  of  old  Eoyal  Society  Apparatus Eoyal  Soc. 

Solar  Photographic  Room. 

Anemograph  with  Blank  sheets Met.  Com. 

Baths,  Dishes,  Printing-frames,  Bottles,  Paper,  Che- 


REPORT  OF  THE  KEW  COMMITTEE.  Ixvii 

micals,  Glass,  &c.,  used  in  connexion  with  the  Pho- 
toheliograph Gov.  Grant. 

Dome. 

Photoheliograph    Don,  Fund. 

Eobinson's  Registering  Anemometer  (dismounted)        Brit.  Assoc. 

Roof. 

Old  Pressure  Anemometer  (incomplete) Brit.  Assoc. 

Old  Rain-gauge  (incomplete) „ 

Magnetic  Ohsei'vaiory. 

Declinometer!  ci-    -n  ci  i.- 

DipCircles     /     SirE.&abiue. 

Sundry  Apparatus  employed  in  Magnetic  Determina- 1 

tions J  " 

Stone  Pillars „ 

Worlcshop  (Sfo.  1). 

Whitworth  Lathe  1  -r.^^   t?„„j 

T)i     •      T,r    !-•       >      Don.  fund. 

Planing  Machine  J 

Holtzapffel  Lathe Sii'F.Ronalds. 

Forge Don.  Fund. 

Forge    Brit.  Assoc. 

Surfaces  and  Straight  Edges    Gov.  Grant. 

Grindstone     Brit.  Assoc. 

Yices     , „ 

Castings  and  Tools    „ 

Worlcshoj)  (No.  2). 

Electro-magnet  and  Battery    Sir  E.  Sabine. 

Carbonic-acid  Gas  Generators Gov.  Grant. 

Ronalds's  Barograph  (incomplete)   „ 

Gas-holder    Mr.  Atkinson. 

Glass-blowing  Table    . 

StiU 

Sundry  Packing-cases. 


Glass-blowing  Table    Gov.  Grant. 

StiU 


» 


Enclosure. 

Self-recording  Rain-gauge Met.  Com. 

Rain-gauge  (ordinary) .  . , Brit.  Assoc. 

Two  Dial  Anemometers    Met.  Com. 

Mowing  Machine  and  sundry  other  Garden  Tools  . .  Brit.  Assoc. 

Verification  House. 
Stone  Pillars  for  erecting  Self-recording  Magneto-  "1  -p.       p  ^  1 

graphs  J 

Self-recording  Barograph,  Thermograph,  and  Ane-  \-\t  ^  p  ^ 

mograph  (undergoiug  examination) J 

In  the  Custody  of  B.  Loewy,  Esq.,  11  Leverton  Street,  N.W. 
Mr.  De  La  Rue's  Micrometer  for  measuring  Astronomical  Photo- 
graphs  (in  use  for  measuring  the  photographs  obtained  with 
the  heliograph). 


Ixviii 


EEPORT — 1871. 


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RCOMMENDATIONS  OF  THE  GENERAL  COMMITTEE.  Ixix 

EBCOlIMEJfLATIONS  ADOrXED  BX  THE  GeNBRAL  CoJIMIIIEE  AT  THE  EDINBTJReH 

Meeting  in  Axtgust  1871. 

[When  Committees  are  appointed,  the  Member  first  named  is  regarded  as  the  Secretary, 
except  there  is  a  specific  nomination.] 

That  in  future  the  division  of  the  Section  of  Biology  into  the  three  Depart- 
ments of  Anatomy  and  Physiology,  Anthropology,  and  Zoology  and  Botany 
shall  be  recognized  in  the  programme  of  the  Association  Meetings,  and  that 
the  President,  two  Vice-Presidents,  and  at  least  three  )Secretaries  shall  be 
nominated,  and  that  the  Yice-Presidents  and  Secretaries  who  shall  take 
charge  of  the  organization  of  the  several  Departments  shall  be  designated 
respectively  before  the  publication  of  such  programme. 

Dr.  R.  King's  motion,  "  that  a  Subsection  for  Ethnology  be  formed,"  -s^as 
rejected. 

That  the  Apparatus,  Instruments,  «S;c.  mentioned  in  Appendix  III.  of  the 
Eeport  of  the  Kew  Committee  for  the  past  year  be  transferred  to  the  charge 
of  the  Royal  Society. 

That  the  Electrical  Apparatus  belonging  to  the  British  Association,  now  in 
possession  of  the  Committee  of  Electrical  Standards,  be  placed  in  the  Physical 
Laboratory  of  Cambridge,  in  charge  of  the  Professor  of  Experimental  Physics, 
the  apparatus  remaining  the  property  of  the  Association  and  at  the  disposal 
of  the  Committee. 

[For  Regulations  relating  to  Organizing  Sectional  Proceedings,  vide  p.  xix.] 

Recommendations  Involving  Grants  of  Money. 

That  the  sum  of  .£300  be  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Council  for  main- 
taining the  establishment  of  the  Kew  Observatory. 

That  Professor  Cayley,  Professor  H.  J.  S.  Smith,  Professor  Stokes,  Sir  "W. 
Thomson,  and  Mr.  J.  W.  L.  Glaisher  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  re- 
porting on  Mathematical  Tables,  which  it  may  be  desirable  to  compute  or 
reprint ;  that  Mr.  J.  W.  L.  Glaisher  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of 
e£50  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Mr.  Edward  Crossley,  Rev.  T.  W.  Webb,  and  Rev.  R.  Harley  be  a 
Committee  for  discussing  Observations  of  Lunar  Objects  suspected  of  change ; 
that  i^lr.  Crossley  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  .£20  be  placed  at 
their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  Tait,  Professor  Tyndall,  and  Dr.  Balfour  Stewart  be  a 
Committee  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the  Thermal  Conductivity  of 
Metals ;  that  Professor  Tait  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £25  be 
placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  the  Committee  on  Tides,  consisting  of  Sir  "W.  Thomson,  Professor  J.  C. 
Adams,  Professor  J.  W.  M.  Rankine,  Mr.  J.  Oldham,  Rear-Admiral  Richards, 
and  Mr.W.  Parkes,  be  reappointed;  that  Colonel  Walker,  F.R.S.,  Superintendent 
of  the  Trigonometrical  Survey  of  India,  be  added  to  the  Committee ;  and  that 
the  sum  of  £200  be  placed  at  their  disposal  to  defray  the  expenses  of  calcula- 
tion during  the  ensuing  year. 

That  the  Committee  for  reporting  on  the  Rainfall  of  the  British  Isles  be 
reappointed,  and  that  this  Committee  consist  of  Mr.  Charles  Brooke,  Mr. 
Glaisher,  Professor  Phillips,  Mr.  G.  J.  Spnons,  Mr.  J.  F.  Bateman,  Mr.  R. 
W.  Mylne,  Mr.  T.  Hawksley,  Professor  J.   C-  Adams,  Mr.  C.  Tomlinson, 

1871.  / 


IXX  REPORT — 1871. 

Professor  Sylvester,  Dr.  Pole,  Mr.  Rogers  Field,  Professor  Ansted,  and  Mr. 
Buchan  ;  that  Mr.  G.  J.  Symons  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £100 
be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  a  Committee  on  Underground  Temperature,  consisting  of  Sir  William 
Thomson,  Professor  Everett,  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  Professor  J.  Clerk 
Maxwell,  Professor  Phillips,  Mr.  G.  J.  Symons,  Professor  Eamsay,  Professor 
Geikie,  Mr.  Glaisher,  Eev.  Dr.  Graham,  Mr.  George  Maw,  Mr.  Pengelly, 
Mr.  S.  J.  Mackie,  Professor  Edward  Hull,  and  Professor  Ansted,  be  apporuted ; 
that  Professor  J.  D.  Everett  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £100  be 
placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  the  Committee  on  Luminous  Meteors,  consisting  of  Mr.  Glaisher, 
Mr.  R.  P.  Greg,  Mr.  Alexander  Herschel,  and  Mr.  C.  Brooke,  be  reappointed, 
and  that  the  sum  of  =£20  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Dr.  Huggins,  Mr.  J.  N.  Lockyer,  Dr.  Reynolds,  Professor  Swan,  and 
Mr.  Stoney  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  and  printing  tables 
of  Inverse  "Wave  Lengths,  Mr.  Stoney  to  be  reporter ;  and  that  the  sum  of 
£20  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  A.  W.  Wniiamson,  Professor  Roscoe,  and  Professor  Frank- 
land  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  superintending  the  Monthly  Reports 
of  the  progress  of  Chemistry ;  and  that  the  sum  of  £100  be  placed  at  their 
disposal  for  the  purpose. 

Professor  A.  W.  Williamson,  Sir  W.  Thomson,  Professor  Clerk  Maxwell, 
Professor  G.  C.  Foster,  Mr.  Abel,  Professor  Fleeming  Jenkin,  Mr.  Siemens, 
and  Mr.  R.  Sabine,  with  power  to  add  to  their  number,  be  a  Committee  for 
the  purpose  of  testing  the  N^ew  Pyrometer  of  Mr.  Siemens,  by  whom  the 
chief  instrument  will  be  supplied ;  and  that  the  sum  of  £30  be  placed  at 
their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Dr.  Gladstone,  Dr.  C.  R.  A.  Wright,  and  Mr.  Chandler  Roberts  be  a 
Committee  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the  chemical  constitution  and 
optical  properties  of  essential  oils,  such  as  are  used  for  perfumes  ;  that  Mr. 
Chandler  Roberts  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £40  be  placed  at 
their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  Crum  Brown,  Professor  Tait, 
and  Mr.  Dewar,  be  reappointed  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  experiments  on 
the  Thermal  Equivalents  of  the  Oxides  of  Chlorine ;  and  that  the  sum  of  £15 
be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Dr.  Duncan,  Mr.  Heniy  Woodward,  and  Mr.  Robert  Etheridge  be  a 
Committee  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  researches  in  Fossil  Crustacea ;  that 
Mr.  Woodward  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £25  be  placed  at  their 
disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Sir  C.  LyeU,  Bart.,  Professor  Phillips,  Sir  J.  Lubbock,  Bart.,  Mr.  J. 
Evans,  Mr.  E.  Yivian,  Mr.  W.  Pengelly,  Mr.  G.  Busk,  Mr.  W.  B.  Dawkins, 
and  Mr.  W.  A.  Sandford  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  the 
Exploration  of  Kent's  Cavern,  Torquay ;  that  Mr.  Pengelly  be  the  Secretary, 
and  that  the  sum  of  £100  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  Harkness  and  Mr.  James  Thomson  be  a  Committee  for  the 
purpose  of  continuing  the  investigation  of  Carboniferous  Corals  with  the  view 
of  reproducing  them  for  pubhcation  ;  that  Mr.  Thomson  be  the  Secretary,  and 
that  the  sum  of  £25  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Mr.  G.  Busk  and  Mr.  Boyd  Dawkins  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose 
of  assisting  Dr.  Leith  Adams  in  the  preparation  of  Plates  illustrating  an 
accouut  of  the  Fossil  Elephants  of  Malta ;  that  Mr.  Busk  be  the  Secretary, 
and  that  the  sum  of  £25  be  placed  at  their  disposal  fcr  the  purpose. 


RECOMMENDATIONS  OF  THE  GENERAL  COMMITTEE.  Ixxi 

That  Professor  Harkness,  Mr.  William  Jolly,  aud  Dr.  J.  Bryce  bo  a 
Committee  for  the  purpose  of  coUectiug  Fossils  from  localities  of  difficult 
access  iu  North -western  Scotland,  that  the  specimens  be  deposited  in  the 
Edinburgh  Industrial  Museum,  aud  that  duplicates  be  deposited  in  such 
Museum  as  the  Association  may  designate ;  that  Mr.  William  JoUy  be  the 
Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £10  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the 
purpose. 

That  Professor  Eamsay,  Professor  Geikie,  Professor  J.  Young,  Professor 
Nicol,  Dr.  Bryce,  Dr.  Arthur  Mitchell,  Professor  Hull,  Sir  E.  Griffith,  Bart., 
Dr.  King,  Professor  Harkness,  Mr.  Prestwich,  Mr.  Hughes,  and  Mr.  PengcRy 
be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  existence  in  different 
parts  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  any  Erratic  Blocks  or  Boulders,  indicating  on 
Maps  their  position  and  height  above  the  sea,  as  also  of  ascertaining  the 
nature  of  the  rocks  composing  these  blocks,  their  size,  shape,  and  other  par- 
ticulars of  interest,  and  of  endeavouring  to  prevent  the  destruction  of  such 
blocks  as  in  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  are  worthy  of  being  preserved ; 
that  Mr.  MiLne  Holme  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £10  be  placed 
at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Mr.  Stainton,  Professor  Kewton,  and  Sir  John  Lubbock  be  a  Com- 
mittee for  the  purpose  of  continuing  a  Eecord  of  Zoological  Literature ;  that 
Mr.  Stainton  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £100  be  placed  at  theii 
disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  Balfour,  Dr.  Cleghorn, Mr.  Eobert  Hutchinson,  Mr.  Alexander 
Buchau,  and  Mr.  John  Sadler  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  taking  Ob- 
servations on  the  effect  of  the  Denudation  of  Timber  on  the  EainfaU  in  North 
Britain  ;  that  Dr.  Cleghorn  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £20  be  placed 
at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Dr.  Sharpey,  Dr.  Eichardson,  and  Professor  Humphry  be  a  Com- 
mittee for  the  purpose  of  continuing  investigations  on  the  Physiological 
Action  of  Organic  Chemical  Compounds ;  that  Dr.  Eichardson  be  the  Secretary, 
and  that  the  sum  of  £25  be  jjlaced  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  Michael  Foster,  Mr.  W.  H.  Flower,  and  Mr.  Benjamin 
Lowne  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  making  Terato-embryological 
inquiries ;  that  Mr.  Lowne  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £20  be 
placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Professor  M.  Foster,  Dr.  Arthur  Gamgee,  and  Mr.  E.  Eay  Lankester 
be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the  amount  of  Heat  gene- 
rated in  the  Blood  in  the  Process  of  Arterialization ;  that  Dr.  Gamgee  be  the 
Secretarj',  and  that  the  sum  of  £15  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the 
purpose. 

That  Professor  Christison,  Dr.  Laycock,  and  Dr.  Frascr  be  a  Committee  for 
the  purpose  of  investigating  the  Antagonism  of  Poisonous  Substances ;  that 
Dr.  Fraser  be  the  Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  £20  be  placed  at  their  disposal 
for  the  purpose. 

That  Sir  E.  I.  Murchison,  Bart.,  the  Eev.  Dr.  Giusburg,  Mr.  Hepworth 
Dixon,  Eev.  Dr.  Tristram,  General  Chesney,  Eev.  Professor  Eawlinson,  and 
Mr.  John  A.  Tinne  be  a  Committee  for  the  pui-pose  of  undertaking  a  Geogra- 
phical Exploration  of  the  country  of  Moab ;  and  that  the  sum  of  £100  be. 
placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose,  in  addition  to  the  sum  of  £1 00 
granted  last  year,  but  not  expended  because  it  was  found  to  be  insufficient 
for  the  purpose.  .  ^       . 

That  the  Metric  Committee  be  reappointed,  such  Committee  to  consist  of 
Sir  John  Bowring.  The  Eight  Hon.  Sir  Stafford  H.  Northeote,  Bart.,  C.B., 

/2 


Ixxii  REPORT IS71. 

M.P.,  The  Right  Hon.  Sir  C.  B.  Adderley,  M.P.,  Mr.  Samual  Brown,  Dr.  Farr, 
Mr.  Frank  P.  Fellowes,  Professor  Fraukland,  Mr.  James  Heywood,  Profes- 
sor Leone  Levi,  Mr.  C.  W.  Siemens,  Professor  A.  W.  "Williamson,  Dr.  George 
Glover,  Sir  Joseph  Whitworth,  Bart.,  Mr.  J.  B.  Napier,  Mr.  J.  Y.  N. 
Bazalgette,  and  Sir  W.  Fairbairn,  Bart. ;  that  Professor  Leone  Levi  be  the 
Secretary,  and  that  the  sum  of  =£75  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  pur- 
pose of  being  applied  solely  to  scientific  purposes,  printing,  and  corre- 
spondence. 

That  Professor  "W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankine,  Mr.  Froude,  Mr.  C.  "W.  Merrifield, 
Mr.  CM.  Siemens,  Mr.  BramAvell,  Mr.  L.  E.  Fletcher,  and  Mr.  James  R.  ]S"apier 
be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  making  experiments  on  instruments  for 
Measuring  the  Speed  of  Ships  and  Currents  by  means  of  the  difference  of 
height  of  two  columns  of  liquids ;  that  Mr.  Fletcher  be  the  Secretary,  and 
that  the  sum  of  .£30  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

That  Mr.  R.  B.  Grantham,  Professor  Corfield,  M.B.,  Mr.  J.  Bailey  Denton, 
Dr.  J.  H.  GUbcrt,  Mr.  J.  Thornhill  Harrison,  Mr.  William  Hope,  Lieut.- 
Col.  Leach,  Dr.  A.  Yoelcker,  and  Professor  A.  W,  "Williamson  be  a 
Committee  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  the  investigations  on  the  "  Treat-  , 
ment  and  Utilization  of  Sewage  ; "  that  the  balance  of  the  funds  raised  by 
the  Committee  appointed  at  Exeter,  and  now  in  the  hands  of  the  General 
Treasurer,  be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  the  purpose. 

Applications  for  Reports  and  Researches  not  involving  Grants  of  Money. 

That  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  Joule,  Sir  "W.  Thomson,  Professor  Tait, 
Professor  Balfour  Stewart,  and  Professor  J.  C.  Maxwell,  be  reappointed  to 
effect  the  determination  of  the  Mechanical  Equivalent  of  Heat. 

That  Sir  "W.  Thomson,  Professor  Everett,  Professor  G.  C.  Foster,  Professor 
J.  C.  Maxwell,  Mr.  G.  J.  Stoney,  Professor  Fleeming  Jenkin,  Professor 
Rankine,  Mr,  Siemens,  and  Mr.  Bramwell  be  a  Committee  for  the  purpose  of 
framing  a  nomenclature  of  Units  of  Force  and  Energ}'. 

That  Professor  Sylvester,  Professor  Cayle}-,  Professor  Hirst,  Rev.  Professor 
Bartholomew  Price,  Professor  H.  J.  S.  Smith,  Dr.  Spottiswoode,  Mr.  R.  B. 
Hayward,  Dr.  Salmon,  Rev.  R.  Townsend,  Professor  Fuller,  Professor  Kel- 
land,  Mr.  J.  M.  AVilson,  and  Professor  Clitibrd  be  reappointed  a  Committee 
(with  power  to  add  to  their  number)  for  the  purpose  of  considering  the  pos- 
sibility of  improving  the  methods  of  instruction  in  elementary  geometry ;  and 
that  Professor  Clifford  be  the  Secretary. 

That  Mr.  "W.  H.  L.  Russell  be  requested  to  continue  his  Report  on  recent 
progress  in  the  theory  of  Elliptic  and  Hyperelliptic  Functions. 

That  Mr.  Carruthers,  Dr.  Hooker,  Professor  Balfour,  and  Mr.  Dyer  be  a 
Committee  for  the  pui-pose  of  investigating  the  Fossil  Flora  of  Britain. 

That  Rev.  Canon  Tristram,  Professor  X ewton,  Mr.  H.  E.  Dresser,  Mr.  J.  E. 
Harting,  and  Rev.  H.  F.  Barnes  be  reappointed  a  Committee  for  the  purpose 
of  continuing  the  investigation  on  the  desirability  of  establishing  "  a  close 
time"  for  the  preservation  of  indigenous  animals;  and  that  the  Rev.  Canon 
Tristram  be  the  Secretary. 

That  Dr.  RoUeston,  Dr.  Sclater,  Dr.  Dohni,  Professor  Huxley,  Professor 
Wyville  Thomson,  and  Mr.  E.  Ray  Lankcster  be  a  Committee  for  the  jrarpose 
of  promoting  the  foundation  of  Zoological  Stations;  and  that  Dr.  Anton 
Dohrn  be  the  Secretary. 

That  the  Committee  appointed  last  year  "  to  consider  and  report  on  the 
various  plans  proposed  for  legislating  on  the  subject  of  Steam-boiler  Explosions 


RECOMJIENDATIONS  OF  THE  GEXEKAL  COMMITTiSE.  Ixxiii 

witli  a  view  to  tLeir  prevention"  bo  requested  to  eontinne  their  labours; 
such  Committee  to  consist  of  Sir  "W.  Fairbairn,  Bart.,  Mr.  John  Penn,  Mr. 
P.  J.  Bramwell,  Mr.  Hugh  Mason,  Mr.  Samuel  Eigby,  Mr.  Thomas  Schofield, 
Mr.  C.  F.  Beyer,  Mr.  T.  Webster,  Q.C.,  Mr.  Lavington  E.  Fletcher,  and  Mr. 
Ed^yard  Easton,  with  power  to  add  to  their  number. 

That  Mr.  Bateman,  Mr.  Le  Neve  Foster,  Mr.  Merrifield,  Mr.  Edward 
Easton,  Mr.  F.  J.  Bramwell,  Mr.  W.  Hope,  and  Mr.  H.  Bauerman  be  a 
Committee  to  consider  the  mode  in  which  new  inventions,  and  claims  for 
reward  in  respect  of  adopted  inventions,  are  examined  and  dealt  with  by  the 
different  Departments  of  Government,  and  to  report  on  the  best  means  of 
removing  any  real  causes  of  dissatisfaction,  as  well  as  of  sUenciug  unfounded 
complaints. 

That  a  Committee  be  appoiiited — • 

1°,  to  consider  and  report  on  the  best  means  of  advancing  science  by 

Lectures,  with  authority  to  act,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 

Council,  in  the  course  of  the  present  year,  if  judged  desirable. 

2°,  to  consider  and  report  whether  any  steps  can  be  taken  to  render 

scientific  organization  more  complete  and  effectual. 

That  the  Committee  consist  of  the  following  Members,  with  power  to  add 

to   their   number : — Professor  Eoscoe,  Professor  W.   G.  Adams,   Professor 

Andrews,  Professor  Balfour,  Mr.  Bramwell,  Professor  A.  Crum  Brown,  Mr. 

Dyer,  Sir  Walter  Elliot,  Professor  Flower,  Professor  G.  C.  Foster,  Professor 

Geikie,  Rev.  E.  Harley,  Professor  Huxley,  Professor  Fleeming  Jenkin,  Dr. 

Joule,  Colonel  Lane  Fox,  Dr.  Lankester,  Mr.  J.  N.  Lockyer,  Dr.  O'Callaghan, 

Professor  Eamsay,  Professor  Balfour  Stewart,  Mr.  Stainton,  Professor  Tait, 

Mr.  J.   A.   Tinne,   Dr.  Allen  Thomson,    Sir  William  Thomson,   Professor 

Wyville  Thomson,  Professor  Turner,  Professor  A.  W.  WUliamson,  Dr.  Young ; 

and  that  Professor  Eoscoe  be  the  Secretary. 

Resolutions  involving  Apjylications  to  Government. 

That  the  President  and  Council  of  the  British  Association  be  authorized  to 
cooperate  with  the  President  and  Council  of  the  Eoyal  Society,  in  whatever 
way  may  seem  to  them  best,  for  the  promotion  of  a  Circumnavigation  Expe- 
dition, specially  fitted  out  to  carry  the  Physical  and  Biological  Exploration  of 
the  Deep  Sea  into  all  the  Great  Oceanic  areas. 

That  the  President  and  General  Officers,  with  power  to  add  to  their 
number,  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as  may  seem  to  them  desirable  in 
order  to  promote  observations  on  the  forthcoming  Total  Solar  Eclipse. 

Communications  ordered  to  be  printed  in  extenso  in  the  Annual  Rejjort 

of  the  Association. 

That  the  letter  of  Lavoisier  to  Black,  referred  to  in  the  Address  of  the 
President  of  the  Chemical  Section,  be  printed  in  the  Annual  Eeport ;  and 
that  the  letter  dated  19th  November,  1790,  be  published  in  facsimile. 

That  Mr.  Bramwell's  paper  "  On  Experiments  made  with  Carr's  Disinte- 
grating Flour-miU  "  be  printed  in  extenso  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Associa- 
tion. 

Resolutions  referred  to  the  Council  for  consideration  and  action 

if  it  seem  desirable. 

That  it  is  desirable  that  the  British  Association  apply  to  the  Treasury  for 
funds  to  enable  the  Tidal  Committee  to  continue  their  calculations. 


Ixxiv  REPORT 1871. 

That  it  is  desirable  that  the  British  Association  should  urge  upon  the 
Government  of  India  the  importance  for  navigation  and  other  practical  pur- 
poses, and  for  science,  of  making  accurate  and  continued  observations  on  the 
Tides  at  several  points  on  the  coast  of  India. 

That  the  Council  of  the  Association  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as  to 
them  may  seem  most  expedient  in  support  of  a  proposal,  made  by  Dr.  Buys 
Ballot,  to  establish  a  telegraphic  meteorological  station  at  the  Azores. 

That  the  Council  be  requested  to  take  into  consideration  the  desirability  of 
the  publication  of  a  periodic  record  of  advances  made  in  the  various  branches 
of  science  represented  by  the  British  Association. 

That  the  CouncU  of  this  Association  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as  may 
appear  to  them  desirable  "nith  reference  to  the  arrangement  now  in  contem- 
plation to  establish  "  leaving  Examinations,"  and  to  report  to  the  Association 
on  the  present  position  of  science-teaching  in  the  public  and  first-grade 
schools. 

That  the  Council  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as  they  deem  wisest  in 
order  to  promote  the  introduction  of  scientific  instruction  into  the  elementary 
schools  throughout  the  countrj'-. 


Synopsis  of  Ch-ants  of  Money  appropriated  to  Scientific  Purposes  by 
the  General  Committee  at  the  Edinbm-yh  Meeting  in  August  1871. 
The  names  of  the  Members  who  would  be  entitled  to  call  on  the 
General  Treasurer  for  the  respective  Grants  are  prefixed. 

Kew  Observatory. 
The  Council. — Maintaining  the  Establishment  of  Kew  Obser- 

servatory     300  0  0 

Mathematics  and  Physics. 

■  Cayley,  Professor. — Mathematical  Tables   50  0  0 

*Crossley,  Mr. — Discussion  of  Observations  of  Lunar  Objects .  .        20  0  0 

*Tait,  Professor. — Thermal  Conductivity  of  Metals 25  0  0 

*Thomsou,  Professor  Sir  W. — Tidal  Observations   200  0  0 

*Brooke,  Mr. — British  Eainfall 100  0  0 

*Thomson,  Sir  W. — Underground  Temperature   100  0  0 

*Glaisher,  Mr.— Luminous  Meteors 20  0  0 

Huggins,  Di". — Tables  of  Inverse  "Wave-lengths     20  0  0 

Chemistry. 

^Williamson,  Prof.  A.  W. — Eeports  of  the  Progress  of  Chemistry    100  0  0 

.  Williamson,  Prof.  A.  W. — Testing  Siemens's  new  Pyrometer  .       30  0  0 
.  Gladstone,  Dr. — Chemical  Constitution  and  Optical  Properties 

of  Essential  Oils 40  0  0 

*BrowD,  Dr.   Crum. — Thermal  Equivalent  of  the  Oxides   of 

Chlorine 15  0  0 

Carried  forward ^1020  0  0 

*  Eeappointed. 


SYNOPSIS  OF  GRANTS  OF  MONEY.  IxXV 

Geology.                              '  £     s.  d. 

Brought  forward ■ 1020     0  0 

*Duneaii,  Dr. — Fossil  Crustacea 25     0  0 

*Lyell,  Sir  C,  Bart. — Kent's  Cavern  Exploration    100     0  0 

*Harkuess,  Professor. — Investigation  of  Fossil  Corals 25     0  0 

*Busk,  Mr. — Fossil  Elephants  of  Malta  (renewed) 25     0  0 

Harkness,  Professor. — Collection  of  Fossils  in  the  North-west 

of  Scotland 10     0  0 

Ramsay,  Professor. — Mapping  Positions  of  Erratic  Blocks  and 

Boulders 10     0  0 

Biology. 

*Stainton,  Mr. — Eecord  of  the  Progress  of  Zoology 100     0  0 

*Balfour,  Professor. — Effect  of  the  Denudation  of  Timber  on 

the  EaiufaU  in  North  Britain  (renewed) 20     0  0 

*Sharpey,  Dr. — Physiological  Action  of  Organic  Compounds  . .  25     0  0 

Foster,  Professor  M. — Terato-embryological  Inquiries 20     0  0 

Foster,  Professor  M. — Heat  Generated  in  the  Arterialization 

of  the  Blood. (part  renewed) 15     0  0 

Christison,  Professor. — Antagonism  of  Poisonous  Substances. .  20     0  0 

Geo(/raj)?iy. 

*Murchison,  Sir  R.  Bart. — Exploration  of  the  Country  of  Moab  100     0  0 

Economic  Science  and  Statistics. 

*Bowring,  Sir  J. — Metric  Committee    75     0  0 

MecJianics, 

Rankine,  Professor. — Experiments   on  Instruments  for  Mea- 
suring the  Speed  of  Ships  and  Currents     30     0  0 

Total..  . .  il620~"0~~0 


* 


Eeappointed. 


Place  of  Electing  in  1873. 

It  was  resolved  that  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Association  in  1873  be 
held  at  Bradford. 


Ixxvi 


REPOKT 1871. 


General  Statement  of  Sums  ivhich  have  been  paid  on  Account  of  Grants 

for  Scientific  Purposes. 


1834. 


Tide  Discussions 


£    g.    d. 

20     0     0 


1S35. 


Tide  Discussions    G2     0     0 

Britisli  Fossil  Ichthyology    105     0     0 

JE167     0     0 


1836. 

Tide  Discussions   •   1C3 

Biitish  Fossil  Ichthyology    105 

Thermometric  Observations,  &c.     50 
Experiments   on  long-continued 

Heat  17 

Rain- Gauges 9 

Refraction  Experiments    15 

Lunar  Nutation 60 

Thermometers  15 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

0 

13 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

6 

0 

1837. 

Tide  Discussions    284 

Chemical  Constants  24 

Lunar  Nutation 70 

Observations  on  Waves 100 

Tides  at  Bristol 150 

Meteorology   and    Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification  Experiments 150 

Heart  Experiments   8 

Barometric  Observations  30 

Barometers    11 


5 
0 
4 

0 
18 


1838. 
Tide  Discussions    

British  Fossil  Fishes     

Meteorological  Observations   and 

Anemometer  (construction)  ... 

Cast  Iron  (Strength  of)     

Animal  and  Vegetable  Substances 

(Preservation  of)  

Railway  Constants     

Bristol  Tides... 

Grovfth  of  Plants  

Mud  in  Rivers  

Education  Committee    

Heart  Experiments  

Land  and  Sea  Level 

Subterranean  Temperature  

S  team-vessels 

Meteorological  Committee    

Thermometers  


£434  14     0 


1 

0 

13 

e 

0 

0 

12 

0 

0 

0 

£918   14     6 


29 

0 

0 

100 

0 

0 

100 

0 

0 

60 

0 

0 

19 

1 

10 

41 

12 

10 

50 

0 

0 

75 

0 

0 

3 

6 

6 

50 

0 

0 

5 

3 

0 

267 

8 

7 

8 

6 

0 

100 

0 

0 

31 

9 

5 

16 

4 

0 

£956   12     2 


1839. 

Fossil  Ichthyology 110  0  0 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Plymouth  G3  10  0 

Mechanism  of  Waves    141  2  0 

Bristol  Tides , 35  18  0 


£     s.    d. 


Meteorology  and  Subterranean 
Temperature 

Vitrification  Experiments, 

Cast-iron  Experiments 

Railway  Constants 

Land  and  Sea  Level 

Steam-vessels'  Engines 

Stars  in  Histoire  Celeste   

Stars  in  Lacaille    

Stars  in  R.A.S.  Catalogue 

AnimalSecretions 

Steam-engines  in  Cornwall  

Atmospheric  Air    

Cast  and  Wrought  Iron 

Heat  on  Organic  Bodies    

Gases  on  Solar  Spectrum 

Hourly  Meteorological  Observa- 
tions, Inverness  and  Kingussie 

Fossil  Reptiles  

Mining  Statistics   

£ 


21 

9 

100 

28 

274 

100 

331 

11 

6 

10 

50 

16 

40 

3 

22 

49 

118 

50 


11  0 

4  7 

0  0 
7  2 

1  4 
0  0 

18  6 

0  0 

16  6 

10  0 

0  0 

1  0 
0  0 
0  0 
0  0 

7  8 

2  9 
0  0 


1595   11     0 


1840. 

Bristol  Tides 100 

Subterranean  Temperature  13 

Heart  Experiments    IS 

Lungs  Experiments  8 

Tide  Discussions    50 

Land  and  Sea  Level 6 

Stars  (Histoire  Celeste)     242 

Stars  (Lacaille) 4 

Stars  (Catalogue)  264 

Atmospheric  Air    15 

Water  on  Iron   10 

Heat  on  Organic  Bodies    7 

Meteorological  Observations 52 

Foreign  Scientific  Memoirs  112 

Working  Population 100 

School  Statistics 50 

Forms  of  Vessels   184 

Chemical  and  Electrical  Pheno- 
mena    40 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Plymouth   SO 

Magnetical  Observations  185 


0 

0 

13 

6 

19 

0 

13 

0 

0 

0 

11 

1 

10 

0 

15 

0 

0 

0 

15 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

17 

6 

1 

a 

0 

0 

0 

0 

7 

0 

0     0 


0     0 

13     9 

£1546  16     A 


1841. 

Observations  on  Waves 

Meteorology   and    Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake  Shocks  17 

Acrid  Poisons 6 

Veins  and  Absorbents    3 

Mud  in  Rivers  5 

Marine  Zoology 15 

j  Skeleton  Maps' 20 

I  Mountain  Barometers    6 

I  S'ars  (Histoire  Celeste) 185 


30     0     0 


8 

0 

0 

0 

7 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

8 

0 

0 

8 

6 

U 

0 

GENEKAIi  STATEMENT. 


Ixxvii 


£  s.  d. 

Stars  (Lacaille) 79  5  0 

Stars  (Nomenclature  ol")    17  19  C 

Stars  (Catalogue  of)  40  0  0 

Water  on  Iron   50  0  0 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Inverness    20  0  0 

Meteorological  Observations  (re- 
duction of)     25  0  0 

Fossil  Reptiles  50  0  0 

Foreign  Memoirs  62  0  0 

Railway  Sections   38  1  6 

Forms  of  Vessels    193  12  0 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Plymouth  55  0  0 

Magnetical  Observations   Gl  18  8 

Fishes  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  100  0  0 

Tides  at  Leith    50  0  0 

Anemometer  at  Edinburgh  C9  1  10 

Tabulating  Observations    9  6  3 

Races  of  Men     5  0  0 

Radiate  Animals 2  0  0 

£1235  10  11 

1842. 

Dynamometric  Instruments 113  11  2 

Anoplura  Britanniae  52  12  0 

Tides  at  Bristol 59  8  0 

Gases  on  Light 30  14  7 

Chronometers    , 20  17  6 

Marine  Zoology 15  0 

British  Fossil  Mammalia  100  0  0 

Statistics  of  Education  20  0  0 

Marine  Steam-vessels'  Engines...  28  0  0 

Stars  (Histoire  Celeste) 59  0  0 

Stars  (Brit.  Assoc.  Cat.  of )  110  0  0 

Railway  Sections    161  10  0 

British  Belemnites 50  0  0 

Fossil   Reptiles    (publication    of 

Report) 210  0  0 

Forms  of  Vessels    180  0  0 

Galvanic  Experiments  on  Rocks  5  8  6 
Meteorological    Experiments    at 

Plymouth   68  0  0 

Constant  Indicator  and  Dynamo- 
metric  Instruments    90  0  0 

ForceofWind  10  0  0 

Light  on  Growth  of  Seeds    8  0  0 

Vital  Statistics   50  0  0 

Vegetative  Power  of  Seeds  8  111 

Questions  on  Human  Race  7  9  0 

£1449  17  8 


2     0     0 


1843. 

Revision  of  the  Nomenclature  of 
Stars  2 

Reduction  of  Stars,  British  Asso- 
ciation Catalogue  25     0     0 

Anomalous  Tides,  Frith  of  Forth   120     0     0 

Hourly  Meteorological  Observa- 

tionsat  Kingussie  andlnverness     77   12     8 

Meteorological  Observations  at 
Plymouth  55 

Whewell's  Meteorological  Ane- 
mometer at  Plymouth  10 


0     0 


0     0 


£ 
Meteorological  Observations,  Os- 
ier's Anemometer  at  Plymouth     20 
Reduction  of  Meteorological  Ob- 
servations       30 

Meteorological   Instruments  and 

Gratuities  39 

Construclion   of  Anemometer  at 

Inverness   56 

Magnetic  Cooperation    10 

Meteorological  Recorder  for  Kew 

Observatory    50 

Action  of  Gases  on  Light  18 

Establishment  at  Kew  Observa- 
tory, Wages,  Repairs,  Furni- 
ture and  Sundries 133 

Experiments  by  Captive  Balloons  81 
Oxidation  of  the  Rails  of  Railways  20 
Publication  of  Report  on  Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured    Drawings   of  Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration       of       Earthquake 

Shocks    30 

Report  on  Zoological  Nomencla- 
ture          10 

Uncovering  Lower  Red  Sand- 
stone near  Manchester 4 

Vegetative  Power  of  Seeds    5 

Marine  Testacea  (Habits  of)    ...     10 

Marine  Zoology 10 

Marine  Zoology 2 

Preparation  of  Report  on  British 

Fossil  Mammalia   100 

Physiological  Operations  of  Me- 
dicinal Agents   20 

Vital  Statistics   36 

Additional   Experiments   on   the 

Forms  of  Vessels   70 

Additional   Experiments   on  the 

Forms  of  Vessels   100 

Reduction  of  Experiments  on  the 

Forms  of  Vessels    100 

Morin's  Instrument  and  Constant 

Indicator    69 

Experiments  on  the  Strength  of 

Materials    60 

£1565 


s. 

d. 

0 

0 

0 

0 

6 

0 

12 

8 

2 
10 

0 
16 

0 

1 

4 

8 
0 

7 
0 
0 

0 

0 

18 

3 

0 

0 

0 

0 

4 
3 
0 
0 
14 

6 

8 

0 

0 

11 

0     0 


0 

0 

5 

8 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

14 

10 

0 

0 

10     2 


1844. 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Kingussie  and  Inverness   12     0     0 

Completing  Observations  at  Ply- 
mouth          35     0     0 

Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Co- 
operation         25     8     4 

Publication  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation Catalogue  of  Stars 35     0     0 

Observations   on    Tides    on  the 

East  coast  of  Scotland  100     0     0 

Revision  of  the  Nomenclature  of 

Stars  1842       2     9     6 

Maintaining  the  Establishmentin 

Kew  Observatory 117   17      3 

Instruments  for  Kew  Observatory     56     7     3 


Ixxviii 


REPORT — 1871. 


£ 

Influence  of  Light  on  Plants 10 

Subterraneous    Temperature     in 

Ireland   5 

Coloured    Drawings  of  Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation  of  Fossil  Fislies  of 

the  Lower  Tertiary  Strata    ...    100 
Registering  the  Shocks  of  Earth- 
quakes     1842     23 

Structure  of  Fossil  Shells 20 

Radiata    and    Mollusca    of    the 

■  yEgean  and  Red  Seas 1842   100 

Geographical     Distributions     of 

Marine  Zoology 1842     10 

Marine   Zoology   of  Devon   and 

Cornwall     10 

Marine  Zoology  of  Corfu 10 

Experiments  on   the   Vitality   of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments  on  the  Vitality  of 

Seeds 1842       8 

Exotic  Anoplura    15 

Strength  of  Materials    100 

Completing  Experiments  on  the 

Forms  of  Ships 100 

Inquiries  into  Asphyxia    10 

Investigations    on    the    Internal 

Constitution  of  Metals  50 

Constant  Indicator  and   Morin's 

Instrument     1842     10 

JE981 

1845, 
Publication  of  the  British  Associa- 
tion Catalogue  of  Stars 351 

Meteorological    Observations    at 

Inverness    30 

Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Co- 
operation         16 

Meteorological     Instruments     at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction  of  Anemometrical  Ob- 
servations at  Plymouth 25 

Electrical    Experiments   at   Kew 

Observatory   43 

Maintaining  the  Establishment  in 

Kew  Observatory  149 

For  Kreil's  Barometrograph 25 

Gases  from  Iron  Furnaces    50 

The  Actinograpli  15 

Microscopic  Structure  of  Shells...     20 

Exotic  Anoplura    1843     10 

Vitality  of  Seeds 1843       2 

Vitality  of  Seeds 1844        7 

Marine  Zoology  of  Cornwall 10 

Physiological  Action  of  Medicines     20 
Statistics  of  Sickness   and  Mor- 
tality in  York    20 

Earthquake  Shocks 1843     15 

£830 
1846. 
British  Association  Catalogue  of 

Stars  1844  211 

Fossil  Fishes  of  the  London  Clay  100 


s. 
0 

d. 
0 

0 

0 

17 

6 

0 

0 

11 
0 

10 
0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 

3 

7 
0 
0 

3 
0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 

0 

3 

6 

12     8 


14     6 
18   11 

16  8 
11     9 

0     0 

17  8 


15 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

7 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

14 

8 

9     9 


15 
0 


Computation    of     the    Gaussian 

Constants  for  1829 50 

Maintaining  tlie  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory  146 

Strength  of  Materials 60 

Researches  in  Asphyxia 6 

Examination  of  Fossil  Shells 10 

Vitality  of  Seeds    1844  2 

Vitality  of  Seeds    1845  7 

Marine  Zoology  of  Cornwall 10 

Marine  Zoology  of  Britain    10 

Exotic  Anoplura    1844  25 

Expenses  attending  Anemometers  11 

Anemometers'  Repairs 2 

Atmospheric  Waves  3 

Captive  Balloons   1844  8 

Varieties  of  the  Human  Race 

1844  7 
Statistics  of  Sickness  and  Mor- 
tality in  York    12 


£     s,    d. 


0     0 


16 

7 

0 

0 

IC 

2 

0 

0 

15 

10 

12 

3 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

7 

6 

3 

6 

3 

3 

19 

3 

6 

3 

0 

0 

£685   16     0 


1847. 
Computation    of    the    Gaussian 

Constants  for  1829     50 

Habits  of  Marine  Animals    10 

Physiological  Action  of  Medicines  20 

Marine  Zoology  of  Cornwall    ...  10 

Atmospheric  Waves  6 

Vitality  of  Seeds    4 

Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory 107 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

9 

3 

7 

7 

£208     5     4 


1848. 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory 171  15  11 

Atmospheric  Waves 3  10  9 

Vitality  of  Seeds    9  15  0 

Completion  of  Catalogues  of  Stars     70  0  0 

On  Colouring  Matters  5  0  0 

On  Growth  of  Plants 15  0  0 

£275  i  8 


1849. 
Electrical   Observations   at  Kew 

Observatory   50 

Maintaining    Establishment     at 

ditto    76 

Vitality  of  Seeds    5 

On  Growth  of  Plants 5 

Registration  of    Periodical  Phe- 
nomena      10     0 

Bill  on  account  of  Anemometrical 

Observations 13     9 


0     0 


1850. 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatoi'y  255 

Transit  of  Earthquake  Waves  ...     50 

Periodical  Phenomena  15 

Meteorological    Instrument, 

Azores    , 25 


0     0 


0 


£159   19     6 


18 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0     0 


£345   18     0 


GENERAL  STATEMENT. 


Ixxix 


£ 
1851. 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 
Kew  Observatory  (includes  part 

ofgrantin  1849)  309 

Theory  of  Heat 20 

Periodical  Plienomena  of  Animals 

and  Plants 5 

Vitality  of  Seeds    5 

Influence  of  Solar  Radiation 30 

Ethnological  Inquiries 12 

Researches  on  Annelida    10 

£391 

1852.  ~ 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew    Observatory    (including 
balance  of  grant  for  1850)    ...233 
Experiments  on  the  Conduction 

ofHeat  5 

Influence  of  Solar  Radiations   ...     20 

Geological  Map  of  Ireland    15 

Researches  on  the  British  Anne- 
lida      10 

Vitality  of  Seeds    „,„     10 

Strengthof  Boiler  Plates 10 

£304 

1853.  == 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory  165 

Experiments  on  the  Influence  of 
Solar  Radiation 15 

Researches  on  the  British  Anne- 
lida      10 

Dredging  on  the  East  Coast  of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological  Queries    5 

~£205" 

1854. 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew    Observatory    (including 

balance  of  former  grant)  330 

Investigations  on  Flax 11 

Effects      of      Temperature     on 

Wrought  Iron    10 

Registration  of  Periodical    Phe- 

nomena , 10 

British  Annelida    10 

Vitality  of  Seeds    5 

Conduction  of  Heat  4 

£380 
1855.  = 

Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory  425 

Earthquake  Movements    10 

Physical  Aspect  of  the  Moon 1 1 

Vitality  of  Seeds    10 

Map  of  the  World , 15 

Ethnological  Queries 5 

Dredging  near  Belfast  4 

£480 

1856. 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 
Kew  Observatory: — 

1854 £75     0     01     ,,^ 

1855 £500     0     0/    ^'^ 


2 

2 

1 

1 

0 

0 

6 

4 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

9     7 


17     8 


2 

9 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

S 

2 

0 

0 

6     7 


0     0 


0     0 


0     0 


15 
0 


0     0 


0     0 


19     7 


16     4 


0 

0 

13 

9 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0  0 

0  0 

0  0 

0  0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0     0 


£     s.    d. 
Strickland's  Ornithological  Syno- 
nyms    100 

Dredging  and  Dredging  Porms...  9 

Chemical  Action  of  Light 20 

Strength  of  Iron  Plates 10 

Registration  of  Periodical  Pheno- 
mena    10 

Propagation  of  Salmon 10 

£734   13     9 

1857. 

Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory 350 

Earthquake  Wave  Experiments. .  40 

Dredging  near  Belfast  10 

Dredging  on  the  West  Coast  of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations  into  the  MoUusca 

ofCalifornia  , 10 

Experiments  on  Flax    5 

Natural  History  of  Madagascar. ,  20 

Researches   on  British  Annelida  25 

Report  on  Natural  Products  im- 
ported into  Liverpool    10 

Artificial  Propagation  of  Salmon  10 

Temperature  of  Mines  7     8     0 

Thermometers  for  Subterranean 

Observations 5     7     4 

Life-Boats 5     0     0 

£507   15     4 

1858.  """"■ "" 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory  500 

Earthquake  Wave  Experiments..  25 
Dredging  on  the  West  Coast  of 

Scotland     10 

Dredging  near  Dublin   5 

Vitality  of  Seeds    5 

Dredging  near  Belfast  18 

Report  on  the  British  Annelida..,  25 
Experiments   on    the  production 

of  Heat  by  Motion  in  Fluids  ...  20 
Report  on  the  Natural  Products 

imported  into  Scotland 10 

£018    18     2 

1859.  " 
Maintaining  the  Establishment  at 

Kew  Observatory  500 

Dredging  near  Duijlin  15 

Osteology  of  Birds 50 

Irish  Tunicata  5 

Manure  Experiments    20 

British  Medusida: 5 

Dredging  Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'  Performance 5 

Marine  Fauna  of  South  and  West 

of  Ireland  , 10 

Photographic  Chemistry   10 

Lanarkshire  Fossils  20 

Balloon  Ascents 39 

£684   11      I 

1860.  " 
Maintaining   the    Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 500     0     0 

Dredging  near  Belfast 16     6     0 

Dredging  in  Dublin  Bay 15     0     0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

5 

0 

13 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

I 

1 

0 

Ixxx 


IIEPOIIT 1871. 


Inquiry  into  the  Performance  of 
Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations  iu  the  Yellow  Sand- 
stone of  Dura  Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical  Analysis  of 
Rocks  and  Minerals 25 

Researches  on  the  Growth  of 
Plants 10 

Researches  on  the  Solubility  of 
Salts 30 

Researches  on  the  Constituents 
of  Manures 25 

Balance  of  Captive  Balloon  Ac- 
counts         1 


^1241 

1861. 
Maintaining    the    Establishment 

ofKew  Observatory 500 

Earthquake  Experiments 25 

Dredging  North  and  East  Coasts 

of  Scotland 23 

Dredging  Committee : — 

1S60 £50     0     0\  ^ 

1861  £22     0     0 J  '-^ 

Excavations  at  Dura  Den 20 

Solubility  of  Salts 20 

Steam-vessel  Performance     150 

Fossils  of  Lesmahago    15 

Explorations  at  Uriconium    20 

Chemical  Alloys    20 

Classified  Index  to  the  Transac- 
tions     100 

Dredging  in  the  Mersey  and  Dee  5 

Dip  Circle 30 

Photoheliographic  Observations  50 

Prison  Diet    20 

Gauging  of  Water 10 

Alpine  Ascents  C 

Constituents  of  Manures  25 


s. 

d. 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

13 

6 

7 

0 

n 

A 

0  0 

0  0 

0  0 

0  0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

5 

1 

0 

0 

£1111      5    10 


1862. 
Maintaining   the    Establishment 

ofKew  Observatory 500 

Patent  Laws  21 

Mollusca  of  N.-W.  America 10 

Natural    History    by   Mercantile 

Marine  5 

Tidal  Observations    25 

Photoheliometer  at  Kew  40 

Photographic  Pictures  of  the  Sun  150 

Rocks  of  Donegal 25 

Dredging    Durham   and    North- 
umberland    25 

Connexion  of  Storms 20 

Dredging    North-east    Coast    of 

Scotland C 

Ravages  of  Teredo    3   1 

Standards  of  Electrical  Resistance  50 

Railway  Accidents    10 

Balloon  Committee   200 

Dredging  Dublin  Bay  10 

Dredging  the  Mersey    5 

Prison  Diet    20 

Gauging  of  Water 12  1 


0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

c 

1 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

£  s.   d. 

Steamships' Performance 150     0     0 

Thcrmo-Electric  Currents    5  0     0 

£1293  16     6 

1863.  ~ 
Maintaining   the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory COO  0     0 

Balloon  Committee  deficiency...     70  0     0 

Balloon  Ascents  (other  expenses)    25  0     0 

Entozoa 25  0     0 

Coal  Fossils  20  0     0 

Herrings 20  0     0 

Granites  of  Donegal 5  0     0 

Prison  Diet 20  0     0 

Vertical  Atmospheric  Movements    13  0     0 

Dredging  Shetland  50  0     0 

Dredging    North-east    coast  of 

Scotland   25  0     0 

Dredging  Northumberland  and 

Durham 17  3  10 

Dredging    Committee    superin- 
tendence       10  0     0 

Steamship  Performance 100  0     0 

Balloon  Committee 200  0     0 

Carbon  under  pressure 10  0     0 

Volcanic  Temperature 100  0     0 

Bromide  of  Ammonium   8  0     0 

Electrical  Standards 100  0     0 

Construction  and  distribu- 
tion      ...     40  0     0 

Luminous  Meteors   17  0     0 

Kew   Additional    Buildings   for 

Photoheliograph  100  0     0 

Thermo-Electricity  15  0     0 

Analysis  of  Rocks     8  0     0 

Hydroida  10  0     0 

£1608  S^HJ 

1864.  ■"" 

Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory GOO  0     0 

Coal  Fossils  20  0     0 

Vertical    Atmosplieric    Move- 
ments      20  0     0 

Dredging  Shetland  75  0     0 

Dredging  Northumberland 25  0     0 

Balloon  Committee 200  0     0 

Carbon  under  pressure 10  0     0 

Standards  of  Electric  Resistance  100  0     0 

Analysis  of  Rocks 10  0    0 

Hydroida  10  0     0 

Askham's  Gift  50  0     0 

Nitrite  of  Aniyle  10  0     0 

Nomenclature  Committee    5  0     0 

Rain-Gauges. 19  15     8 

Cast-Iron  Investigation   20  0     0 

Tidal  01)servations  in  the  llumber   50  0     0 

Spectral  Kays    45  0     0 

Luminous  Meteors 20  0     0 

£128'jT5     8 

18G5.  """^ 

Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 600  0     0 

Balloon  Committee 100  0    0 

Hydroida  13  0    0 


GENERAL  STATEMENT. 


Ixxxi 


£  s.  d. 

Raiu-Gauges 30  0  0 

Tidal  Observations  in  the  number      6  8  0 

Hexylic  Compounds 20  0  0 

Aravl  Compounds 20  0  0 

Irish  Flora     25  0  0 

American  Mollusca  3  9  0 

Organic  Acids   20  0  0 

Lingula  Flags  Excavation    10  0  0 

Eurypterus    50  0  0 

Electrical  Standards 100  0  0 

Malta  Caves  Researches  30  0  0 

Oyster  Breeding   25  0  0 

Gibraltar  Caves  Researches      ...  150  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Excavations 100  0  0 

Moon's  Surface  Observations  ...     35  0  0 

Marine  Fauna   25  0  0 

Dredging  Aberdeenshire 25  0  0 

Dredging  Channel  Islands  50  0  0 

Zoological  Nomenclature 5  0  0 

Resistance  of  Floating  Bodies  in 

Water    100  0  0 

Bath  Waters  Analysis  8  10  0 

Luminous  Meteors   40  0  0 

£1591  7  10 

1866.  ^ 
Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 600  0  0 

Lunar  Committee 64  13  4 

Balloon  Committee  50  0  0 

Metrical  Committee 50  0  0 

British  Rainfall 50  0  0 

Kilkenny  Coal  Fields    16  0  0 

Alum  Bay  Fossil  Leaf-Bed  15  0  0 

Luminous  Meteors    50  0  0 

Lingula  Flags  Excavation    20  0  0 

Chemical   Constitution  of  Cast 

Iron   50  0  0 

Amyl  Compounds 25  0  0 

Electrical  Standards 100  0  0 

Malta  Caves  Exploration 30  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Exploration 200  0  0 

Marine  Fauna,  &c.,  Devon  and 

Cornwall    25  0  0 

Dredging  .\berdeenshire  Coast...     25  0  0 

Dredging  Hebrides  Coast 50  0  0 

Dredging  the  Mersey   5  0  0 

Resistance  of  Floating  Bodies  in 

Water    50  0  0 

Polycyanides  of  Organic  Radi- 
cals         20  0  0 

Rigor  Mortis 10  0  0 

Irish  Annelida  15  0  0 

Catalogue  of  Crania 50  0  0 

DidineBirdsofMascarene  Islands  50  0  0 

Typical  Crania  Researches  30  0  0 

Palestine  Exploration  Fund 100  0  0 

£1750  13  4 

1867.  =^== 
Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 600  0  0 

Meteorological  Instruments,  Pa- 
lestine         50  0  0 

Lunar  Committee 120  0  0 


£  s.  cl. 

Metrical  Committee 30  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Explorations    100  0  0 

Palestine  Explorations 50  0  0 

Insect  Fauna,  Palestine 30  0  0 

British  Rainfall 50  0  0 

Kilkenny  Coal  Fields    25  0  0 

Alum  Bay  Fossil  Leaf-Bed 25  0  0 

Luminous  Meteors    50  0  0 

Bournemouth,  &c.  Leaf-Beds  ...  30  0  0 

Dredging  Shetland   75  0  0 

Steamship  Reports  Condensation  100  0  0 

Electrical  Standards 100  0  0 

Ethyle  and  Methyle  series   25  0  0 

Fossil  Crustacea    25  0  0 

Sound  under  Water 24  4  0 

North  Greenland  Fauna  75  0  0 

Do.               Plant  Beds  ...  100  0  0 

Iron  and  Steel  Manufacture    ...  25  0  0 

Patent  Laws 30  0  0 

£1739  4  0 

1868.  " 
Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 600  0  0 

Lunar  Committee 120  0  0 

Metrical  Committee 50  0  0 

Zoological  Record    100  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Explorations    150  0  0 

Steamship  Performances 100  0  0 

British  Rainfall    50  0  0 

Luminous  Meteors   50  0  0 

Organic  Acids  60  0  0 

Fossil  Crustacea   25  0  0 

Methyl  series    25  0  0 

Mercury  and  Bile 25  0  0 

Organic  remains  in   Limestone 

Rocks    25  0  0 

Scottish  Earthquakes  20  0  0 

Fauna,  Devon  and  Cornwall    ...  30  0  0 

British  Fossil  Corals 50  0  0 

Bagshot  Leaf-beds    50  0  0 

Greenland  Explorations  100  0  0 

Fossil  Flora  25  0  0 

Tidal  Observations    100  0  0 

Underground  Temperature 50  0  0 

Spectroscopic  investigations   of 

Animal  Substances  5  0  0 

Secondary  Reptiles,  &c 30  0  0 

British      Marine      Invertebrate 

Fauna    100  0  0 

i:i940  0  0 

1869.  '~~ 
Maintaining  the  Establishment 

of  Kew  Observatory 600  0  0 

Lunar  Committee 50  0  0 

Metrical  Committee 25  0  0 

Zoological  Record 100  0  0 

Committee  on  Gases    in  Deep- 
well  Water    25  0  0 

British  Rainfall 50  0  0 

Thermal   Conductivity  of  Iron, 

&c 30  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Explorations 150  0  0 

Steamship  Performances 30  0  0 


Ixxxii 


REPORT 1871. 


£  s.  d. 
Chemical  Constitution  of  Cast 

Iron  80  0  0 

Iron  and  Steel  Manufacture  ...  100  0  0 

Methyl  Series    30  0  0 

Organic  remains    in   Limestone 

Rocks 10  0  0 

Earthquakes  in  Scotland 10  0  0 

British  Fossil  Corals    50  0  0 

Bagshot  Leaf-Berls  30  0  0 

Fossil  Flora   25  0  0 

Tidal  Observations   100  0  0 

Underground  Temperature 30  0  0 

Spectroscopic  Investigations   of 

Animal  Substances  5  0  0 

Organic  Acids  12  0  0 

Kiltorcan  Fossils  20  0  0 

Chemical  Constitution  and  Phy- 
siological Action  Relations  ...  15  0  0 
Mountain  Limestone  Fossils  ..i...  25  0  0 

Utihzation  of  Sewage  10  0  0 

Products  of  Digestion 10  0  0 

£1622  0  0 

1870. 

Maintaining  the  Establishment  of 

Kew  Observatory 600  0  0 

Metrical  Committee 25  0  0 

Zoological  Record    100  0  0 

Committee  on  Marine  Fauna  ...  20  0  0 

Ears  in  Fishes  10  0  0 

Chemical  nature  of  Cast  Iron  ...  80  0  0 

Luminous  Meteors    30  0  0 

Heat  in  the  Blood    15  0  0 

British  Rainfall 100  0  0 

Thermal  Conductivity  of  Iron  &c.  20  0  0 

British  Fossil  Corals 50  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Explorations    150  0  0 

Scottish  Earthquakes  4  0  0 


£  s.  d. 

Bagshot  Leaf-Beds  15  0  0 

Fossil  Flora   25  0  0 

Tidal  Observations    100  0  0 

Underground  Temperature 50  0  0 

Kiltorcan  Quarries  Fossils  20  0  0 

Mountain  Limestone  Fossils    ...     25  0  0 

Utilization  of  Sewage  50  0  0 

Organic  Chemical  Compounds...     30  0  0 

Onny  River  Sediment  3  0  0 

Mechanical  Equivalent  of  Heat     50  0  0 

JE1572  0  0 


1871. 

Maintaininglhe  Establishment  of 

Kew  Observatory GOO  0  0 

Monthly  Reports  of  Progress  in 

Chemistry 100  0  0 

Metrical  Committee 25  0  0 

Zoological  Record 100  0  0 

Thermal     Equivalents     of     the 

Oxides  of  Chlorine    10  0  0 

Tidal  Observations    100  0  0 

Fossil  Flora   25  0  0 

Luminous  Meteors    30  0  0 

British  Fossil  Corals.... 25  0  0 

Heat  in  the  Blood 7  2  6 

British  Rainfall 50  0  0 

Kent's  Hole  Explorations    150  0  0 

Fossil  Crustacea    25  0  0 

Methyl  Compounds 25  0  0 

Lunar  Objects  20  0  0 

Fossil  Corals  Sections,  for  Pho- 
tographing      20  0  0 

Bagshot  Leaf-Beds  20  0  0 

Moab  Explorations   100  0  0 

Gaussian  Constants 40  0  0 

£1472  2  6 


GENERAL  MEETINGS.  Ixxxiii 


General  Meetings. 

On  "Wednesday  Evening,  August  2,  at  8  p.m.,  in  the  Music  Hall,  Professor 
T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  F.L.S.,  President,  resigned  the  office  of  Pre- 
sident to  Professor  Sir  William  Thomson,  LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  who  took  the  C'haii", 
and  delivered  an  Address,  for  which  see  page  Ixxxiv. 

On  Thursday  Evening,  August  3,  at  8.30  p.m.,  in  the  Music  Hall,  F.  A. 
Abel,  Esq.  F.E.S.,  Director  of  the  Chemical  Department,  Eoyal  Arsenal, 
Woolwich,  delivered  a  Discourse  on  "  Some  Eecent  Investigations  and  Ap- 
plications of  Explosive  Agents." 

On  Friday  Evening,  August  4,  at  8  p.m.,  a  Soiree  took  place  in  the  Uni- 
versity Library. 

On  Monday  Evening,  August  7,  at  8.30  p.m.,  in  the  Music  Hall,  E.  B. 
Tylor,  Esq.,  delivered  a  Discourse  on  "  The  llelation  of  Primitive  to  Modern 
Civilization." 

On  Tuesday  Evening,  August  8,  at  8  p.m.,  a  Soiree  took  place  in  the  Museum 
of  Science  and  Art. 

On  Wednesday,  August  9,  at  2.30  p.m.,  the  concluding  General  Meeting 
took  place,  when  the  Proceedings  of  the  General  Committee,  and  the  Grants 
of  Money  for  Scientific  purposes,  were  explained  to  the  Members. 

The  Meeting  was  then  adjourned  to  Brighton*. 

*  The  Meeting  is  appointed  to  take  place  on  Wednesday,  August  14,  1872. 


ADDRESS 


OF 


Sir  WILLIAM  THOMSON,  Knt.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 


For  the  third  time  of  its  forty  years'  history  the  British  Association  is 
assembled  in  the  metropolis  of  Scotland.  The  origin  of  the  Association  is 
connected  with  Edinburgh  in  undying  memory  through  the  honoured  names 
of  Robisou,  Brewster,  Eorbes,  and  Johnston. 

In  this  place,  from  this  Chair,  twenty-one  years  ago,  Sir  David  Brewster 
said : — "  On  the  return  of  the  British  Association  to  the  metropolis  of  Scot- 
"  land  I  am  naturally  reminded  of  the  smaU  band  of  pilgrims  who  carried 
"  the  seeds  of  this  Institution  into  the  more  genial  soil  of  our  sister  land." 

"  Sir  John  Robison,  Professor  Johnston,  and  Professor  J.  D. 

"  Forbes  were  the  earliest  friends  and  promoters  of  the  British  Association. 
"  They  went  to  York  to  assist  in  its  establishment,  and  they  found  there  the 
"  very  men  who  were  qualified  to  foster  and  organize  it.  The  Rev.  Mr. 
"  Vernon  Harcourt,  whose  name  cannot  be  mentioned  here  without  grati- 
"  tude,  had  provided  laws  for  its  government,  and,  along  with  Mr.  Phillips, 
"  the  oldest  and  most  valuable  of  our  office-bearers,  had  made  aU  those 
"  arrangements  by  which  its  success  was  ensured.  Headed  by  Sii'  Roderick 
"  Murchison,  one  of  the  very  earliest  and  most  active  advocates  of  the 
"  Association,  there  assembled  at  York  about  200  of  tlie  friends  of  science." 

The  statement  I  have  read  contains  no  allusion  to  the  real  origin  of  the 
British  Association.  This  blank  in  my  predecessor's  historical  sketch  I  am 
able  to  fill  in  from  words  written  by  himself  twenty  years  earlier.  Through 
the  kindness  of  Professor  PhiUips  I  am  enabled  to  read  to  you  part  of  a 
letter  to  him  at  York,  written  by  David  Brewster  from  AUerly  by  Melrose, 
on  the  23rd  of  February,  1831  :— 

"  Dear  Sir, — I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  writing  yon  on  a  subject  of  con- 
"  siderable  importance.  It  is  proposed  to  establish  a  British  Association  of 
"  men  of  science  similar  to  that  which  has  existed  for  eight  years  in  Gcr- 
"  many,  and  which  is  now  patronized  by  the  most  powerful  Sovereigns  of  that 
"  part  of  Europe.  The  arrangements  for  the  first  meeting  are  iu  progress ;  and 
"  it  is  contemplated  that  it  shall  be  held  in  York,  as  the  most  central  city  for 
"  the  three  kingdoms.  My  object  in  writing  yoir  at  present  is  to  beg  that  you 
•'  would  ascertain  if  York  will  furnish  the  accommodation  necessary  for  so 


ADDRESS.  IXXXV 

"  large  a  meeting  (which  may  perhajis  consist  of  above  100  individuals),  if 
"  the  Philosopl^ical  Society  would  enter  zcalouslj'  into  the  plan,  and  if  the 
"  Mayor  and  influential  persons  in  the  town  and  in  the  vicinity  would  be 
"  likely  to  promote  its  objects.  The  principal  object  of  the  Society  would 
"  be  to  make  the  cultivators  of  science  acquainted  Avith  each  other,  to  stimu- 
"  late  one  another  to  new  exertions,  and  to  bring  the  objects  of  science  more 
"  before  the  public  eye,  and  to  take  measures  for  advancing  its  interests 
"  and  accelerating  its  progress." 

Of  the  little  band  of  four  pilgrims  from  Scotland  to  York,  not  one  now 
survives.  Of  the  seven  first  Associates  one  more  has  gone  over  to  the 
majority  since  the  Association  last  met.  Yernon  Harcourt  is  no  longer  witli 
us  ;  but  his  influence  remains,  a  beneficent  and,  surely  therefore,  never  dying 
influence.  He  was  a  Geologist  and  Chemist,  a  large-hearted  lover  of  science, 
and  an  unwearied  worker  for  its  advancement.  Brewster  was  the  founder  of 
the  British  Association  ;  Yernon  Harcourt  was  its  law-giver.  His  code  re- 
mains to  this  day  the  law  of  the  Association. 

On  the  eleventh  of  May  last  Sir  John  Herschel  died,  in  the  eightieth  year  of 
his  age.  The  name  of  Herschel  is  a  household  word  throughout  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland — yes,  and  through  the  w^hole  civilized  world.  We  of  this  genera- 
tion have,  from  our  lessons  of  childhood  upwards,  learned  to  see  in  Herschel, 
father  and  son,  a  ivcesidium  et  dulce  deems  of  the  precious  treasure  of  British 
scientific  fame.  When  geography,  astronomy,  and  the  i;se  of  the  globes  were 
still  taught,  even  to  poor  children,  as  a  pleasant  and  profitable  sequel  to  "read- 
ing, writing,  and  arithmetic,"  which  of  us  did  not  revere  the  great  telescope 
of  Sir  William  Herschel  (one  of  the  Hundred  Wonders  of  the  World),  and 
learn  with  delight,  directly  or  indirectly  from  the  charming  pages  of  Sir  John 
Hersehel's  book,  about  the  sun  and  his  spots,  and  the  fiery  tornadoes  sweeping- 
over  his  surface,  and  about  the  planets,  and  Jupiter's  belts,  and  Saturn's  rings, 
and  the  fixed  stars  with  their  proper  motions,  and  the  double  stars,  and 
coloured  stars,  and  the  uebulaj  discovered  by  the  great  telescope  ?  Of  Sir 
John  Herschel  it  may  indeed  be  said,  nil  tetitjitqvod  non  ornavit. 

A  monument  to  Faraday  and  a  monument  to  Herschel,  Britain  must  have. 
The  nation  will  not  be  satisfied  with  any  thing,  however  sjjlendid,  done  by 
private  subscription.  A  national  monument,  the  more  humble  in  point  of 
expense  the  better,  is  required  to  satisfy  that  honourable  i^ride  with  which 
a  high-spirited  nation  cherishes  the  memory  of  its  great  men.  But  for 
the  glory  of  Faraday  or  the  glory  of  Herschel,  is  a  monument  wanted  ? 
No! 

What  needs  my  Shakespere  for  his  honoured  bones 
The  labour  of  an  age  in  piled  stones  ? 
Or  that  his  hallowed  rcliques  should  be  liid 
Under  a  star-ypointing  pyramid  ? 
Dear  son  of  memory,  great  heir  of  fame, 
What  need'st  thou  such  weak  witness  of  thy  name ! 
Thou,  in  our  wonder  and  astonishment, 
Hast  built  tliyself  a  live-long  monument. 
*  »  *  * 

And,  so  sepulchred,  in  such  pomp  dost  lie, 
That  kings  for  such  a  tomb  would  wish  to  die. 

With  regard  to  Sir  John  Hersehel's  scientific  work,  on  the  present  occa- 
sion I  can  but  refer  briefly  to  a  few  points  which  seem  to  me  salient  in  his 
physical  and  mathematical  writings.  First,  I  remark  that  he  has  put 
forward,  most  instructively  and  profitably  to  his  readers,  the  general  theory 
of  periodicity  iu  dynamics,  and  has  urged  the  practical  utilizing  of  it,  espe- 

1871.  g 


Ixxxvi  REPORT — 1871. 

cially  in  meteorology,  by  the  harmonic  analysis.  It  is  purely  by  an  appli- 
cation of  this  principle  and  practical  method,  that  the  British  Association's 
Committee  on  Tides  has  for  the  last  four  years  been,  and  sliU  is,  working 
towards  the  solution  of  the  grand  problem  proposed  forty-eight  years  ago  by 
Thomas  Young  in  the  following  words  : — 

"  There  is,  indeed,  little  doubt  that  if  we  were  provided  with  a  sufficiently 
"  correct  series  of  minutely  accurate  o'jservations  on  the  Tides,  made  not  merely 
"  with  a  view  to  the  times  of  low  and  high  water  only,  but  ratlicr  to  the  heights 
"  at  the  intermediate  times,  we  might  form,  by  degrees,  with  the  assistance 
"  of  the  theory  contained  in  this  article  *  only,  almost  as  perfect  a  set  of  tables 
"  for  the  motions  of  the  ocean  as  we  have  already  obtained  for  those  of  the 
"  celestial  Ijodies,  which  are  the  more  immediate  objects  of  the  attention  of 
"  the  practical  astronomer." 

Sir  John  Herschel's  discovery  of  a  right  or  left-handed  asymmetry  in  the 
outward  form  of  crystals,  such  as  quartz,  which  in  their  inner  molecular 
structure  possess  the  heli^oidal  rotational  property  in  reference  to  the  plane 
of  polarization  of  light,  is  one  of  the  notable  points  of  meeting  between 
Natural  History  and  Natural  Philosophy.  His  observations  on  "  epipoHc  di- 
spersion ".  gave  Stokes  the  clue  by  which  he  was  led  to  his  great  discovery  of 
the  change  of  periodic  time  experienced  by  light  in  fiiUiug  on  certain  substances 
and  beiug  dispcrsively  reflected  from  them.  In  respect  to  pure  mathematics 
Sir  John  Herschel  did  more,  I  believe,  than  any  other  man  to  introduce  into 
Britain  the  powerful  methods  and  the  valuable  notation  of  modern  analysis. 
A  remarkable  mode  of  symbolism  had  frcslily  appeared,  I  believe,  in  the 
works  of  Laplace,  and  possibly  of  other  French  mathematicians  ;  it  certainly 
appeared  in  Fourier,  but  whether  before  or  after  Herschel's  work  I  cannot 
say.  "With  the  French  writers,  however,  this  was  rather  a  short  method  of 
writing  formuhe  than  the  analytical  engine  whicli  it  became  in  the  hands 
of  Herschel  and  British  followers,  especially  Sylvester  and  Gregory  (com- 
petitors with  Green  in  the  Cambridge  Mathematical  Tripos  struggle  of  1837) 
and  Boole  and  Cayley.  This  method  was  greatly  advanced  by  Gregory,  who 
first  gave  to  its  working-power  a  secure  and  pliilosophical  foundation,  and  so 
prepared  the  way  for  the  marvellous  extension  it  has  received  from  Boole, 
Sylvester,  and  Cayley,  according  to  which  symbols  of  operation  become  the 
subjects  not  merely  of  algebraic  combination,  but  of  differentiations  and  in- 
tegrations, as  if  they  were  symbols  expressing  values  of  varying  quantities. 
An  even  more  marvellous  development  of  this  same  idea  of  the  separation  of 
symbols  (according  to  which  Gregorj*  separated  the  algebraic  signs  4-  and  — 
from  other  symbols  or  quantities  to  be  chai-acterized  b}-  them,  aud  dealt  with 
them  according  to  the  laws  of  algebraic  combination)  received  from  Hamilton 
a  most  astonishing  generalization,  by  the  invention  actually  of  new  laws  of 
combination,  and  led  him  to  his  famous  "  Quaternions,"  of  which  he  gave 
his  earliest  exposition  to  the  Mathematical  and  Physical  Section  of  this  As- 
sociation, at  its  meeting  in  Cambridge  in  the  year  1845.  Tait  has  taken  up 
the  subject  of  quaternions  ably  and  zealously,  and  has  carried  it  into  phy- 
sical science  with  a  faith,  shared  by  some  of  the  most  thoughtful  mathematical 
naturalists  of  the  day,  that  it  is  destined  to  become  an  engine  of  perhaps 
hitherto  uuimagined  power  for  investigating  and  expressing  results  in 
Natural  Philosophy.  Of  Herschel's  gigantic  work  in  astronomical  observa- 
tion I  need  say  nothing.  Doubtless  a  careful  account  of  it  will  be  given 
in  the  '  Proceedings  of  the  Eoyal  Society  of  London '  for  the  next  anniver- 
sary meeting. 

*  Young's;  written  in  1823  for  the  Supplement  to  ti:e  '  Encyclopjifdia  Eritannica.' 


ADDRESS.  IxXXvii 

In  the  past  year  another  representative  man  of  British  science  is  gone. 
Mathematics  has  had  no  steadier  supporter  for  hjlf  a  century  than  De 
Morgan.  His  great  book  on  the  differential  calculus  was,  for  the  mathema- 
tical student  of  thirty  years  ago,  a  highly  prized  repository  of  all  the  best 
thiiags  that  could  be  brought  together  under  that  title.  I  do  not  believe 
it  is  less  valuable  now  ;  and  if  it  is  less  valued,  may  this  not  be  because  it 
is  too  good  for  examination  purposes,  and  because  the  modern  student, 
labouring  to  win  marks  in  the  struggle  for  existence,  must  not  suffer  himself 
to  be  beguiled  from  the  stern  path  of  duty  by  any  attractive  beauties  in  the 
subject  of  his  studj'^  ? 

One  of  the  most  valuable  services  to  science  which  the  British  Association 
has  performed  has  been  the  establishment,  and  the  twenty-nine  years' 
maintenance,  of  its  Observatoiy.  The  Royal  Meteorological  Observatory  of 
Kew  was  built  originally  for  a  Sovereign  of  England  who  was  a  zealous 
amateur  of  astronomy.  George  the  Third  iised  continually  to  repair  to  it 
when  any  celestial  i)henomenon  of  peculiar  interest  was  to  be  seen ;  and  a 
manuscript  book  still  exists  filled  with  observations  written  into  it  by  his 
own  hand.  After  the  building  had  been  many  years  unused,  it  was 
granted,  in  the  year  1842,  by  the  Commissioners  of  Her  Majesty's  Woods 
and  Forests,  on  application  of  Sir  Edward  Sabine,  for  the  purpose  of  con- 
tinuing observations  (from  which  he  had  already  deduced  important  results) 
regarding  the  vibration  of  a  pendulum  in  various  gases,  and  for  the  purpose 
of  promoting  pendulum  observations  in  all  parts  of  the  world.  The 
Government  granted  only  the  building — no  funds  for  carrying  on  the  work 
to  be  done  in  it.  The  Boyal  Society  was  unable  to  undertake  the  main- 
tenance of  such  an  observatory;  but,  happily  for  science,  the  zeal  of  in- 
dividual Fellows  of  the  Eoyal  Society  and  Members  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation gave  the  initial  impulse,  supplied  the  necessary  initial  funds,  and 
recommended  their  new  institution  successfully  to  the  fostering  care  of  the 
British  Association.  The  work  of  the  Kew  Observatory  has,  from  the 
commencement,  been  conducted  under  the  direction  of  a  Committee  of  the 
British  Association  ;  and  annual  grants  from  the  funds  of  the  Association  have 
been  made  towards  defraying  its  expenses  up  to  the  present  time.  To  the 
initial  object  of  pendulum  research  was  added  continuous  observation  of  the 
phenomena  of  meteorology  and  terrestrial  magnetism,  and  the  construction 
and  verification  of  thermometers,  barometers,  and  magnetometers  designed 
for  accurate  measurement.  The  magnificent  services  which  it  has  rendered 
to  science  are  so  well  known  that  any  statement  of  them  which  I  could  at- 
tempt on  the  present  occasion  would  be  superfluous.  Their  value  is  due  in  a 
great  measure  to  the  indefatigable  zeal  and  the  great  ability  of  two  Scotchmen, 
both  from  Edinburgh,  who  successively  held  the  office  of  Superintendent  of 
the  Observatory  of  the  British  Association — Mr.  Welsh  for  nine  years,  until 
his  death  in  18-59,  and  Dr.  Balfour  Stewart  from  then  until  the  present 
time.  Fruits  of  their  labours  are  to  be  found  all  through  our  volumes  of 
Reports  for  these  twenty-one  years. 

The  institution  now  enters  on  a  new  stage  of  its  existence.  The  noble 
liberality  of  a  private  benefactor,  one  who  has  laboured  for  its  welfare  with 
self-sacrificing  devotion  unintermittingly  from  within  a  few  years  of  its  crea- 
tion, has  given  it  a  permanent  independence,  under  the  general  management 
of  a  Committee  of  the  Royal  Society.  Mr.  Gassiot's  gift  of  £10,000  secures 
the  continuance  at  Kew  of  the  regular  operation  of  the  self-recording  instru- 
ments for  observing  the  phenomena  of  terrestrial  magnetism  and  meteorology, 
without  the  necessity  for  further  support  from  the  British  Association. 

i/2 


ISLXXviii  REPORT 1871. 

Tho  success  of  the  Kew  Magnetic  and  Meteorological  ObseiTatory  affords 
ah  example  of  the  great  gain  to  be  earned  for  science  by  the  founda- 
tion of  physical  observJitories  and  laboratories  for  experimental  research, 
to  be  conducted  by  qualified  persons,  whose  duties  should  be,  not  teach- 
ing, but  experimenting.  Whether  we  look  to  the  honour  of  England,  as  a 
nation  v>iiich  ought  always  to  be  the  foremost  in  promoting  physical  science, 
or  to  those  vast  economical  advantages  which  must  accrue  from  such  esta- 
blishments, we  cannot  but  feel  that  experimental  research  ought  to  be  made 
with  us  an  object  of  national  concern,  and  not  left,  as  hitherto,  exclusively 
to  the  private  enterprise  of  self-sacrificing  amateurs,  and  the  necessarily 
inconsecutive  action  of  our  present  Governmental  Departments  and  of  casual 
Committees.  The  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh  has  moved  for 
this  object  in  a  memorial  presented  by  them  to  the  Eoyal  Commission  on 
Scientific  Education  and  the  Advancement  of  Science.  Tlie  Continent  of 
Europe  is  referred  to  for  an  example  to  be  followed  with  advantage  in  this 
country,  in  the  following  words: — - 

"  On  the  Continent  there  exist  certain  institutions,  fitted  with  instruments, 
"  apparatus,  chemicals,  and  other  appliances,  which  are  meant  to  be,  and 
"  which  are  made,  available  to  men  of  science,  to  enable  them,  at  a  moderate 
"  cost,  to  pursue  original  researches." 

Tliis  statement  is  fuUy  corroborated  by  information,  on  good  authority, 
Avhich  T  have  received  from  Germany,  to  the  effect  that  in  Prussia  "  every 
"  university,  every  polytechnical  academy,  every  industrial  school  (Realschule 
"  and  Gewerbeschule),  most  of  the  grammar-schools,  in  a  word,  nearly  all  the 
"  scliools  superior  in  rank  to  the  elementary  schools  of  the  common  people,  are 
"  supplied  with  chemical  laboratories  and  a  collection  of  philosophical  in- 
"  struments  and  apparatus,  access  to  which  is  most  liberally  granted  by  the 
"  directors  of  those  schools,  or  the  teachers  of  the  respective  disciplines,  to 
"  any  person  qualified,  for  scientijic  experiments.  In  consequence,  though 
"  there  exist  no  particular  institutions  like  those  mentioned  in  the  me- 
"  morial,  there  wiU  scarcely  be  found  a  town  exceeding  in  number  5000 
"  inhabitants  but  offers  the  possibility  of  scientific  explorations  at  no  other 
"  cost  than  reimbursement  of  the  expense  for  the  materials  wasted  in  the 
"  experiments." 

Eurther,  with  reference  to  a  remark  in  the  Memorial  to  the  effect  that,  in 
respect  to  the  promotion  of  science,  the  British  Government  confines  its 
action  almost  exclusively  to  scientific  instruction,  and  fatally  neglects  the 
advancement  of  science,  my  informant  tells  me  that,  in  Germany,  "  professors, 
"preceptors,  and  teachers  of  secondary  schools  are  engaged  on  account  of 
"  their  skilfulness  in  teacMng  ;  but  professors  of  universities  are  never  engaged 
"unless  they  have  already  jjroved,  hy  their  oxvn  investigations,  that  they  are 
"  to  be  relied  upon  for  the  advancement  of  science.  Therefore  every  shilling 
'•'spent  for  instruction  in  iiniversities  is  at  the  same  time  profitable  to  the  ad- 
"  vaneement  of  science." 

The  lAysical  laboratories  which  have  grown  up  in  the  Universities  of 
Glasgow  and  Edinburgh,  and  in  Owens  College,  Manchester,  show  the  want 
felt  of  Colleges  of  Eesearch ;  but  they  go  but  infinitesimally  towards  sup- 
plying it,  being  absolutely  destitute  of  means,  material  or  personal,  for  ad- 
vancing science  except  at  the  expense  of  volunteers,  or  securing  that  volunteers 
shall  be  found  to  continue  even  such  little  work  as  at  present  is  carried  on. 

The  whole  of  Andrews'  splendid  work  in  Queen's  College,  Belfast,  has 
been  done  under  great  difficulties  and  disadvantages,  and  at  great  personal 
sacrifices  ;  and  up  to  the  present  time  there  is  not  a  student's  physical 


ADDRESS.  IxXXix 

laboratory  in  any  one  of  the  Qneen's  Colleges  in  Ireland — a  want  which 
surely  ought  not  to  remain  unsupplied.  Each  of  these  institutions  (the 
four  Scotch  Universities,  the  three  Queen's  Colleges,  and  Owens  College, 
Manchester)  requires  two  professors  of  Natural  Philosophy — one  who  shall 
be  responsible  for  the  teaching,  the  other  for  the  advancement  of  science  by 
experiment.  The  University  of  Oxford  has  already  established  a  physical 
laboratory.  The  munificence  of  its  Chancellor  is  about  to  supply  the  Univer- 
sity of  Cambridge  with  a  splendid  laboratory,  to  be  constructed  under  the 
eye  of  Professor  Clerk  Maxwell.  On  this  subject  I  shall  say  no  more  at 
present,  but  simply  read  a  sentence  which  was  spoken  by  Lord  Milton  in  the 
first  Presidential  Address  to  the  British  Association,  when  it  met  at  York  in 
the  year  1831  : — "  In  addition  to  other  more  direct  benefits,  these  meetings 
"  [of  the  British  Association],  I  hope,  will  be  the  means  of  impressing  on  the 
"  Government  the  conviction,  that  the  love  of  scientific  pursuits,  and  the 
"  means  of  pursuing  them,  are  not  confined  to  the  metropolis  ;  and  I  liopc 
"  that  when  the  Government  is  fuUy  impressed  with  the  knowledge  of  the 
"  great  desire  entertained  to  promote  science  in  every  part  of  the  empire,  they 
"  wiU  see  the  necessity  of  affording  it  due  encouragement,  and  of  giving  every 
"  proper  stimulus  to  its  advancement." 

Besides  abstracts  of  papers  read,  and  discussions  held,  before  the  Sec- 
tions, the  annual  Reports  of  the  British  Association  contain  a  large  mass 
of  valuable  matter  of  another  class.  It  was  an  early  practice  of  the  Associa- 
tion, a  practice  that  might  weU  be  further  developed,  to  call  occasionally  for 
a  special  report  on  some  particular  branch  of  science  from  a  man  eminently 
(jualified  for  the  task.  The  reports  received  in  compliance  with  these  invita- 
tions have  all  done  good  service  in  their  time,  and  they  remain  permanently 
useful  as  landmarks  in  the  history  of  science.  Some  of  them  have  led  to 
vast  practical  results ;  others  of  a  more  abstract  character  are  valuable  to 
this  day  as  powerful  and  instructive  condensations  and  expositions  of  the 
branches  of  science  to  which  they  relate.  I  cannot  better  illustrate  the  two 
kinds  of  efiicieucy  realized  in  this  department  of  the  Association's  work  than 
by  referring  to  Cayley's  Report  on  Abstract  Dynamics  *  and  Sabine's  Report 
on  Terrestrial  Magnetism  t  (1838). 

To  the  great  value  of  the  former,  personal  experience  of  benefit  received 
enables  me,  and  gratitude  impels  me,  to  testify.  In  a  few  pages  full  of 
precious  matter,  the  generalized  dynamical  equations  of  Lagrange,  the 
great  principle  evolved  from  Maupertuis'  "  least  action  "  by  Hamilton,  and 
the  later  developments  and  applications  of  the  Hamiltonian  principle  by 
other  authors  are  described  by  Cayley  so  suggestively  that  the  reading  of 
thousands  of  quarto  pages  of  papers  scattered  through  the  Transactions  of  the 
various  learned  Societies  of  Europe  is  rendered  superfluous  for  any  one  who 
desires  only  the  essence  of  these  investigations,  with  no  more  of  detail  than  is 
necessary  for  a  thorough  and  practical  understanding  of  the  subject. 

Sabine's  Report  of  1838  concludes  with  the  following  sentence  : — "  Yiewed 
"  in  itself  and  its  various  relations,  the  magnetism  of  the  earth  cannot 
"  be  counted  less  than  one  of  the  most  important  branches  of  the  physical 
"  history  of  the  planet  we  inhabit ;  and  we  may  feel  quite  assured  tliat  the 
"  completion  of  our  knowledge  of  its  distribution  on  the  surface  of  the  earth 

*  Eeport  on  the  Recent  Progress  of  Theoretical  Dj'naiuics,  by  A.  Cayley  (Report  of  tlie 
British  Association  1857,  p.  1). 

t  Eeport  on  tlio  Variations  of  the  Magnetic  Intensity  observed  at  different  points  of  (lie 
Earth's  Surface,  by  Major  Sabine,  F.E.S.  (forming  part  of  the  7th  Eeport  of  the  Biitish 
Association). 


XC  REPORT — 1871. 

"  would  bo  regarded  by  our  contemporaries  and  by  posterity  as  a  fitting 
"  enterprise  of  a  maritime  people,  and  a  worthy  achievement  of  a  nation 
"  which  has  ever  sought  to  rank  foremost  in  every  arduous  and  honourable 
"  undertaking."  An  immediate  result  of  this  lleport  was  that  the  enterprise 
which  it  xjroposed  was  recommended  to  the  Government  by  a  joint  Committee 
of  the  British  Association  and  the  lloyal  Society  with  such  success,  that 
Capt.  James  Eoss  was  sent  in  command  of  the  '  Erebus  '  and  '■  Terror '  to 
make  a  magnetic  survey  of  the  Antarctic  regions,  and  to  plant  on  his  way 
three  Magnetical  and  Meteorological  Observatories,  at  St.  Helena,  the  Cape, 
and  Yan  Diemen's  Land.  A  vast  mass  of  precious  observations,  made 
chiefly  on  board  ship,  were  brought  home  from  this  expedition.  To  deduce 
the  desired  results  from  them,  it  was  necessary  to  eliminate  the  disturbance 
produced  by  the  ship's  magnetism ;  and  Sabine  asked  his  friend  Archibald 
Smith  to  work  out  from  Poisson's  mathematical  theory,  then  the  only  avail- 
able guide,  the  formulae  required  for  the  purpose.  This  voluntary  task 
Smith  executed  skilfully  and  successfully.  It  was  the  beginning  of  a  series 
of  labours  carried  on  with  most  remarkable  practical  tact,  with  thorough 
analytical  skill,  and  with  a  rare  extreme  of  disinterestedness,  in  the  intervals 
of  an  arduous  profession,  for  the  purpose  of  perfecting  and  simplifying  the 
correction  of  the  mariner's  compass — a  problem  which  had  become  one  of 
vital  importance  for  navigation,  on  account  of  the  introduction  of  iron  ships. 
Edition  after  edition  of  the  '  Admiralty  Compass  Manual '  has  been  pro- 
duced by  the  able  superintendent  of  the  Compass  Department,  Captain 
Evans,  containing  chapters  of  mathematical  investigation  and  formulaj  by 
Smith,  on  which  depend  wholly  the  jsractical  analysis  of  compass-obser- 
vations, and  rules  for  the  safe  use  of  the  compass  in  navigation.  I  firmly 
believe  that  it  is  to  the  thoroughly  scientific  method  thus  adopted  by  the 
Admiralty,  that  no  iron  ship  of  Her  Majesty's  Navy  has  ever  been  lost 
through  errors  of  the  compass.  The  'British  Admiralty  Compass  Manual' 
is  adopted  as  a  guide  by  all  the  navies  of  the  world.  It  has  been  translated 
into  llussian,  German,  and  Portuguese ;  and  it  is  at  present  being  translated 
into  French.  The  British  Association  may  be  gratified  to  know  that  the 
possibility  of  navigating  ironclad  war-ships  with  safety  depends  on  applica- 
tion of  scientific  principles  given  to  the  world  by  three  mathematicians, 
Poisson,  Airy,  and  Archibald  Smith. 

Eeturning  to  the  science  of  terrestrial  magnetism,  we  find  in  the  Eeports 
of  early  years  of  the  British  Association  ample  evidence  of  its  diligent  culti- 
vation. Many  of  the  chief  scientific  men  of  the  day  from  England,  Scotland, 
and  Ireland  found  a  strong  attraction  to  the  Association  in  the  facilities  which 
it  afforded  to  thom  for  cooperating  in  their  work  on  this  subject.  Lloyd,Phillips, 
Eox,  Eoss,  and  Sabine  made  magnetic  observations  all  over  Great  Britain ; 
and  their  results,  collected  by  Sabine,  gave  for  the  first  time  an  accurate  and 
complete  survey  of  terrestrial  magnetism  over  the  area  of  this  island.  I  am 
informed  by  Professor  Phillips  that,  in  the  beginning  of  the  Association,  Her- 
schel,  though  a  '•'  sincere  well-wisher,"  felt  doubts  as  to  the  general  utility  and 
probable  success  of  the  plan  and  purpose  proposed ;  but  his  zeal  for  terrestrial 
magnetism  broiight  him  from  being  merely  a  sincere  well-wisher  to  join  actively 
and  cordially  in  the  work  of  the  Association.  "  In  1838  he  began  to  give  efi"ec- 
"  tual  aid  in  the  great  question  of  magnetical  Observatories,  and  was  indeed 
"  foremost  among  the  supporters  of  that  which  is  really  Sabine's  great  work. 
"  At  intervals,  until  about  1858,  Herschel  continued  to  give  effectual  aid." 
Sabine  has  carried  on  his  great  work  without  intermission  to  the  present 
day ;  thirty  years  ago  he  gave  to  Gauss  a  large  part  of  the  data  required 


ADDRESS.  XCl 

for  working  out  the  spherical  harmonic  analysis  of  terrestrial  magnetism  over 
the  whole  earth.  A  recalculation  of  the  harmonic  analysis  for  the  altered 
state  of  terrestrial  magnetism  of  the  present  time  has  been  undertaken  by 
Adams.  He  writes  to  me  that  he  has  "  already  begun  some  of  the  iutroduc- 
"  tory  work,  so  as  to  be  ready  when  Sir  Edward  Sabine's  Tables  of  the  values 
"  of  the  Magnetic  Elements  deduced  from  obseryation  are  completed,  at  once 
"  to  make  use  of  them,"  and  that  he  intends  to  take  into  account  terms  of 
at  least  one  order  beyond  those  included  by  Gauss.  The  form  in  which 
the  requisite  data  are  to  be  presented  to  him  is  a  magnetic  Chart  of  the 
whole  surface  of  the  globe.  Materials  from  scientific  travellers  of  all 
nations,  from  our  home  magnetic  observatories,  from  the  magnetic  obser- 
vatories of  St.  Helena,  the  Cape,  Van  Diemen's  Land,  and  Toronto,  and 
from  the  scientific  observatories  of  other  countries  have  been  brought  to- 
gether by  Sabine.  Silently,  day  after  day,  night  after  niglit,  for  a  quarter 
of  a  century  he  has  toiled  with  one  constant  assistant  always  by  his  side 
to  reduce  these  observations  and  prepare  for  the  great  work.  At  this  moment, 
while  we  are  here  assembled,  I  believe  that,  in  their  quiet  summer  retirement 
in  Wales,  Sir  Edward  and  Lady  Sabine  are  at  work  on  the  magnetic  Chart 
of  the  world.  If  two  years  of  life  and  health  are  granted  to  them,  science 
will  be  provided  with  a' key  which  must  powerfully  conduce  to  the  ultimate 
opening  up  of  one  of  the  most  refractory  enigmas  of  cosiuical  physics,  the 
cause  of  terrestrial  magnetism. 

To  give  any  sketch,  however  slight,  of  scientific  investigation  performed 
during  the  past  year  would,  even  if  I  were  competent  for  the  task,_far  ex- 
ceed the  limits  within  which  I  am  confined  on  the  present  occasion.  _A 
detailed  account  of  work  done  and  knowledge  gained  in  science  Britain 
ought  to  have  every  year.  The  Journal  of  the  Chemical  Society  and  the 
Zoological  Eecord  do  excellent-  service  by  giving  abstracts  of  all  papers 
published  in  their  departments.  The  admirable  example  afforded  by  the 
German  "Fortschritte"  and  "Jahresbericht"  is  before  us;  but  hitherto,  so  far 
as  I  know,  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  foUow  it  in  Britain.  It  is  true  that 
several  of  the  annual  volumes  of  the  Jahresbericht  were  translated ;  but  a 
translation,  published  necessarily  at  a  considerable  interval  of  time  after  the 
original,  cannot  supply  the  want.  An  independent  British  publication  is  for 
many  obvious  reasons  desirable.  The  two  publications,  in  German  and 
English,  would,  both  by  their  differences  and  by  their  agreements,  illustrate 
the  progress  of  science  more  correctly  and  usefuUy  than  any  single  work 
could  do,  even  if  appearing  simultaneously  in  the  two  languages.  It  seems 
to  me  that  to  promote  the  establishment  of  a  British  Year  Book  of  Science  is 
an  object  to  which  the  powerful  action  of  the  British  Association  would  be 
thoroughly  appropriate. 

In  referrhig  to  recent  advances  in  several  branches  of  science,  I  simply 
choose  some  of  those  which  have  struck  me  as  most  notable. 

Accurate  and  minute  measurement  seems  to  the  non-scientific  imagination 
a  less  lofty  and  dignified  work  than  looking  for  something  nev/.  But  nearly 
all  the  grandest  discoveries  of  science  have  been  but  the  rewards  of  accurate 
measurement  and  patient  long-continued  labour  in  the  minute  sifting  of 
numerical  results.  The  popular  idea  of  Newton's  grandest  discovery  is  that 
the  theory  of  gravitation  flashed  into  his  mind,  and  so  the  discovery  was 
made.  It  was  by  a  long  train  of  mathematical  calculation,  founded  on 
results  accumulated  through  prodigious  toil  of  practical  astronomers,  that 
Newton  first  demonstrated  the  forces  urging  the  planets  towards  the  Sun, 
determined  the  magnitudes  of  those  forces,  and  discovered  that  a  force  fol- 


Xcii  REPORT — 1871. 

lowing  the  same  law  of  variation  with  distance  urges  the  Moon  towards  the 
Earth.  Then  first,  we  may  suppose,  came  to  him  the  idea  of  the  universality  of 
gravitation ;  butwhen  he  attempted  to  compare  the  magnitude  of  the  force  on  the 
Moon  with  the  magnitude  of  the  force  of  gravitation  of  a  heavy  body  of  equal 
mass  at  the  earth's  surface,  he  did  not  find  the  agreement  which  the  law  he 
was  discovering  required.  Not  for  years  after  would  he  publish  his  discovery 
as  made.  It  is  recounted  that,  being  present  at  a  meeting  of  the  Royal  Society, 
he  heard  a  paper  read,  describiug  geodesic  measurement  by  Picard  which 
led  to  a  serious  correction  of  the  previously  accepted  estimate  of  the  Earth's 
radius.  This  was  what  Newton  required.  He  went  home  with  the  result, 
and  commenced  liis  calculations,  but  felt  so  much  agitated  that  he  handed 
over  the  arithmetical  work  to  a  friend :  then  (and  not  when,  sitting  in  a 
garden,  he  saw  an  apple  fall)  did  he  ascertain  that  gravitation  keeps  the  Moon 
in  her  orbit. 

Faraday's  discovery  of  specific  inductive  capacity,  which  inaugurated  the 
new  philosophy,  tending  to  discard  action  at  a  distance,  was  the  result  of 
minute  and  accurate  measurement  of  electric  forces. 

Joule's  discovery  of  thermo-dynamic  law  through  the  regions  of  electro- 
chemistry, electro-magnetism,  and  elasticity  of  gases  was  based  on  a  delicacy 
of  thermometry  which  seemed  simply  impossible  to  some  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished chemists  of  the  day. 

Andrews'  discovery  of  the  continuity  between  the  gaseous  and  liquid  states 
was  worked  out  by  many  years  of  laborious  and  minute  measurement  of  phe- 
nomena scarcely  sensible  to  the  naked  eye. 

Great  service  has  been  done  to  science  by  the  British  Association  in  pro- 
moting accurate  measurement  in  various  subjects.  The  origin  of  exact 
science  in  terrestrial  magnetism  is  traceable  to  Gauss'  invention  of  methods 
of  finding  the  magnetic  intensity  in  absolute  measure.  I  have  spoken  of 
the  great  work  done  by  the  British  Association  in  carrying  out  the  ap- 
plication of  this  invention  in  all  parts  of  the  world.  Gauss'  colleague  in 
the  German  Magnetic  Union,  AVebcr,  extended  the  practice  of  absolute 
measurement  to  electric  currents,  the  resistance  of  an  electric  conductor, 
and  the  electromotive  force  of  a  galvanic  element.  He  showed  the  rela- 
tion between  electrostatic  and  electromagnetic  units  for  absolute  mea- 
surement, and  made  the  beautiful  discovery  that  resistance,  in  absolute  elec- 
tromagnetic measure,  and  the  reciprocal  of  resistance,  or,  as  we  call  it,  "  con- 
ducting power,"  in  electrostatic  measure,  are  each  of  them  a  velocity.  He 
made  an  elaborate  and  difficult  series  of  experiments  to  measure  the  velocity 
which  is  equal  to  the  conducting  power,  in  electrostatic  measure,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  the  resistance  in  electromagnetic  measure,  in  one  and  the  same 
conductor.  Maxwell,  in  making  the  first  advance  along  a  road  of  which 
Faraday  was  the  pioneer,  discovered  that  this  velocity  is  physically  related  to 
the  velocity  of  light,  and  that,  on  a  certain  hypothesis  regarding  the  elastic 
medium  concerned,  it  may  be  exactly  equal  to  the  velocity  of  light.  Weber's 
measurement  verifies  approximately  this  equality,  and  stands  in  science 
monumentmn  cere  perennius,  celebrated  as  having  suggested  this  most  grand 
theory,  and  as  having  afforded  the  first  quantitative  test  of  the  recondite 
properties  of  matter  on  which  the  relations  between  electricity  and  light 
depend.  A  remeasurcment  of  Weber's  critical  velocity  on  a  new  plan  by  Max- 
well himself,  and  the  important  correction  of  the  velocity  of  light  by  Fou- 
cault's  laboratory  experiments,  verified  by  astronomical  observation,  seem  to 
show  a  still  closer  agreement.  The  most  accurate  possible  determination  of 
Weber's  critical  velocity  is  just  now  a  primary  object  of  the  Association's 


ADDRESS.  XCllI 

Committee  on  Electric  Measurement ;  and  it  is  at  present  premature  to  specu- 
late as  to  the  closeness  of  the  agreement  between  that  Telocity  and  the 
velocity  of  light.  This  leads  me  to  remark  how  much  science,  even  in  its 
most  lofty  speculations,  gains  in  return  for  benefits  conferred  by  its  applica- 
tion to  promote  the  social  and  material  welfare  of  man.  Those  who  perilled 
and  lost  their  money  in  the  original  Atlantic  Telegraph  were  impelled  and 
supported  by  a  sense  of  the  grandeur  of  their  enterprise,  and  of  the  world- 
wide benefits  whicli  must  flow  from  its  success ;  they  were  at  the  same  time 
not  unmoved  by  the  beauty  of  the  scientific  problem  directly,  presented  to 
them ;  but  they  little  thought  that  it  was  to  be  immediately,  through  their 
work,  that  the  scientific  world  was  to  be  instructed  in  a  long-neglected  and 
discredited  fundamental  electric  discovery  of  Faraday's,  or  that,  again,  when 
the  assistance  of  the  British  Association  was  invoked  to  supply  their  elec- 
tricians with  methods  for  absolute  measurement  (which  tliey  found  necessary 
to  secure  the  best  economical  return  for  their  expenditure,  and  to  obviate 
and  detect  those  faults  in  their  electric  material  which  had  led  to  disaster), 
they  were  laying  the  foundation  for  accurate  electric  measurement  in  every 
scientific  laboratory  in  the  world,  and  initiating  a  train  of  investigation  whicli 
now  sends  up  branches  into  the  loftiest  regions  and  subtlest  ether  of  natural 
philosophy.  Long  may  the  British  Association  continue  a  bond  of  union, 
and  a  medium  for  the  interchange  of  good  offices  between  science  and  the 
world ! 

The  greatest  achievement  yet  made  in  molecular  theory  of  the  proper- 
ties of  matter  is  the  Kinetic  theory  of  Gases,  shadowed  forth  by  Lucretius, 
definitely  stated  by  Daniel  Bernoulli,  largely  developed  by  Herapath,  made 
a  reality  by  Joule,  and  worked  out  to  its  present  advanced  state  by  Clausius 
and  Maxwell.  Joule,  from  his  dynamical  equivalent  of  heat,  and  his  expe- 
riments upon  the  heat  produced  by  the  condensation  of  gas,  was  able  to 
estimate  the  average  velocity  of  the  ultimate  molecules  or  atoms  composing 
it.  His  estimate  for  hydrogen  was  6225  feet  per  second  at  temperature  60° 
Fahr.,  and  6055  feet  per  second  at  the  freezing-point.  Clausius  took  fully 
into  account  the  impacts  of  molecules  on  one  another,  and  the  kinetic  energy 
of  relative  motions  of  the  matter  constituting  an  individual  atom.  He  in- 
vesfigated  the  relation  between  their  diameters,  the  number  in  a  given 
space,  and  the  mean  length  of  path  from  impact  to  impact,  and  so  gave  the 
foundation  for  estimates  of  the  absolute  dimensions  of  atoms,  to  which  I  shall 
refer  later.  He  explained  the  slowness  of  gaseous  diffusion  by  the  mutual 
impacts  of  the  atoms,  and  laid  a  secure  foundation  for  a  complete  theory  of 
the  diffusion  of  fluids,  previously  a  most  refractory  enigma.  The  deeply 
penetrating  genius  of  MaxweU  brought  in  viscosity  and  thermal  conductivity, 
and  thus  completed  the  dynamical  explanation  of  aU  the  known  properties 
of  gases,  except  their  electric  resistance  and  brittleness  to  electric  force. 

No  such  comprehensive  molecular  theory  had  ever  been  even  imagined 
before  the  nineteenth  century.  Definite  and  complete  in  its  area  as  it 
is,  it  is  but  a  well-drawn  part  of  a  great  chart,  in  which  aU  physical 
science  wiU  be  represented  with  every  property  of  matter  shown  in  dyna- 
mical relation  to  the  whole.  The  prospect  we  now  have  of  an  early 
completion  of  this  chart  is  based  on  the  assumption  of  atoms.  But  there 
can  be  no  permanent  satisfaction  to  the  mind  in  explaining  heat,  light,  elas- 
ticity, diffusion,  electricity  and  magnetism,  in  gases,  liquids,  and  solids,  and 
describing  precisely  the  relations  of  these  different  states  of  matter  to  one 
another  by  statistics  of  gxeat  numbers  of  atoms,  when  the  properties  of  the 
atom  itself  are  simply  assumed.     When  the  theory,  of  which  we  have  the  first 


xciv  REPOKT— 1871. 

instalment  in  Clausius  and  Maxwell's  work,  is  complete,  wo  are  but  brought 
face  to  face  with  a  superlatively  grand  question,  what  is  the  inner  me- 
chanism of  the  atom  ? 

In  the  answer  to  this  question  we  must  find  the  explanation  not  only 
of  the  atomic  elasticity,  by  which  the  atom  is  a  chronometi-ic  vibrator  ac- 
cording to  Stokes's  discovery,  but  of  chemical  affinity  and  of  the  differences 
of  quality  of  different  chemical  elements,  at  present  a  mere  mystery  in 
science.  Helmholtz's  exquisite  theory  of  vortex-motion  in  au  incompressible 
frictionlcss  liquid  has  been  suggested  as  a  finger-post,  pointing  a  way 
which  may  possibly  lead  to  a  fall  understanding  of  the  properties  of  atoms, 
carrying  out  the  grand  conception  of  Lucretius,  who  "  admits  no  subtle 
"  ethers,  no  variety  of  elements  with  fiery,  or  watery,  or  light,  or  heavy 
"  principles ;  nor  supposes  light  to  be  one  thing,  fire  another,  electricity  a 
"  fluid,  magnetism  a  vital  principle,  but  treats  all  phenomena  as  mere  pro- 
"  perties  or  accidents  of  simple  matter."  This  statement  I  take  from 
an  admirable  paper  on  the  atomic  theory  of  Lucretius,  which  appeared  in 
the  '  North  British  Eeview '  for  March  1868,  containing  a  most  interesting 
and  instructive  summary  of  ancient  and  modern  doctrine  regarding  atoms. 
Allow  me  to  read  from  that  article  one  other  short  passage  finely  describing 
the  present  aspect  of  atomic  theory : — "  The  existence  of  the  chemical 
"  atom,  already  quite  a  complex  little  world,  seems  very  probable ;  and 
"  the  description  of  the  Lucretian  atom  is  wonderfully  applicable  to  it.  "VVe 
<'  are  not  wholly  without  hope  that  the  real  weight  of  each  such  atom  may 
"  some  day  be  known — not  merely  the  relative  weight  of  the  several  atoms, 
<'  but  the  number  in  a  given  volume  of  any  material ;  that  the  form  and 
"  motion  of  the  parts  of  each  atom  and  the  distances  by  which  they  are 
"  separated  may  be  calculated  ;  that  the  motions  by  which  they  produce  heat, 
"  electricity,  and  light  may  be  illustrated  by  exact  geometrical  diagrams  ;  and 
"  that  the  fundamental  properties  of  the  intermediate  and  possibly  constituent 
"  medium  may  be  arrived  at.  Then  the  motion  of  planets  and  music  of  the 
"  spheres  will  be  neglected  for  a  while  in  admiration  of  the  maze  in  Avhich 
"  the  tiny  atoms  run." 

Even  before  this  was  written  some  of  the  anticipated  results  had  been  par- 
tially attained.  Loschmidt  in  Vienna  had  sho^wn,  and  not  much  latter  Stoncy 
independently  in  England  showed,  how  to  deduce  from  Clausius  and  Max- 
well's kinetic  theory  of  gases  a  superior  limit  to  the  number  of  atoms  in  a 
given  measurable  space.  I  was  unfortunately  quite  unaware  of  what  Loschmidt 
and  Stoney  had  done  when  I  made  a  similar  estimate  on  the  same  founda- 
tion, and  communicated  it  to  '  Nature '  in  an  article  on  "  The  Size  of 
Atoms."  But  questions  of  personal  priority,  however  interesting  they  may  be 
to  the  persons  concerned,  sink  into  insignificance  in  the  prospect  of  any  gain 
of  deeper  insight  into  the  secrets  of  nature.  The  triple  coincidence  of  inde- 
pendent reasoning  in  this  ease  is  valuable  as  confirmation  of  a  conclusion 
violently  contravening  ideas  and  opinions  which  had  been  almost  universally 
held  reo-arding  the  dimensions  of  the  molecular  structure  of  matter.  Che- 
mists and  other  naturalists  had  been  in  the  habit  of  evading  questions  as  to 
the  hardness  or  indivisibility  of  atoms  by  virtually  assuming  them  to  bo  in- 
finitely small  and  infinitely  numerous.  We  must  now  no  longer  look  upon 
the  atom,  with  Boscovich,  as  a  mystic  point  endowed  with  inertia  and  the 
attribute  of  attracting  or  repelhng  other  such  centres  with  forces  depending 
upon  the  intervening  distances  (a  supposition  only  tolerated  with  the  tacit 
assumption  that  the  inertia  and  attraction  of  each  atom  is  infinitely  small  and 
the  number  of  atoms  infinitely  great),  nor  can  wo  agree  with  those  who  have 


ADDKESS.  XCt 

attributed  to  the  atom  occupation  of  space  with  infinite  hardness  and  strength 
(incredible  in  any  finite  body) ;  but  we  must  realize  it  as  a  piece  of  matter 
of  measurable  dimensions,  with  shape,  motion,  and  laws  of  action,  intelligible 
subjects  of  scientific  investigation. 

The  prismatic  analysis  of  light  discovered  by  Newton  was  estimated  by 
himself  as  being  "  the  oddest,  if  not  the  most  considerable,  detection  which 
"  hath  hitherto  been  made  in  the  operations  of  nature." 

Had  he  not  been  deflected  from  the  subject,  he  could  not  have  failed 
to  obtain  a  pure  spectrum ;  but  this,  with  the  inevitably  consequent 
discovery  of  the  dark  lines,  was  reserved  for  the  nineteenth  century. 
Our  fundamental  knowledge  of  the  dark  lines  is  due  solely  to  Praun- 
hofer.  Wollastou  saw  them,  but  did  not  discover  them.  Ijrewster  laboured 
long  and  well  to  perfect  the  prismatic  analysis  of  sunlight ;  and  his  observa- 
tions on  the  dark  bands  produced  by  the  absorption  of  interposed  gases  and 
vapours  laid  important  foundatioiis  for  the  grand  superstructure  which  he 
scarcely  lived  to  see.  Piazzi  Smyth,  by  spectroscopic  observation  performed 
on  the  Peak  of  Tenei-iffe,  added  greatly  to  our  knowledge  of  the  dark  lines 
produced  in  the  solar  spectrum  by  the  absorption  of  our  own  atmosphere. 
The  prism  became  an  instrirment  for  chemical  qualitative  analysis  in  the 
hands  of  Fox  Talbot  and  Herschel,  who  first  showed  how,  throirgh  it,  the 
old  "blowpipe  test"  or  generally  the  estimation  of  substances  from  the 
colours  which  they  give  to  flames,  can  be  prosecuted  with  an  accuracy 
and  a  discriminating  power  not  to  be  attained  when  the  colour  is  judged 
by  the  unaided  eye.  But  the  application  of  this  test  to  solar  and  stellar 
chemistry  had  never,  I  believe,  been  suggested,  either  directly  or  indirectly, 
by  any  other  naturalist,  when  Stokes  taught  it  to  me  in  Cambridge  at  some 
time  prior  to  the  summer  of  1S52.  The  observational  and  experimental 
foundations  on  which  he  built  were  : — 

(1 )  The  discovery  by  Praunhofer  of  a  coincidence  between  his  double  dark 
line  D  of  the  solar  spectrum  and  a  double  bright  line  which  he  observed  in 
the  spectra  of  ordinary  artificial  flames. 

(2)  A  very  rigorous  experimental  test  of  this  coincidence  by  Prof.  W.  H, 
Miller,  which  showed  it  to  be  accurate  to  an  astonishing  degree  of  minuteness. 

(3)  The  fact  that  the  yellow  light  given  out  when  salt  is  thrown  on  burning 
spirit  consists  almost  solely  of  the  two  nearly  identical  qualities  which  con- 
stitute that  double  bright  line. 

(4)  Observations  made  by  Stokes  himself,  which  showed  the  bright  line  D 
to  be  absent  in  a  candle-flame  when  the  wick  was  snuffed  clean,  so  as  not  to 
project  into  the  luminous  envelope,  and  from  an  alcohol  flame  when  the  spirit 
was  burned  in  a  watch-glass.     And 

(5)  Poucault's  admirable  discovery  (L'Institut,  Peb.  7,  1849)  that  the 
voltaic  arc  between  charcoal  points  is  "a  medium  which  emits  the  rays  D 
"  on  its  own  account,  and  at  the  same  time  absorbs  them  when  they  come 
"  from  another  quarter." 

The  conclusions,  theoretical  and  practical,  which  Stokes  taught  me,  and 
which  I  gave  regularly  afterwards  in  my  public  lectures  in  the  University  of 
Glasgow,  were  : — 

(1)  That  the  double  line  D,  whether  bright  or  dark,  is  due  to  vapour  of 
sodium. 

(2)  That  the  ultimate  atom  of  sodium  is  susceptible  of  regular  elastic  vi- 
brations, like  those  of  a  tuning-fork  or  of  stringed  musical  instruments  ;  that 
like  an  instrument  with  two  strings  tuned  to  approximate  unison,  or  an  ap- 
proximately circular  clastic  disk,  it  has  two  fundamental  notes  or  vibrations 


XCvi  KEPORT 1871. 

of  approximately  equal  pitch  ;  and  that  the  periods  of  these  vibrations  are 
precisely  the  periods  of  the  t'wo  slightly  different  yellow  lights  constituting 
the  double  bright  line  D. 

(3)  That  when  vapour  of  sodium  is  at  a  high  enough  temperature  to  be- 
come itself  a  source  of  light,  each  atom  executes  these  two  fundamental 
vibrations  simultaneously ;  and  that  therefore  the  light  proceeding  from  it  is 
of  the  two  qunlitics  constituting  the  double  bright  line  D. 

(4)  That  when  vapour  of  sodium  is  present  in  space  across  which  light 
from  another  source  is  propagated,  its  atoms,  according  to  a  weU-known 
general  principle  of  dynamics,  are  set  to  vibrate  in  either  or  both  of  those 
fundamental  modes,  if  some  of  the  incident  light  is  of  one  or  other  of  their 
periods,  or  some  of  one  and  some  of  the  other ;  so  that  the  energy  of  the 
waves  of  those  particular  qualities  of  light  is  converted  into  thermal  vibra- 
tions of  the  medium  and  dispersed  in  all  directions,  while  light  of  all  other 
qualities,  even  though  very  nearly  agreeing  with  them,  is  transmitted  with 
comparatively  no  loss. 

(5)  That  Fraunhofers  double  dark  line  D  of  solar  and  stellar  spectra  is  due 
to  the  presence  of  vapour  of  sodium  in  atmospheres  surroiinding  the  sun 
and  those  stars  in  whose  spectra  it  had  been  observed. 

(G)  That  other  vapours  than  sodium  are  to  be  found  in  the  atmospheres 
of  sun  and  stars  by  searcliing  for  substances  producing  in  the  spectra  of 
artificial  flames  bright  lines  coinciding  with  other  dark  lines  of  the  solar 
and  stellar  spectra  than  the  Fraunhofer  line  D. 

The  last  of  these  propositions  I  felt  to  be  confirmed  (it  was  perhaps 
partlj'  suggested)  by  a  striking  and  beautiful  experiment  admirably  adapted 
for  lecture  illustrations,  due  to  Foucault,  which  had  been  shown  to  me  by 
M.  Duboscque  Soleil,  and  the  Abbe  Moigno,  in  Paris  in  the  month  of 
October  1850.  A  prism  and  lenses  were  arranged  to  throw  upon  a  screen 
an  approximately  pure  spectrum  of  a  vertical  electric  are  between  charcoal 
poles  of  a  powerful  battery,  the  lower  one  of  which  was  hollowed  like  a  cup. 
When  pieces  of  copper  and  pieces  of  zinc  were  separately  thrown  into  the 
cup,  the  spectrum  exhibited,  in  perfectly  definite  positions,  magnificent  well- 
marked  bauds  of  difiercnt  colours  characteristic  of  the  two  metals.  AVlien 
a  piece  of  brass,  compounded  of  copper  and  zinc,  was  put  into  the  cup, 
the  spectrum  showed  all  the  bands,  each  precisely  in  the  place  in  which 
it  had  been  seen  when  one  metal  or  the  other  had  been  used  separately. 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  this  great  generalization  was  not  pub- 
lished to  the  world  twenty  years  ago.     I  say  this,  not  because  it  is  to  bo 

o 

regretted  that  Angstrom  should  have  the  credit  of  having  in  1853  pub- 
lished independently  the  statement  that  "  an  incandescent  gas  emits  lumi- 
"  nous  rays  of  the  same  refrangibility  as  those  which  it  can  absorb  "  ;  or  that 
Balfour  Stewart  should  have  been  unassisted  by  it  when,  coming  to  the 
subject  from  a  very  different  point  of  view,  he  made,  in  his  extension  of  the 
"Theory  of  Exchanges"*,  the  still  wider  generalization  that  the  radiating 
power  of  every  kind  of  substanee  is  equal  to  its  absorbing  power  for  every 
kind  of  ray  ;  or  that  KirchhofF  also  should  have  in  1859  independently  dis- 
covered the  same  proposition,  and  shown  its  application  to  solar  and  stellar 
chemistry  ;  but  because  we  might  now  be  in  possession  of  the  inconceivable 
riches  of  astronomical  results  which  we  expect  fi-om  the  next  ten  years' 
investigation  by  spectrum  analysis,  had  Stokes  given  his  theory  to  the 
world  when  it  first  occurred  to  him. 

To  Kirchhoff  belongs,  I  believe,   solely  the  great  credit  of  having  first 
*  Edin.  Transactions,  1858-59. 


ADDRESS.  XCVll 

actually  souglit  for  and  found  other  metals  than  sodium  in  the  sun  by  the 
method  of  spectrum  analysis.  His  publication  of  October  1859  inaugurated 
the  practice  of  solar  and  stellar  chemistry,  aud  gave  spectrum  analysis  an 
impulse  to  which  in  a  great  measure  is  due  its  splendidly  successful  cultivation 
by  the  labours  of  many  able  investigators  within  the  last  ten  years. 

o 

To  prodigious  and  wearing  toil  of  Kirchhoff  himself,  and  of  Angstrom,  wc 
owe  large-scale  maps  of  the  solar  spectrum,  incomjjarably  superior  in  minute- 
ness and  accuracy  of  delineation  to  any  thing  ever  attempted  previously.  These 
maps  now  constitute  the  standards  of  reference  for  all  workers  in  the  field. 
Pliickcr  and  Hittorf  opened  ground  in  advancing  the  physics  of  spectrum 
analysis  and  made  the  important  discovery  of  changes  in  the  spectra  of 
ignited  gases  produced  by  changes  in  the  physical  condition  of  the  gas.  The 
scientific  value  of  the  meetings  of  the  British  Association  is  well  illustrated 
by  the  fact  that  it  was  through  conversation  with  Pliicker  at  the  Newcastle 
meeting  that  Lockyer  was  first  led  into  the  investigation  of  the  eftects  of  varied 
pressure  on  the  quality  of  the  light  emitted  by  glowing  gas  which  he  and 
Frankland  have  prosecuted  with  such  admirable  success.  Scientific  wealth 
tends  to  accumulation  according  to  the  law  of  compound  interest.  Every  addi- 
tion to  knowledge  of  properties  of  matter  supplies  the  naturalist  with  new 
instrumental  means  for  discovering  and  interpreting  phenomena  of  nature, 
which  in  their  turn  aff'ord  foundations  for  fresh  generahzatious,  bringing 
gains  of  permanent  value  into  the  great  storehouse  of  philosophy.  Thus 
Frankland,  led,  from  observing  the  want  of  brightness  of  a  candle  burning  in 
a  tent  on  the  summit  of  Mont  Blanc,  to  scrutinize  Davy's  theory  of  fiame, 
discovered  tliat  brightness  Avithout  incandescent  solid  particles  is  given  to  a 
purely  gaseous  flame  by  augmented  pressure,  and  that  a  dense  ignited  gas 
gives  a  spectrum  comparable  with  that  of  the  light  from  an  incandescent  solid 
or  liquid.  Lockyer  joined  him;  aud  the  two  found  that  every  incandescent 
substance  gives  a  continuous  spectrum — that  an  incandescent  gas  under 
varied  pi'essure  gives  bright  bars  across  the  continuous  spectrum,  some  of 
which,  from  the  sharp,  hard  and  fast  hues  observed  where  the  gas  is  in  a 
state  of  extreme  attenuation,  broaden  out  on  each  side  into  nebulous  bands 
as  the  density  is  increased,  and  are  ultimately  lost  in  the  continuous  spec- 
trum when  the  condensation  is  pushed  on  till  the  gas  becomes  a  fluid  no 
longer  to  be  called  gaseous.  Moi-c  recently  they  have  examined  the  influence 
of  temperature,  and  have  obtained  results  which  seem  to  show  that  a  highly 
attenuated  gas,  which  at  a  high  temperature  gives  several  bright  lines,  gives 
a  smaller  and  smaller  number  of  lines,  of  sufiiciont  brightness  to  be  visible, 
when  the  temperature  is  lowered,  the  density  being  kept  unchanged.  I  cannot 
refrain  here  from  remarking  how  admirably  this  beaiitiful  investigation  har- 
monizes with  Andrews'  great  discovery  of  continuity  between  the  gaseous 
and  liquid  states.  Such  things  make  the  life-blood  of  science.  In  contem- 
plating them  we  feel  as  if  led  out  from  narrow  waters  of  scholastic  dogma  to 
a  refreshing  excursion  on  the  broad  and  deep  ocean  of  truth,  where  we  learn 
from  the  wonders  wc  see  that  there  are  endlessly  more  and  more  glorious 
wonders  still  unseen. 

Stokes'  dynamical  theory  supplies  the  key  to  the  i^hilosophy  of  Frank- 
land  and  Lockyer's  discovery.  Any  atom  of  gas  when  struck  and  left  to 
itself  vibrates  with  perfect  purity  its  fundamental  note  or  notes.  In  a 
highly  attenuated  gas  each  atom  is  very  rarely  in  collision  Avith  other 
atoms,  and  therefore  is  nearly  at  all  times  in  a  state  of  true  vibration. 
Hence  the  spectrum  of  a  highly  attenuated  gas  consists  of  one  or  more 
perfectly  sharp  bright  lines,  with  a  scarcely  perceptible  continuous  gradation 


xcviii  REPORT — 1871. 

of  prismatic  colour.  In.  denser  gas  each  atom  is  frequently  in  collision,  but 
still  is  for  much  more  time  free,  iu  intervals  between  collisions,  than  engaged 
in  collision ;  so  that  not  only  is  the  atom  itself  thrown  sensibly  out  of  tuue 
during  a  sensible  proportion  of  its  whole  time,  but  the  confused  jangle  of 
vibrations  in  every  variety  of  period  during  the  actual  collision  becomes  more 
considerable  in  its  influence.  Hence  bright  lines  in  the  spectrum  broaden 
out  somewhat,  and  the  continuous  spectrum  becomes  less  faint.  In  still 
denser  gas  each  atom  may  be  almost  as  much  time  in  collision  as  free,  and 
the  spectrum  then  consists  of  broad  nebulous  bauds  crossing  a  continuous 
spectrum  of  considerable  brightness,  "\^^hen  the  medium  is  so  dense  that 
each  atom  is  alwaj's  in  collision,  that  is  to  say  never  free  from  influence  of 
its  neighbours,  the  spectrum  wiU.  generally  be  continuous,  and  may  present 
little  or  no  ap])earance  of  bands,  or  even  of  maxima  of  brightness.  In  this 
condition  the  fluid  can  be  no  longer  regarded  as  a  gas,  and  we  must  judge 
of  its  relation  to  the  vaporous  or  liquid  states  according  to  the  critical 
conditions  discovered  by  Andi'cws. 

While  these  great  investigations  of  properties  of  matter  were  going  on, 
naturalists  were  not  idle  with  the  newly  recognized  power  of  the  spectro- 
scope at  their  service.  Chemists  soon  followed  the  example  of  Bunsen 
in  discovering  new  metals  in  terrestrial  matter  by  the  old  blow-pipo  and 
prism  test  of  Fox  Talbot  and  Herschel.  Biologists  applied  spectrum  analysis 
to  animal  and  vegetable  chemistry,  and  to  sanitary  investigations.  But 
it  is  in  astronomy  that  spectroscopic  research  has  been  carried  on  with 
the  greatest  activity,  and  been  most  richly  rewarded  with  results.  The 
chemist  and  the  astronomer  have  joined  their  forces.  An  astronomical  ob- 
servatory has  now,  appended  to  it,  a  stock  of  reagents  such  as  hitherto  was 
only  to  be  found  in  the  chemical  laboratory,  A  devoted  corps  of  volunteers 
of  all  nations,  whose  motto  might  well  be  ^ibique,  have  directed  their  artil- 
lery to  every  region  of  the  universe.  The  sun,  the  spots  on  his  surface, 
the  corona  and  the  red  and  yellow  prominences  seen  round  him  during 
total  eclipses,  the  moon,  the  planets,  comets,  auroras,  nebulae,  white 
stars,  yellow  stars,  red  stars,  variable  and  temporary  stars,  each  tested  by  the 
prism  was  compelled  to  show  its  distinguishing  colours.  Earely  before  in 
the  history  of  science  has  enthusiastic  perseverance  directed  by  penetra- 
tive genius  produced  within  ten  years  so  brilliant  a  succession  of  dis- 
coveries. It  is  not  merely  the  chemistry  of  sun  and  stars,  as  first  sug- 
gested, that  is  subjected  to  analysis  by  the  spectroscope.  Their  whole  laws 
of  being  are  now  subjects  of  direct  investigation ;  and  already  we  have 
glimpses  of  their  evolutional  history  through  the  stuj)endous  power  of  this 
most  subtle  and  delicate  test.  We  had  only  solar  and  stellar  chemistry; 
we  now  have  solar  and  stellar  physiology. 

It  is  an  old  idea  that  the  colour  of  a  star  may  be  influenced  by  its  motion 
relatively  to  the  eye  of  the  spectator,  so  as  to  be  tinged  with  red  if  it  moves 
from  the  earth,  or  blue  if  it  moves  towards  the  earth.  William  Allen  Miller, 
Huggins,  and  JIaxwell  showed  how,  by  aid  of  the  spectroscope,  this  idea  may 
be  made  the  foundation  of  a  method  of  measuring  the  relative  velocity  with 
which  a  star  approaches  to  or  recedes  from  the  earth.  The  principle  is,  first  to 
identify,  if  possible,  one  or  more  of  the  lines  in  the  spectrum  of  the  star,  with  a 
line  or  lines  in  the  spectrum  of  sodium,  or  some  other  terrestrial  substance, 
and  then  (by  observing  the  star  and  the  artificial  light  simultaneously  by 
the  same  spectroscope)  to  find  the  difference,  if  any,  between  their  refran- 
gibilities.  From  this  difference  of  refrangibility  the  ratio  of  the  periods  of 
the  two  lights  is  calculated,  according  to  data  determined  by  Fraunhofer  from 


ADDRESS.  XCIX 

comparisons  between  the  positions  of  the  dark  lines  in  the  prismatic  spectrum 
and  in  his  own  "  interference  spectrum  "  (produced  by  substituting  for  the 
prism  a  fine  grating).  A  first  comparatively  rough  application  of  the  test  by 
Miller  and  Huggins  to  a  large  number  of  the  principal  stars  of  our  skies, 
including  Aldcbaran,  a  Ononis,  ft  Pegasi,  Sirius,  n  Lyras,  CapeUa,  Arcturus, 
Pollux,  Castor  (which  they  had  observed  rather  for  the  chemical  purpose  than 
for  this),  proved  that  not  one  of  them  had  so  great  a  velocity  as  315  kilometres 
per  second  to  or  from  the  earth,  which  is  a  most  momentous  result  in  respect 
to  cosmical  dynamics.  Afterwards  Huggins  made  special  observations  of 
the  velocity  test,  and  succeeded  in  making  the  measurement  in  one  case, 
that  of  Sirius,  which  he  then  found  to  be  receding  from  the  earth  at  the  rate 
of  G(j  kilometres  per  second.  This,  corrected  for  the  velocity  of  the  earth  at 
the  time  of  the  observation,  gave  a  velocity  of  Sirius,  relatively  to  the  Sun, 
amounting  to  47  kilometres  per  second.  The  minuteness  of  the  difference  to 
be  measured,  and  the  smallness  of  the  amount  of  light,  even  when  the  brightest 
star  is  observed,  renders  the  observation  extremely  difficult.  Still,  with 
such  great  skill  as  Mr.  Huggins  has  brought  to  bear  on  the  investigation, 
it  can  scarcely  be  doubted  that  velocities  of  many  other  stars  may  be 
measured.  "What  is  now  wanted  is,  certainly  not  greater  skill,  perhaps  not 
even  more  2}owerful  instruments,  but  more  instruments  and  more  ohservers. 
Lockyer's  applications  of  the  velocity  test  to  the  relative  motions  of  different 
gases  in  the  Sun's  photosphere,  spots,  chromosjihere,  and  chromosphcric  pro- 
minences, and  his  observations  of  the  varying  spectra  presented  by  the  same 
substance  as  it  moves  from  one  position  to  another  in  the  Sun's  atmosphere, 
and  his  interpretations  of  these  observations,  according  to  the  laboratory 
results  of  Frankland  and  himself,  go  far  towards  confirming  the  conviction 
that  in  a  few  years  all  the  marvels  of  tlie  Sun  will  be  dynamically  explained 
according  to  known  properties  of  matter. 

During  six  or  eight  precious  minutes  of  time,  spectroscopes  have  been  ap- 
plied to  the  solar  atmosphere  and  to  the  corona  seen  round  the  dark  disk  of 
the  Moon  eclipsing  the  Sun.  Some  of  the  wonderful  results  of  such  obser- 
vations, made  in  India  on  the  occasion  of  the  eclipse  of  August  1808,  were 
described  by  Professor  Stokes  in  a  previous  address.  Yaluablo  results  have, 
through  tlie  liberal  assistance  given  by  the  British  and  American  Govern- 
ments, been  obtained  also  from  the  total  eclipse  of  last  December,  notwith- 
standing a  generally  unfavourable  condition  of  weather.  It  seems  to  have 
been  proved  that  at  least  some  sensible  part  of  the  light  of  the  "corona"  is  a 
terrestrial  atmospheric  halo  or  dispersive  reflection  of  the  light  of  the  glow- 
ing hydrogen  and  "  helium"*  round  the  sun.  I  believe  I  may  say,  on  the 
present  occasion  when  preparation  must  again  be  made  to  iitilize  a  total 
eclipse  of  the  Sun,  that  the  British  Association  confidently  trusts  to  our 
Government  exercising  the  same  wise  liberality  as  heretofore  in  the  interests 
of  science. 

The  old  nebular  hypothesis  supposes  the  solar  system,  and  other  similar 
systems  through  the  universe  which  we  see  at  a  distance  as  stars,  to  have 
originated  in  the  condensation  of  fiery  nebulous  matter.  This  hypothesis 
was  invented  before  the  discovery  of  thermo-dynamics,  or  the  nebulic  v\'ould 
not  have  been  supposed  to  be  fiery ;  and  the  idea  seems  never  to  have 
occurred  to  any  of  its  inventors  or  early  supporters  that  the  matter,  the  con- 
densation of  Avhich  they  supposed  to  constitute  the  Sun  and  stars,  could  have 

*  Frankland  and  Loekyer  find  the  yellow  prominences  to  giire  a  very  decided  bright  line 
not  far  from  D,  but  liitherto  not  identified  with  any  terrestrial  flame.  It  seema  to  indicate 
a  new  substance,  wliieh  they  propose  to  call  Helium. 


C  REPORT — 1871. 

been  other  than  fiery  in  the  beginning.  Mayer  first  suggested  that  the  heat 
of  the  Sun  may  be  due  to  gravitation :  but  he  supposed  meteors  falling  in 
to  keep  always  generating  the  heat  which  is  radiated  year  by  year  from  the 
Sun.  Helmholtz,  on  the  other  hand,  adopting  the  nebular  hypothesis,  showed 
in  1854  that  it  was  not  necessary  to  suppose  the  nebulous  matter  to  have 
been  originally  fiery,  but  that  mutual  gravitation  between  its  parts  may 
have  generated  the  heat  to  which  the  present  high  temperature  of  the  Sun  is 
due.  Turther  he  made  the  important  observations  that  the  potential  energy 
of  gravitation  in  the  Sun  is  even  now  far  from  exhausted ;  but  that  with 
further  and  further  shrinking  more  and  more  heat  is  to  bo  generated,  and 
that  thus  we  can  conceive  the  Sun  even  now  to  possess  a  sufficient  store  of 
energy  to  produce  heat  and  light,  almost  as  at  present,  for  several  million 
years  of  time  future.  It  ought,  however,  to  be  added  that  this  condensation 
can  only  follow  from  cooling,  and  therefore  that  Helmholtz's  gravitational 
explanation  of  future  Sun-heat  amounts  really  to  showing  that  the  Sun's 
thermal  capacity  is  enormously  greater,  in  virtue  of  the  mutual  gravitation 
between  the  parts  of  so  enormous  a  mass,  than  the  sum  of  the  thermal  capa- 
cities of  separate  and  smaller  bodies  of  the  same  material  and  same  total 
mass.  Eeasons  for  adopting  this  theory,  and  the  consequences  which  follow 
from  it,  are  discussed  in  an  article  "  On  the  Age  of  the  Sun's  Heat,"  published 
in  '  Macmillan's  Magazine  '  for  March  1862. 

For  a  few  years  Mayer's  theor}-  of  solar  heat  had  seemed  to  me  probable  ; 
but  I  had  been  led  to  regard  it  as  no  longer  tenable,  because  I  had  been  in 
the  first  place  driven,  by  consideration  of  the  very  approximate  constancy  of 
the  Earth's  period  of  revolution  round  the  Sun  for  the  last  2000  years,  to 
conclude  that  "  The  principal  source,  perhaps  the  sole  appreciably  eftective 
"  source  of  Sun-heat,  is  in  bodies  circulating  round  the  Sun  at  present  inside 
"  the  Earth's  orbit"* ;  and  because  Le  Verricr's  researches  on  the  motion  of 
the  planet  Mercury,  though  giving  evidence  of  a  sensible  influence  attributable 
to  matter  circulating  as  a  great  number  of  small  planets  within  his  orbit 
round  the  Sun,  showed  that  the  amoimt  of  matter  that  could  possibly  be  as- 
sumed to  circulate  at  any  considerable  distance  from  the  Sun  must  be  very 
small ;  and  therefore  "  if  the  meteoric  influx  taking  place  at  present  is 
"  enough  to  pi-oduce  any  appreciable  portion  of  the  heat  radiated  away,  it 
"  must  be  supposed  to  be  from  matter  circulating  round  the  Sun,  within  very 
"  short  distances  of  his  surface.  The  density  of  this  meteoric  cloud  would 
"  have  to  be  siipposed  so  great  that  comets  could  scarcely  have  escaped  as 
"  comets  actually  have  escaped,  showing  no  discoverable  effects  of  resistance, 
"  after  passing  his  surface  within  a  distance  equal  to  one-eighth  of  his  radius. 
"  All  things  considered,  there  seems  little  probability  in  the  hypothesis  that 
"  solar  radiation  is  compensated  to  any  appreciable  degree,  by  heat  generated 
"  by  meteors  falling  in,  at  pi-esent ;  and,  as  it  can  be  shown  that  no  chemical 
"  theory  is  tenablef,  it  must  be  concluded  as  most  probable  that  the  Sun  is 
"  at  present  mere  an  incandescent  liquid  mass  cooling  "J. 

Thus  on  purelj-  astronomical  grounds  was  I  long  ago  led  to  abandon  as 
very  improbable  the  hypothesis  that  the  Sun's  heat  is  supplied  dynamically 
from  year  to  year  by  the  influx  of  meteors.  Eut  now  spectrum  analysis  gives 
proof  finally  conclusive  against  it. 

Each  meteor  circulating  round  the  Sun  must  fall  in  along  a  very  gradual 

*  "On  the  meclianical  energies  of  the  Solar  System."     Transactions  of  the  Eoyal  Society 
of  Edinburgh,  1854  ;  and  Phil.  Mag.  1854,  second  half  year, 
•j-  "  Mechanical  Energies  "  &c. 
X  "Age  of  the  Sun's  Heat"  (MacmilLan's  Magazine,  March  1862). 


ADDRESS.  CI 

spiral  path,  mid  beforo  roacliing  the  Sim  must  liave  been  for  a  long  time 
exposed  to  an  cuorinoiis  heating  effect  from  liis  radiatiou  when  very  near, 
and  must  thus  have  been  driven  into  vapour  before  aetuall}^  falling  into  the 
Sun.  Thus,  if  Mayer's  hypothesis  is  corroyt,  friction  between  vortices  of 
meteoric  vapours  and  the  Sun's  atmosphere  must  be  the  immediate  cause  of 
solar  heat ;  and  the  velocity  with  which  these  vapours  circulate  round  equa- 
torial parts  of  the  Sun  must  amount  to  435  kilometres  per  second.  The 
spectrum  test  of  velocity  applied  by  Lockyci'  sliowed  but  a  twentieth  part  of 
this  amount  as  the  greatest  observed  relative  velocity  between  different 
vapours  in  the  Sun's  atmosphere. 

At  the  first  Liverpool  Meeting  of  the  British  Association  (1854),  in  ad- 
vancing a  gravitational  theory  to  account  for  all  the  heat,  light,  and  motions 
of  the  universe,  I  urged  that  the  immediately  antecedent  condition  of  the 
matter  of  which  the  Sun  and  Planets  were  formed,  not  being  fiery,  could  not 
have  been  gaseous  ;  but  that  it  probably  was  solid,  and  may  have  been  like 
the  meteoric  stones  which  we  still  so  frequently  meet  with  through  space. 
The  discovery  of  Huggins,  that  the  light  of  the  nebute,  so  far  as  hitherto 
sensible  to  us,  proceeds  from  incandescent  hydrogen  and  nitrogen  gases,  and 
that  the  heads  of  comets  also  give  us  light  of  incandescent  gas,  seems  at  first 
sight  literally  to  fulfil  that  part  of  the  nebular  hypothesis  to  which  I  had 
objected.  But  a  solution,  which  seems  to  me  in  the  highest  degree  probable, 
has  been  suggested  by  Tait.  He  supposes  that  it  may  be  by  ignited  gaseous 
exhalations  proceeding  from  the  collision  of  meteoric  stones  that  Nebnlte  and 
the  heads  of  comets  show  themselves  to  us  ;  and  he  suggested,  at  a  former 
meeting  of  the  Association,  that  experiments  should  be  made  for  the  purpose 
of  applying  spectrum  analysis  to  the  light  which  has  been  observed  in 
gunnery  trials,  such  as  those  at  Shoeburyuess,  when  iron  stiikes  against  iron 
at  a  great  velocity,  but  varied  by  substituting  for  the  iron  various  solid 
materials,  metallic  or  stony.  Hitherto  this  suggestion  has  not  been  acted 
upon  ;  but  surely  it  is  one  the  carrying  out  of  which  ought  to  be  pi'omoted 
by  the  British  Association. 

Most  important  steps  have  been  recently  made  towards  the  discovery  of  the 
nature  of  comets,  establishing  with  nothing  short  of  certainty  the  truth  of  a 
h)'pothesis  which  had  long  appeared  to  me  probable,  that  they  consist  of  groups 
of  meteoric  stones,  accounting  satisfactorily  for  the  light  of  the  nucleus, 
and  giving  a  simple  and  rational  explanation  of  phenomena  presented  by 
the  tails  of  comets  which  had  been  regarded  by  the  greatest  astronomers  as 
almost  preternaturally  marvellous.  The  meteoric  hypothesis  to  which  I  have 
referred  remained  a  mere  hypothesis  (I  do  not  know  that  it  was  ever  even 
published)  until,  in  1866,  Schiaparelli  calculated,  from  observations  on  the 
August  meteors,  an  orbit  for  these  bodies  which  he  found  to  agree  almost 
perfectly  with  the  orbit  of  the  great  comet  of  1802  as  calculated  by  Oppolzer  ; 
and  so  discovered  and  demonstrated  that  a  comet  consists  of  a  group  of 
meteoric  stones.  Professor  Xewton,  of  Yale  College,  United  States,  by  examin- 
ing ancient  records,  ascertained  that  in  periods  of  about  thirty-three  years, 
since  the  year  902,  there  have  been  exceptionally  brilliant  displays  of  the 
November  meteors.  It  had  long  been  believed  that  these  interesting  visi- 
tants came  from  a  train  of  small  detached  planets  circulating  round  the  Sun 
all  in  nearly  the  same  orbit,  and  constituting  a  belt  analogous  to  Saturn's 
ring,  and  that  the  reason  for  the  comparatively  large  number  of  meteors 
which  we  observe  annually  about  the  14th  of  November  is,  that  at  that 
time  the  earth's  orbit  cuts  through  the  supposed  meteoric  belt.  Professor 
Newton  concluded  from   his   investigation  that  there  is  a  denser  part  of 

1871.  h 


p>' 


REPORT— 1871. 


the  group  of  meteors  which  extends  over  a  portion  of  the  orbit  so  great 
as  to  occupy  about  one-tenth  ,or  one-fifteenth  of  the  periodic  time  in 
passing  any  particular  point,  and  gave  a  choice  of  five  different  periods  for 
the  revolution  of  this  meteoric  stream  round  the  sun,  any  one  of  which  would 
satisfy  his  statistical  result.  He  further  concluded  that  the  line  of  nodes 
(that  is  to  say,  the  line  in  which  the  plane  of  the  meteoric  belt  cuts  the  plane 
of  the  Earth's  orbit)  has  a  progressive  sidereal  motion  of  about  52"-4  per 
annum.  Here,  then,  was  a  splendid  problem  for  the  physical  astronomer  ; 
and,  happily,  one  well  qualified  for  the  task,  took  it  up.  Adams,  by  the 
application  of  a  beautiful  method  invented  by  Gauss,  found  that  of  the  five 
periods  allowed  by  Newton  just  one  permitted  the  motion  of  the  line  of  nodes 
to  be  explained  by  the  disturbing  influence  of  Jupiter,  Saturn,  and  other 
planets.  The  period  chosen  on  these  grounds  is  33|  years.  The  inves- 
tigation showed  further  that  the  form  of  the  orbit  is  a  long  ellipse,  giving 
for  shortest  distance  from  the  Sun  145  million  kilometres,  and  for  longest 
distance  2895  million  kilometres.  Adams  also  worked  out  the  longitude 
of  the  perihelion  and  the  inclination  of  the  orbit's  plane  to  the  plane  of  the 
ecliptic.  The  orbit  which  he  thus  found  agreed  so  closely  with  that  of 
Temple's  Comet  I.  1866  that  he  was  able  to  identify  the  comet  and  the 
meteoric  belt  *.  The  same  conclusion  had  been  pointed  out  a  few  weeks 
earlier  by  Schiaparelli,  from  calculations  by  himself  on  data  supplied  by 
direct  observations  on  the  meteors,  and  independently  by  Peters  from  calcu- 
lations by  Lcverrier  on  the  same  foundation.  It  is  therefore  thoroughly 
established  that  Temple's  Comet  1.  1806  consists  of  an  eUiijtic  train  of  minute 
planets,  of  which  a  few  thousands  or  millions  fall  to  the  earth  annually  about 
the  14th  of  November,  when  we  cross  their  track.  We  have  probably  not 
yet  passed  through  the  very  nucleus  or  densest  part ;  but  thirteen  times,  in 
Octobers  and  Novembers,  from  October  13,  a.d.  902,  to  November  14,  1866 
inclusive  (this  last  time  having  been  correctly  predicted  by  Prof  Newton), 
Ave  have  passed  through  a  part  of  the  belt  greatly  denser  than  the  average. 
The  densest  part  of  the  train,  when  near  enough  to  us,  is  visible  as  the  head 
of  the  comet.  This  astounding  result,  taken  along  mth  Huggins's  spectro- 
scopic observations  on  the  light  of  the  heads  and  tails  of  comets,  confirms 
most  strikingly  Tait's  theory  of  comets,  to  which  I  have  already  referred ; 
according  to  which  the  comet,  a  group  of  meteoric  stones,  is  self-luminous 
in  its  nucleus,  on  account  of  collisions  among  its  constituents,  while  its  "  tail " 
is  merely  a  portion  of  the  less  dense  part  of  the  train  illuminated  by  sunlight, 
and  visible  or  invisible  to  us  according  to  circumstances,  not  only  of  density, 
degree  of  illumination,  and  nearness,  but  also  of  tactic  arrangement,  as  of  a 
flock  of  birds  or  the  edge  of  a  cloud  of  tobacco-smoke  !  "Wliat  prodigious  diffi- 
culties are  to  be  explained,  you  may  judge  from  two  or  three  sentences  which 

*  Signer  Schiaparelli,  Director  of  the  Observatory  of  Milan,  who,  in  a  letter  dated  Slst 
December  LS66,  pointed  out  that  the  elements  of  the  orbit  of  the  Angust  Meteors,  calcu- 
lated from  the  observed  position  of  their  radiant  point  on  tlic  supposition  of  the  orbit 
being  a  very  elongated  ellipse,  agreed  very  closely  veith  those  of  the  orbit  of  Comet  II.  1862, 
calculated  by  Dr.  Oppolzer.  In  the  same  letter  Schiaparelli  gives  elements  of  the  orbit 
of  the  November  meteors,  but  these  veere  not  suiTiciently  accurate  to  enable  him  to  identify 
the  orbit  vrith  that  of  any  knovfn  comet.  On  the  21st  January,  1867,  M.  Leverrier  gave 
more  accurate  elements  of  the  orbit  of  the  November  Meteors,  and  in  the  '  Astronomiscbo 
Nachricliten '  of  January  9,  Mr.  C.  F.  W.  Peters,  of  Altona,  pointed  out  that  these  elements 
closely  agreed  with  those  of  Temple's  Comet  (I  18G6),  calculated  by  Dr.  Oppolzer;  and 
on  February  2,  Schiaparelli  having  recalculated  the  elements  of  the  orbit  of  the  meteors, 
himself  noticed  the  same  agreement.  Adams  arrived  quite  independently  at  the  conclusion 
that  the  orbit  of  33^  years  period  is  the  one  which  must  be  chosen  out  of  the  five  indi- 
cated by  Prof.  Nevrton.    His  calculations  were  sufficiently  advanced  before  the  letters 


ADDRESS.  cm 

I  shall  read  from  Herschd's  Astronomy,  and  from  the  fact  that  even  SchiapareUi 
seems  still  to  believe  in  the  repulsion.  "  There  is,  beyond  question,  some 
"  pi-ofound  secret  and  mystery  of  nature  concerned  in  the  phenomenon  of 
"  their  tails.  Perhaps  it  is  not  too  much  to  hope  that  future  observation, 
"  borrowing  every  aid  from  rational  speculation,  grounded  on  the  progress  of 
"  physical  science  generally  (especially  those  branches  of  it  which  relate  to 
"  the  ethereal  or  imponderable  elements),  may  enable  us  ere  long  to  penetrate 
''  this  mystery,  and  to  declare  whether  it  is  really  matter  in  the  ordinary 
"  acceptation  of  the  term  which  is  projected  from  their  heads  with  such 
"  extraordinaiy  velocity,  and  if  not  impelUcl,  at  least  directed,  in  its  course, 
"  by  reference  to  the  Sun,  as  its  point  of  avoidance  "  *. 

"  In  no  respect  is  the  question  as  to  the  materiality  of  the  tail  more  for- 
"  cibly  pressed  on  us  for  consideration  than  in  that  of  the  enormous  sweep 
"  which  it  makes  round  the  sun  in  perihelio  in  the  manner  of  a  straight  and 
"  rigid  rod,  in  defiance  of  the  laiu  of  gravitation,  nay,  even,  of  the  receivedlaws 
"of  motion"*. 

"  The  projection  of  this  ray  .  .  .  to  so  enormous  a  length,  in  a  single  day, 
"  conveys  an  impression  of  the  intensity  of  the  forces  acting  to  produce  such 
'•■  a  velocity  of  material  transfer  through  space,  such  as  no  other  natural  phe- 
"  nomenon  is  capable  of  exciting.  It  is  clear  that  if  weJiave  to  deal  here  with 
"  matter,  such  as  we  conceive  it  (viz.  possessing  inertia^,  at  all,  it  must  be  under 
"  the  dominion  of  forces  incomparably  more  energetic  than  gravitation,  and 
"  quite  of  a  different  nature  "  t. 

Think,  now,  of  the  admirable  simplicity  with  which  Tait's  beautiful  "  sea- 
bird  analogy,"  as  it  has  been  caUed,  can  explain  all  these  phenomena. 

The  essence  of  science,  as  is  weU  illustrated  by  astronomy  and 
cosmical  physics,  consists  in  inferring  antecedent  conditions,  and  an- 
ticipating future  evolutions,  from  phenomena  which  have  actually  come 
under  observation.  In  biology  the  difficulties  of  successfully  acting  up 
to  this  ideal  are  prodigious.  The  earnest  naturalists  of  the  present  day 
are,  however,  not  appalled  or  paralyzed  by  them,  and  are  struggling  boldly 
and  laboriously  to  pass  out  of  the  mere  "  ISTatural  History  stage "  of 
their  study,  and  bring  zoology  within  the  range  of  Xatural  Philosophy. 
A  very  ancient  speculation,  stiU  clung  to  by  many  naturalists  (so  much  so 
that  I  have  a  choice  of  modern  terms  to  quote  in  expressing  it),  supposes  that, 
under  meteorological  conditions  very  different  from  the  present,  dead  matter 
may  have  run  together  or  crystallized  or  fermented  into  "germs  of  life," 
or  "  organic  cells,"  or  "  protoplasm."  But  science  brings  a  vast  mass  of  in- 
ductive evidence  against  this  hypothesis  of  spontaneous  generation,  as  you 
have  heard  from  my  predecessor  in  the  Presidential  chair.  Careful  enough 
scrutiny  has,  in  every  case  up  to  the  present  day,  discovered  life  as  antecedent 
to  life.  Dead  matter  cannot  become  living  without  coming  under  the  influ- 
ence of  matter  previously  alive.  This  seems  to  me  as  sure  a  teaching  of  science 
as  the  law  of  gravitation.  I  utterly  repudiate,  as  opposed  to  all  philosophical 
uniformitarianism,  the  assumption  of  "  different  meteorological  conditions  " — 
that  is  to  say,  somewhat  different  vicissitudes  of  temperature,   pressure, 

referred  to  appeared,  to  show  that  the  other  four  orbits  offered  by  Newton  were  inadmissible. 
But  the  calculations  to  be  gone  through  to  find  the  secular  motion  of  the  node  in  such  an 
elongated  orbit  as  that  of  the  meteors  were  necessarily  very  long,  so  that  they  were  not 
completed  till  about  March  1867.  They  were  communicated  in  that  mouth  to  the 
Cambridge  Philosophical  Society,  and  in  the  month  following  to  the  Astronomical 
Society. 

*    Herschel's  Astronomy,  §  599. 

t  Herschel's  Astronomy,  10th  edition,  §  589. 

7i2 


civ  KEPOllT— 1871. 

moisture,  gaseous  atmosphere — to  produce  or  to  permit  that  to  take  place  by 
force  or  motion  of  dead  matter  alone,  which  is  a  direct  contravention  of  what 
seems  to  us  biological  law.  I  am  prepared  for  the  answer,  "  our  code  of 
"  biological  law  is  an  expression  of  our  ignorance  as  weU  as  of  our  know- 
"  ledge."  And  I  say  yes :  search  for  spontaneous  generation  out  of  inorganic 
materials  ;  let  any  one  not  satisfied  with  the  purely  negative  testimony,  of 
which  we  have  now  so  much  against  it,  throw  himself  into  the  inquiry.  Such 
investigations  as  those  of  Pasteur,  Pouchet,  and  Bastian  are  among  the  most 
interesting  and  momentous  in  the  whole  range  of  Natiu'al  History,  and  their 
results,  whether  positive  or  negative,  must  richly  reward  the  most  careful 
and  laborious  experimenting.  I  confess  to  being  deeply  impressed  by  the 
evidence  put  before  us  by  Professor  Huxley,  and  I  am  ready  to  adopt,  as  an 
article  of  scientific  faith,  true  through  all  space  and  through  all  time,  that 
life  proceeds  from  life,  and  from  nothing  but  life. 

How,  then,  did  life  originate  on  the  Earth  ?  Tracing  the  physical  history 
of  the  Earth  backwards,  on  strict  dynamical  principles,  we  are  brought  to  a 
'red-hot  melted  globe  on  which  no  life  could  exist.  Hence  when  the  Earth 
was  first  fit  for  life,  there  was  no  living  thing  on  it.  There  were  rocks  solid  and 
disintegrated,  water,  air  all  round,  warmed  and  illuminated  bj^  a  brilliant  Sun, 
ready  to  become  a  garden.  Did  grass  and  trees  and  flowers  sjiring  into  exist- 
ence, in  all  the  fulness  of  ripe  beauty,  by  a  fiat  of  Creative  Power?  or  did  vege- 
tation, growing  up  from  seed  sown,  spread  and  nniltii^ly  over  the  whole  Earth  ? 
Science  is  bound,  by  the  everlasting  law  of  honour,  to  face  fearlessly  every  pro- 
blem which  can  fairly  be  presented  to  it.  If  a  probable  solution,  consistent 
with  the  ordinary  course  of  nature,  can  be  found,  we  must  not  invoke  an  abnor- 
mal act  of  Creative  Power.  "When  a  lava  stream  flows  down  the  sides  of  Vesu- 
vius or  Etna  it  quickly  cools  and  becomes  solid ;  and  after  a  few  weeks  or 
years  it  teems  Avith  vegetable  and  auimal  life,  which  for  it  originated  by  the 
transport  of  seed  and  ova  and  by  the  migration  of  individual  living  creatures. 
When  a  volcanic  island  springs  up  from  the  sea,  and  after  a  few  years  is 
found  clothed  Avith  vegetation,  we  do  not  hesitate  to  assume  that  seed  has 
been  wafted  to  it  through  the  air,  or  floated  to  it  on  rafts.  Is  it  not  possible, 
and  if  possible,  is  it  not  probable,  that  the  beginning  of  vegetable  life  on  the 
Earth  is  to  be  similarly  explained  ?  Every  year  thousands,  probably  mil- 
lions, of  fragments  of  solid  matter  fall  upon  the  Earth — Avhcnce  came  these 
fragments  ?  What  is  the  jn-cA-ious  history  of  any  one  of  them  ?  Was  it  created 
in  the  beginning  of  time  an  amorphous  mass  ?  This  idea  is  so  unacceptable 
that,  tacitly  or  explicitly,  all  men  discord  it.  It  is  often  assumed  that  all, 
and  it  is  certain  that  some,  meteoric  stones  are  fragments  which  had  been 
broken  off'  from  greater  masses  and  laimched  free  into  space.  It  is  as  sure 
that  collisions  must  occur  between  great  masses  moving  through  space  as  it 
is  that  ships,  steered  without  inteUigcnce  directed  to  prevent  colhsion,  could 
not  cross  and  recross  the  Atlantic  for  thousands  of  years  Avith  immunity  from 
collisions.  When  tAvo  great  masses  come  into  collision  in  space  it  is  certain 
that  a  large  part  of  each  is  melted ;  but  it  seems  also  quite  certain  that  in 
many  cases  a  large  quantity  of  debris  must  be  shot  forth  in  all  directions, 
much  of  Avliich  may  have  experienced  no  greater  violence  than  individual 
pieces  of  rock  experience  in  a  land-slip  or  in  blasting  by  gunpowder.  Should 
the  time  Avhen  this  Earth  comes  into  collision  Avith  another  body,  comparable 
in  dimensions  to  itself,  be  Avhcn  it  is  i-lill  clolhed  as  at  present  with  vege- 
tation, many  great  and  small  fragments  carrying  seed  and  living  plants  and 
animals  would  undoubtedly  be  scattered  throueh  space.  Hence  and  lecanse 
Ave  all  confidently  believe  that  there  ore  at  pre.'^cnt,  and  have  been  frcm  time 


ADDRESS.  CV 

immemorial,  many  worlrls  of  life  besides  our  own,  wc  must  rcp,'ard  it  as  pro- 
bable in  the  highest  degree  that  there  are  countless  seed-bearing  meteoric 
stones  moving  about  through  space.  If  at  the  present  instant  no  life  existed 
upon  this  Earth,  one  such  stone  falling  upon  it  might,  by  what  we  blindly 
call  natural  causes,  lead  to  its  becoming  covered  with  vegetation.  I  am  fully 
conscious  of  the  manj'^  scientific  objections  which  may  be  urged  against  this 
hypothesis  ;  but  I  believe  them  to  be  all  answerable.  I  have  already  taxed 
your  patience  too  severely  to  allow  me  to  think  of  discussing  any  of  them  on 
the  present  occasion.  The  hypothesis  that  life  originated  on  this  Earth 
through  moss-grown  fragments  from  the  ruins  of  another  world  may  seem 
wild  and  visionarj^ ;  all  I  maintain  is  that  it  is  not  unscientific. 

From  the  Earth  stocked  with  such  vegetation  as  it  could  receive  meteorieally, 
to  the  Earth  teeming  with  all  the  endless  variety  of  plants  and  animals  which 
now  inhabit  it,  the  step  is  prodigious  ;  yet,  according  to  the  doctrine  of  conti- 
nuity, most  ably  laid  before  the  Association  by  a  predecessor  in  this  Chair 
(Mr.  Grove),  all  creatures  noAV  living  on  earth  have  proceeded  by  orderly 
evolution  from  some  such  origin.  Darwin  concludes  his  great  work  on  '  The 
Origin  of  Species '  with  the  following  words  : — "  It  is  interesting  to  contem- 
"  plate  an  entangled  bank  clothed  with  many  plants  of  many  kinds,  with 
''  birds  singing  on  the  bushes,  with  various  insects  flitting  about,  and  with 
"  worms  crawling  through  the  damp  earth,  and  to  reflect  that  these  elabo- 
"  rately  constructed  forms,  so  different  from  each  other,  and  dependent  on 
*'  each  other  in  so  complex  a  manner,  have  all  been  produced  by  laws  acting 
"  around  us."  .  .  .  .  "  There  is  grandeur  in  this  view  of  life  with  its 
"  several  powers,  having  been  originally  breathed  by  the  Creator  into  a  few 
"  forms  or  into  one  ;  and  that,  whilst  this  planet  has  gone  cycling  on  accord- 
"  ing  to  the  fixed  law  of  gravity,  from  so  simple  a  beginning  endless  forms, 
"  most  beautiful  and  most  wonderful,  have  been  and  are  being  evolved." 
With  the  feeling  expressed  in  these  two  sentences  I  most  cordially  sympathize. 
I  have  omitted  two  sentences  which  come  between  them,  describing  briefly 
the  hypothesis  of  "  the  origin  «f  species  by  natural  selection,"  because  I 
have  always  felt  that  this  hypothesis  does  not  contain  the  true  theory  of 
evolution,  if  evolution  there  has  been,  in  biology.  Sir  John  Herschcl,  in 
expressing  a  favourable  judgment  on  the  hypothesis  of  zoological  evolution 
(with,  however,  some  reservation  in  respect  to  the  origin  of  man),  objected  to 
the  doctrine  of  natural  selection,  that  it  was  too  like  the  Laputan  method  of 
making  books,  and  that  it  did  not  sufficiently  take  into  account  a  continually 
guiding  and  controlling  intelligence.  This  seems  to  me  a  most  valuable  and 
instructive  criticism.  I  feel  profoundly  convinced  that  the  argument  of 
design  has  been  greatly  too  much  lost  sight  of  in  recent  zoological  specula- 
tions. Eeaction  against  the  frivolities  of  teleology,  such  as  are  to  be  found, 
not  rarelj%  in  the  notes  of  the  learned  commentators  on  Paley's  '  Natural 
Theology,'  has  I  believe  had  a  temporary  eftcct  in  turning  attention  from  the 
solid  and  irrefragable  argument  so  well  put  forward  in  that  excellent  old  book. 
But  overpoweringly  ■•■trong  proofs  of  intelligent  and  benevolent  design  lie 
all  round  us  ;  and  if  ever  perplexities,  whether  metaphysical  or  scientific,  turn 
us  away  from  them  for  a  time,  they  come  back  upon  us  with  irresistible 
force,  showing  to  us  through  Kature  the  influence  of  a  free  will,  and  teaching 
us  that  all  living  beings  depend  en  one  ever-acting  Creator  and  Euler. 


REPORTS 


ON 


THE  STATE  OF  SCIENCE. 


E  E  P  0  R  T  S 


ON 


THE    STATE    OF    SCIENCE. 


Seventh  Report  of  the  Committee  for  Exploring  Kent's  Cavern,  Devon- 
shire,— the  Committee  consisting  of  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart., 
F.R.S.,  Professor  Phillips,  F.R.S.,  Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart,, 
F.R.S.,  John  Evans,  F.R.S.,  Edward  Vivian,  George  Busk, 
F.R.S.,  William  Boyd  Dawkins,  F.R.S.,  William  Ayshford 
Sanford,  F.G.S.,  aracf  William  Pengelly,  F.R.S.  (Reporter). 

During  the  year  which  has  elapsed  since  the  Sixth  Eeport  was  sent  in 
(Liverpool,  1870),  the  Committee  have  without  intermission  carried  on 
their  researches,  and  have  strictly  followed  the  mode  of  working  with  which 
the  exploration  was  commenced  in  1865.  The  Superintendents  have  con- 
tinued to  visit  the  Cavern,  and  to  record  the  results  daily ;  they  have,  as 
from  the  beginning,  sent  Monthly  Reports  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee ;  the  work  has  been  carried  on  by  the  same  workmen,  George  Smerdon 
and  John  Farr,  who  have  discharged  their  duties  in  a  most  efficient  and 
satisfactory  manner ;  and  the  Cavern  is  as  much  resorted  to  as  ever  by  visitors 
feeling  an  interest  in  the  researches. 

In  June  1871,  Mr.  Busk,  a  Member  of  the  Committee,  spent  some  time 
at  Torquay,  when  he  visited  the  Cavern  accompanied  by  the  Superintendents, 
who  took  him  through  all  its  branches,  explored  and  vinexplored.  Having 
carefuUy  watched  the  progress  of  the  work,  and  made  himself  familiar  with 
all  its  details,  he  spent  some  time  at  the  Secretary's  residence,  examining  and 
identifying  a  portion  of  the  mammalian  remains  which  had  been  disinterred. 

In  November  1870  the  Superintendents  had  also  the  pleasure  of  going 
through  the  cavern  with  Mr.  W.  Morrison,  M.P.,  who  takes  so  active  an 
interest  in  the  exploration  of  the  caves  near  Settle  in  Yorkshire. 

Besides  the  foregoing,  and  exclusive  of  the  large  number  attended  by  the 
guide  appointed  by  the  proprietor,  Sir  L.  Palk,  Bart.,  M.P.,  the  Cavern  has 
been  visited  during  the  year  by  the  Earl  and  Countess  Russell,  Sir  R.  Sin- 
clair, Bart.,  Sir  C.  Trevelyan,  Mr.  C.  Gilpin,  M.P.,  Governor  Wayland,  U.S., 
Colonel  Ward,  Major  Bryce,  U.S.,  Rev.  Mr.  Dickenson,  Rev.  E.  N.  Dumble- 
ton,  Rev.  J.  P.  Foster,  Rev.  T.  R.  R.  Stebbing,  Dr.  Ashford,  Dr.  Tate,  and 
Messrs.  S.  Bate,  R.  BeUasis,  L.  Bowring,  W.  R.  A.  Boyle,  W.  Bridges, 

1871.  B 


2  REPORT 1871. 

C.  Busk,  A.  Champernowne,  Channing,  Chaplin,  F.  A.  Fellows,  T.  Fox, 
T.  Glaisher,  J.  Harrison,  Howard,  W".  Jones,  C.  Pannel,  Eichie,  W.  Spriggs, 
E.  B.  Tawuey,  G.  H.  Wollaston,  and  many  others. 

Smerdons  Passaije. — The  Committee  stated  in  their  last  Report  that,  in 
excavating  the  "North  Sally-port,"  they  had  been  led  to  a  third  External  En- 
trance to  the  Cavern,  in  the  same  limestone  cliff  as  the  two  Entrances  known 
from  time  immemorial,  but  at  a  considerably  lower  level,  where  it  was  com- 
pletely buried  in  a  great  talus  of  debris.  After  adding  that  it  had  not  been 
thought  necessary,  or  desirable,  or  even  safe  to  dig  through  the  talus  to  the 
open  day,  they  stated  the  facts  which  left  no  doubt  of  their  having  pene- 
trated to  the  outside  of  the  Cavern.  During  the  winter  of  1870-71,  the 
question  of  the  existence  of  the  third  Entrance  was  put  beyond  all  doubt ; 
for,  after  a  considerable  rainfall,  that  portion  of  the  talus  which  the  workmen 
had  undermined  fell  in,  and  thereby  laid  open  the  Entrance.  This  cavity 
was  at  once  filled  up,  in  order  to  prevent  any  one  from  intruding  into  the 
Cavern. 

It  was  also  stated  last  year  that  the  new  or  low-level  opening  was  the 
External  Entrance  not  only  of  the  North  SaUy-port,  but  of  another  and 
unsuspected  branch  of  the  Cavern,  to  which  had  been  given  the  name  of 
"  Smerdon's  Passage,"  the  exploration  of  which  had  been  begun. 

This  Passage  was  found  to  consist  of  two  Reaches,  the  first,  or  outermost, 
being  about  25  feet  long,  from  3  to  10  feet  wide,  and  having  a  northerly 
direction.  Near  its  entrance,  or  southern  end,  there  are  in  the  roof  a  few 
circular  holes,  from  6  to  12  inches  in  diameter,  apparently  the  mouths  of 
tortuous  shafts  extending  for  some  distance  into,  or  perhaps  through,  the 
limestone  rock.  The  roof  itself  and  the  adjacent  portions  of  the  wall  bear 
traces  of  the  long- continued  erosive  action  of  running  water,  but  below  the 
uppermost  12  or  18  inches  the  walls  have  many  sharp  angular  inequa- 
lities. Further  in,  the  roof  has  an  irregular  fretted  aspect,  apparently  the 
result  of  the  corrosive  action  of  acidulated  water,  whilst  the  walls  retain  the 
angular  appearance  just  mentioned. 

The  Second  lleach  runs  nearly  east  and  west,  is  about  32  feet  long,  some- 
what wider  than  the  first,  and  its  roof  is  several  feet  higher.  At  its  outer  or 
eastern  end  the  roof  and  walls  are  much  fretted ;  further  in,  there  are  holes 
in  the  roof  similar  to  those  just  mentioned,  with  the  exception  of  being 
larger.  Some  of  them  contain  a  small  quantity  of  soil,  resembling 
Cave-earth,  and  firmly  cemented  to  the  wall ;  whilst  adjacent  to  others 
there  is  a  considerable  amount  of  stalactitic  matter.  Still  further  in,  the 
roof,  which  has  the  aspect  of  a  watercourse,  is  covered  with  a  thin  veneer 
of  white  stalactite ;  and  near  the  inner  cud  there  is  a  considerable  hole  in 
the  roof  containing  a  large  accumulation  of  the  same  material. 

At  the  western  or  inner  end  of  this  Second  Ecach,  the  limestone  roof  gave 
place  to  one  consisting  of  angular  pieces  of  limestone  cemented  with  carbo- 
nate of  Ume  into  a  very  firm  concrete.  In  breaking  this  up,  the  workman 
thrust  his  iron  bar  up  through  it,  and  found  he  had  thereby  opened  a  pas- 
sage into  the  easfern  end  of  that  branch  of  the  Cavern  known  as  the  "  Sloping 
Chamber,"  the  concrete  floor  of  which  was  at  the  same  time  the  roof  of  the 
Passage, 

At  the  outer  or  eastern  end  of  the  Second  Eeach  there  was  found  another 
Low-level  Entrance,  about  20  feet  from  that  previously  mentioned,  and 
having  no  marks  of  the  action  of  water. 

Narrow  ramifications  extend  through  the  limestone  rock  from  both  Reaches 
of  Smerdon's  Passage  (westward  from  the  first,  and  southwards  from  the 


ON  Kent's  cavern^  Devonshire.  3 

second)  and  intersect  one  another ;  their  roofs  are  also  perforated  with  holes, 
and  exhibit  traces  of  the  action  of  running  water. 

Throughout  both  Reaches  there  were  in  certain  places  strips  of  Stalag- 
mitic  Floor  extending  continuously  across  from  waU  to  waU,  and  varying 
from  a  quarter  of  an  inch  to  6  inches  in  thickness.  The  most  important 
of  these  strips  was  about  8  feet  long.  Elsewhere  the  Cave-earth  was  either 
completely  bare,  or  had  on  it  here  and  there  what  may  be  called  conical 
scales  of  stalagmite,  from  3  to  12  inches  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and  from 
1  to  4  inches  in  thickness  at  the  centre.  From  them,  and  generally  near 
the  middle,  there  not  unfrequently  rose  one  or  more  rudely  cylindi-ical 
masses  of  the  same  material,  sometimes  9  inches  high,  6  inches  in  circum- 
ference, and  locally  known  as  "  Cow's  Paps."  In  almost  every  instance  of 
the  kind  there  depended  from  the  limestone  roof,  vertically  over  them,  a 
long,  slender,  quill-like  tube  of  stalactite,  occasionally  reaching  and  uniting 
with  the  "  Paps."  Such  tubes  occurred  also  in  certain  places  where  there 
were  no  "  Paps,"  and  in  some  spots  there  was  quite  a  forest  of  them,  ex- 
tending from  the  roof  to  the  Stalagmitic  Floor.  Wherever  it  was  possible 
to  excavate  the  deposit  beneath  without  breaking  them,  they  were  left 
intact.  In  some  cases  the  Stalagmitic  Floor,  or  the  Cave- earth  where  the 
latter  was  bare,  reached  the  roof ;  and  where  this  was  not  the  case,  the  unoc- 
cupied space  was  rarely  more  than  a  foot  in  height. 

About  midway  in  the  Second  Reach  there  was  on  each  wall  a  remnant 
of  an  old  floor  of  stalagmite,  about  8  inches  above  the  floor  found  intact, 
fuUy  6  iaches  thick,  about  6  feet  in  length,  and  within  a  few  inches  of  the 
roof. 

The  mechanical  deposit  in  the  Passage  was  the  ordinary  red  Cave-earth, 
in  some  places  sandy,  but  occasionally  a  very  compact  clay.  It  contained  a 
considerable  number  of  angular  fragments  of  limestone,  numerous  blocks  of 
old  crystalline  stalagmite,  and  a  few  well-rolled  pebbles  of  quartz,  red  grit, 
and  flint.  The  masses  of  limestone  were  not  unfrequently  of  considerable 
size ;  indeed  one  of  them  required  to  be  blasted  twice,  and  another  three 
times,  in  order  to  effect  their  removal ;  and  some  of  the  blocks  of  stalagmite 
measured  fully  15  cubic  feet. 

From  the  entrance  of  the  First  Reach  to  about  10  feet  within  it,  the 
upper  surface  of  the  Cave-earth  was  almost  perfectly  horizontal ;  but  from 
the  latter  point  it  rose  irregularly  higher  and  higher,  until,  at  the  inner  end 
of  the  Second  Reach,  the  increased  height  amounted  to  about  9  feet.  There 
were  no  tunnels  or  burrows  in  the  deposit,  such  as  occurred  in  both  the 
Sally-ports,  and  were  described  in  the  Fifth  and  Sixth  Reports  (1869  and 
1870).  Near  the  inner  end  of  the  Second  Reach  the  Cave-earth  adjacent  to 
the  walls  was  cemented  into  a  concrete. 

The  deposit  in  the  lateral  ramifications  of  the  Passage  was  the  same  typi- 
cal Cave-earth,  containing  blocks  of  old  crystalline  stalagmite  and  angular 
pieces  of  limestone,  but  -without  any  Stalagmitic  Floor. 

It  was  stated  in  the  Sixth  Report  (1870),  p.  26,  that  at  the  third  External 
Entrance,  i.  e.  the  first  of  the  low-level  series,  the  deposits  were  of  two 
kinds — the  ordinary  Cave-earth,  with  the  usual  osseous  remains,  below ;  and 
small  angular  pieces  of  limestone,  with  but  little  earth  and  no  fossils,  above. 
Materials  of  precisely  the  same  character,  and  in  the  same  order,  were  found 
at  the  new  low-level  Entrance,  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  Second  Reach  of 
Smerdon's  Passage,  as  already  stated. 

Besides  a  large  number  of  bones,  portions  of  bones,  and  fragments  of 
antlers,  a  total  of  fully  2900  teeth  were  found  in  the  Passage  and  its  rami- 

b2 


4  REPORT 1871. 

fications,  of  which  700  were  reported  at  Liverpool*.  The  remaining  2200, 
exhumed  since  the  end  of  August  1870,  belonged  to  different  kinds  of  animals, 
in  the  ratios  shown  in  the  following  list : — 


Hysena 335  per  thousand. 

Horse     295  „ 

Hhinoceros    ....  161  „ 

« Irish  Elk  "..  ..  55 

Ox 35 

Deer 27  „ 

Badger 22  „ 

Elephant   20  „ 


Bear    18  per  thousand. 

Fox 12  „ 

Lion 6  „ 

Reindeer     5  „ 

Wolf    4  „ 

Bat 2  „ 

Rabbit     1  „ 

Dog  (?)  . .  less  than  1  „ 


On  comparing  the  foregoing  list  with  those  given  for  the  Sally-ports  in 
the  Sixth  Report  (pp.  19  and  24),  it  will  be  found  to  differ  from  them  in 
containing  neither  Sheep  nor  Pig,  and  in  the  diminished  prevalence  of  Rabbit 
and  Badger. 

Many  of  the  teeth  are  in  fragments  of  jaws,  which  have,  in  most  cases, 
lost  their  condyles  and  their  inferior  borders.  They  belong  to  individuals  of 
all  ages,  from  the  baby  Elephant,  whose  molar  crown  was  no  more  than  -8 
inch  long,  and  the  Hyaena,  whose  second  set  had  made  their  appearance 
before  the  dislodgement  of  the  first,  to  the  wasted  remnant  of  an  adult  tooth 
of  the  Mammoth,  and  the  canine  of  the  Bear  worn  quite  to  the  fang. 

Many  of  the  bones  and  teeth  are  discoloured,  a  large  number  are  gnawed 
(generally,  no  doubt,  by  the  Hysena,  but  occasionally  by  some  smaller  animal), 
and  a  considerable  proportion  of  them,  at  all  levels,  are  more  or  less  covered 
with  films  of  stalagmitic  matter.  On  some  of  the  specimens  are  peculiar 
markings,  produced  perhaps  by  fine  rootlets  of  trees  having  grown  round 
them.  Some  marked  in  this  way  were  found  with  living  rootlets  surround- 
ing them. 

Coprolitic  matter  was  by  no  means  abundant,  only  one  example  of  it 
having  been  met  with  in  the  entire  Passage. 

In  various  parts  of  the  Passage  considerable  heaps  of  small  bones,  some- 
times agglutinated,  were  found  here  and  there  on  the  surface,  or  but  little 
below  it.  In  one  instance  as  many  as  8400  were  picked  out  of  120  cubic 
inches  of  material. 

At  the  junction  of  the  two  Reaches  of  the  Passage,  a  large  ledge  or  cur- 
tain of  limestone  projected  downwards  from  the  roof  considerably  below  the 
TTSual  level.  On  the  inner  or  northern  side  of  it  there  was  found  a  wheel- 
barrow full  of  bones,  fragments  of  bones,  and  teeth,  of  a  considerable  variety 
of  animals,  all  huddled  together. 

It  was  stated  in  the  First  Report  (Birmingham,  1865 1)  that  the  Cave- 
earth  was  excavated  in  "  Parallels,"  the  length  of  which  was  the  same  as 
the  width  of  the  Chamber  &c.,  where  this  was  not  excessive,  breadth  in- 
variably 1  foot,  and  depth  4  feet,  where  this  gave  the  men  siifiicient  height 
to  work  in  comfort,  or  5  feet  where  it  did  not ;  that  each  parallel  was 
divided  into  successive  horizontal  "  Levels,"  a  foot  in  depth  ;  and  that  each 
level  was  subdivided  into  lengths  or  "  Yards,"  each  3  feet  long  and,  from 
what  has  been  stated,  a  foot  square  in  the  section,  thus  rendering  it  easy 
to  define  and  record  the  position  of  every  object  discovered. 

Smerdon's  Passage  and  its  lateral  branches  contained  78  "Parallels "  of 


*  See  Sixth  Eeport,  1870,  p.  27. 


+  See  pp.  19,  20. 


ON  KENT  S  CAVERNj  DEVONSHIRE.  5 

Cave-earth,  and,  as  it  was  necessary  to  excavate  to  the  depth  of  5  feet*,  a 
total  of  390  separate  "  foot-levels."  The  following  Table  shows  the  distri- 
bution of  the  teeth  of  the  different  kinds  of  animals  in  the  various  "  Paral- 
lels" and  "  Levels." 


a 
W 
71 

£ 

O 

w 

68 

2 

a 
1 

1— 1 

o 

1 

be 

1 

t 

1 

a 
o 

3 

I 

pq 

■*s 

1 

ft 

Parallels     

60 

29 

43 

23 

14 

27 

29 

14 

11 

11 

9 

1 

2 

3 

1st  Levels  

2nd    

3rd     , 

4th     „       

5th     „       

44 
53 
43 
29 
19 

44 
51 
37 
28 
16 

32 
42 
33 
22 
10 

10 

11 

16 

9 

3 

16 
23 
13 
13 
6 

9 

7 
7 
7 
3 

11 
2 
2 

10 

11 

9 

5 

5 

6 
9 
10 
5 
4 

3 

5 
4 
4 
2 

4 
6 
2 

1 

1 

1 

4 
5 
3 

1 
2 

4 
3 

1 

2 

1 
2 

Total  Levels  ... 

188 

176 

139 

49 

71 

33 

15 

40 

34 

18 

13 

14 

10 

1 

2 

3 

By  way  of  explanation,  it  may  be  stated  that  teeth  of  Hyaena,  for  exam- 
ple, were  found  in  71  of  the  78  "parallels,"  at  aU  "levels,"  and  in  188 
"foot-levels,"  or  very  nearly  one  half  of  the  total  number;  and  so  on  for  the 
other  kinds  of  animals. 

A  glance  at  the  Table  shows  that,  in  the  case  of  the  most  prevalent 
animals — Hyaena,  Horse,  and  Khinoceros — their  teeth  were  most  frequently 
met  with  (not  necessarily  met  with  in  greatest  numbers)  in  the  second 
"  foot- level,"  below  which  they  were  less  and  less  frequent  as  the  level  was 
lower ;  that  the  Badger  was  most  frequently  met  with  in  the  uppermost 
"  foot-level,"  and  never  found  below  the  third ;  that  teeth  of  Lion  were  not 
found  in  the  uppermost  "  level,"  and  occurred  most  frequently  in  the  third; 
that  those  of  Wolf  did  not  present  themselves  in  the  lowest  or  fifth  "  foot- 
level  ;  "  that  Bat  and  Babbit  were  restricted  to  the  uppermost  "  level,"  the 
former  to  one  "  parallel "  and  the  latter  to  two  ;  and  that  the  Hyaena  had 
the  widest  distribution,  both  as  regards  "  parallels"  and  "levels." 

Twelve  Flint  flakes  and  chips  were  found  in  the  Second  Beach  of  the 
Passage — 3  in  the  first  or  uppermost  "  foot-level,"  3  in  the  second,  3  in  the 
third,  and  4  in  the  fourth ;  there  were  none  in  the  Pirst  Beach,  or  in  the 
lateral  branches.  Compared  with  the  fine  specimens  met  with  in  previous 
years  in  other  parts  of  the  Cavern,  they  are  perhaps  of  but  little  value. 
Some  of  them  are  rather  chert  than  flint,  and  with  one  exception  (No.  3554) 
— a  weU-designed  but  roughly  finished  lanceolate  implement — they  are  all 
of  the  prevalent  white  colour. 

In  the  Second  Beach  there  was  also  found  a  lance-shaped  bone  tool 
(No.  3428),  2-7  inches  long,  1-1  inch  broad  at  the  butt  end,  flat  on  one  face  and 
uniformly  convex  on  the  other,  reduced  to  a  thin  edge  all  round  the  margin 
except  at  the  butt  end,  where  it  was  cut  off  sharply  but  somewhat  obliquely, 
tapering  gradually  to  a  rounded  point,  and  '4  inch  in  greatest  thickness.  In 
short,  it  closely  resembled  in  form  and  size  many  of  the  lanceolate  flint  im- 
plements of  the  Cavern  series,  with  the  single  exception  that  it  was  not  cari- 
nated  on  the  convex  face.  It  was  found  on  October  5th,  1870,  in  the  first 
"foot-level"  of  Cave- earth,  lying  with  6  teeth  of  Hyaena,  1  of  Bhinoceros, 

*  In  two  or  three  "  Parallels  "  it  was  requisite  to  go  to  the  depth  of  6  feet,  in  order  to 
pass  under  the  "  Curtain"  of  limestone  mentioned  above. 


6   .  REPORT — 1871. 

1  of  Bear,  1  of  Horse,  1  of  "  Irisli  Elk,"  2  jaws  of  Badger  containing  four 
teeth,  bones  and  fragments  of  bone,  some  of  which  were  gnawed  and  some 
invested  with  films  of  stalagmite. 

It  has  been  already  stated  that  at  its  eastern  extremity  the  Second  Reach 
of  Smerdon's  Passage  terminated  in  a  "  low-level "  External  Entrance,  filled 
with  true  Cave-earth  below,  above  which  lay  an  accumulation  of  smaU  an- 
gular stones  with  but  little  earth.  In  the  lower  deposit  the  ordinary  mam- 
malian remains  were  found,  including  teeth  and  bones  of  Hyasna,  Horse, 
Rhinoceros,  "  Irish  Elk,"  Ox,  Elephant,  Bear,  and  Reindeer ;  but  the  only 
thing  met  with  in  the  materials  above  was  an  amber  bead,  ellipsoidal  in  form, 
but  somewhat  thicker  on  one  side  than  the  other,  -9  inch  in  greatest  dia- 
meter and  -5  inch  in  least,  and  having  at  its  centre  a  cylindrical  perforation 
about  -2  inch  in  diameter. 

The  excavation  of  Smerdon's  Passage  was  completed  on  December  31st, 
1870,  after  very  nearly  five  months  having  been  expended  on  it.  From  its 
prevalent  narrowness,  the  labour  in  it  had  been  attended  with  much  dis- 
comfort ;  but  probably  no  branch  of  the  Cavern  had,  on  the  whole,  yielded 
a  larger  number  of  mammalian  remains. 

Minor  Ramifications  of  the  North  Salh/-port. — -It  was  stated  in  the  Sixth 
Report  (1870)*,  that  there  were  one  or  two  ramifications  of  the  North  Sally- 
port which  had  not  been  excavated,  having  been  passed  intentionally  in  the 
progress  of  the  work.  To  these  attention  was  given  on  the  completion  of 
Smerdon's  Passage,  and  they  were  taken  in  the  order  of  their  proximity  to 
the  "  Third  External  Entrance," — the  first  discovered  of  the  low-level  series. 

The  first  was  a  small  opening  in  the  east  wall  of  the  last  Reach  of  the 
North  Sally-port,  having  its  limestone  floor  veiy  slightly  above  the  top  of 
the  deposit  in  that  Reach.  It  proved  to  be  a  tunnel  in  the  limestone,  having 
a  rudely  triangular  transverse  section,  from  2-5  to  3  feet  in  height  and 
breadth,  and  extending  eastwards  or  outwards  towards  the  hill-side  for 
about  8  feet,  where  it  terminated  in  material  of  the  same  character  as  that 
found  above  the  Cave-earth  in  the  first  and  second  low-level  External  En- 
trances, from  the  first  of  which  it  was  about  12  feet  distant.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  it  is  a  third  of  these  low-level  Entrances,  and,  to  use  the  time- 
honoured  phraseology  in  descriptions  of  Kent's  Hole,  it  may  be  termed  the 
"  Oven  "  Entrance.  It  contained  but  little  deposit,  and  the  only  noteworthy 
objects  found  in  it  were  one  tooth  of  Horse,  a  few  bones  and  bone  fragments, 
and  a  grit  pebble. 

The  second  of  these  small  lateral  branches  was  in  the  south  wall  of  the 
immediately  preceding  or  penultimate  Reach  of  the  Sally-port,  and  was 
too  narrow  to  admit  of  being  excavated  in  "  Parallels  "  and  "  Levels."  In 
it  were  found  7  teeth  of  Hyaena,  10  of  Horse,  3  of  Rhinoceros,  1  of  Bear, 
1  of  Lion,  1  of  "  Irish  Elk,"  1  of  Ox,  16  of  Badger  in  parts  of  4  jaws,  10  of 
Rabbit  in  parts  of  2  jaws,  portion  of  an  antler,  a  right  femur  of  Beaver, 
bones  and  fragments  of  bone,  a  bit  of  charcoal,  and  a  grit  pebble.  It  is 
noteworthy,  perhaps,  that  the  fine  specimen  of  Beaver's  jaw  mentioned  last 
yearf  was  found  about  4  or  5  feet  from  the  femur  just  named,  and  in  the 
fourth  "  foot-level." 

The  third  and  last  of  these  lateral  ramifications  was  near  that  part  of  the 
SaUy-port  termed  the  "  Islands "+.  It  yielded  2  teeth  of  Hyaena,  1  of 
Horse,  3  of  Rhinoceros,  1  of  Bear,  3  of  «  Irish  Elk,"  4  of  Deer,  2  of  Badger, 
4  of  Rabbit,  an  astragalus  of  Ox,  bones  and  bone  fragments,  and,  in  the 
uppermost  "  foot-level,"  2  land-sheUs. 

*  See  p.  25.  f  See  Sixth  Eeport,  1870,  p.  24.  f  Ibid.  p.  2L 


ON  rent's  cavern^  DEVONSHIRE.  7 

On  January  17th,  1871,  the  workmen  finally  and  gladly  emerged  from  the 
labyrinth  of  low  narrow  passages  in  which  they  had  been  engaged  from  day 
to  day  from  November  13th,  1869,  or  upwards  of  14  months.  In  this  time 
they  had  not  only  excavated  and  taken  to  the  day  the  deposits,  to  the  depth 
of  5  feet,  in  aU  the  extensive  and  ramifying  branches  known  as  the  North 
Sally-port  and  Smerdon's  Passage,  and  exhumed  cartloads  of  the  remains  of 
various  animals,  including  5900  of  their  teeth,  as  well  as  20  flint  implements 
and  flakes,  but,  beyond  the  first  Reach  of  the  SaUy-port  (27  feet  long),  they 
had  actually  discovered  the  whole  of  these  branches,  including  three  new 
entrances  to  the  Cavern  itself,  and  had  thus  added  greatly,  not  only  to  the 
extent  of  Kent's  Hole,  but  to  a  knowledge  of  its  structure. 

The  completion  of  these  branches  concluded  the  excavation,  to  the  depth 
of  4  feet  generally,  and  5  feet  in  some  instances,  below  the  Stalagmitic  Floor, 
of  the  whole  of  the  Eastern  Division  of  the  Cavern. 

The  Cavern  Entrances. — Before  proceeding  to  a  description  of  the  branch 
which  next  engaged  attention,  it  may  be  of  service  to  devote  a  few  words  to 
the  Entrances  of  the  Cavern,  of  which  there  are  now  known  to  be  five  (two 
at  a  high  and  three  at  a  low  level),  aU  in  the  eastern  side  of  the  hill,  and 
within  a  horizontal  distance  of  53  feet.  Those  at  the  high-level  (known 
from  time  immemorial)  are  about  53  feet  apart,  almost  exactly  on  the  same 
level,  and  about  189  feet  above  mean  tide.  The  most  northerly  of  them  is 
that  invariably  spoken  of  in  all  early  descriptions  of  the  Cavern  as  "  The 
Entrance."  Those  of  the  lower  series  are  also  at  very  nearly  the  same  level 
with  one  another,  but  from  18  to  20  feet  below  the  former  two.  Being 
lower  in  the  sloping  hill-side,  they  are  about  24  feet  outside  or  east  of  the 
vertical  plane  passing  through  the  higher  entrances.  The  most  southerly 
ones  in  the  two  series  are  nearly  in  the  same  east  and  west  vertical  plane^ 

In  order  to  distingiiish  them,  they  are  respectively  termed : — 

1.  "The  Entrance,"  =  the  more  northerly  of  the  upper  series,  and,  from  its 
form,  sometimes  termed  the  "  Triangular  Entrance."  It  opens  into  the 
"  Vestibule." 

2.  The  "  Arched  Entrance," =the  more  southerly  of  the  upper  series. 
It  opens  into  the  "  Great  Chamber." 

3.  The  "  First  Low-level  Entrance,"=the  middle  one  of  the  lower  series — 
the  first  discovered.  It  opens  into  the  "  North  Sally-port "  and  the  "  First 
Reach  of  Smerdon's  Passage." 

4.  The  "  Second  Low-level  Entrance," =the  most  northerly  of  the  lower 
series— the  second  discovered.  It  opens  into  the  "  Second  Reach  of  Smerdon'9 
Passage," 

5.  The  "Oven  Entrance," = the  most  southerly  of  the  lower  series — the 
last  discovered.     It  opens  into  the  "  North  Sally-port." 

The  Sloping  Chamber. — That  branch  of  the  Cavern  termed  the  "  Sloping 
Chamber  "  by  Mr.  M'Enery  was,  prior  to  the  Committee's  exploration  of 
the  "  Great  Chamber,"  the  largest  apartment  in  it,  and  is  still,  perhaps,  more 
calculated  than  any  other  to  impress  visitors.  It  is  the  only  connexion  of 
the  two  great  divisions  of  the  Cavern,  and  measures  80  feet  from  east  to 
west,  25  in  greatest  breadth,  and,  since  the  excavation  of  its  deposits  to  the 
depth  of  4  feet  below  the  base  of  the  Stalagmitic  Floor,  25  in  greatest 
height.  Its  name  was  derived  from  its  floor,  which,  from  20  feet  from  its 
eastern  side,  sloped  rapidly  towards  its  western  side,  falling  as  much  as  14 
feet  in  60,  or  at  an  average  angle  of  13°-5.  Its  ceiling  sloped  more 
rapidly  still,  being,  as  already  stated,  25  feet  high  near  the  eastern  wall,  but 
not  more  than  6  feet  at  the  western.     This  ceiling,  though  representing  the 


8  REPORT 1871. 

dip  of  the  limestone  strata  in  a  general  way,  is  extremely  rugged, — here  re- 
treating into  deep  cavities  whence  huge  masses  of  limestone  have  fallen,  and 
there  ornamented  with  numerous  and  heavy  masses  of  Stalactite.  Indeed 
the  finest  Stalactites  in  the  Cavern  occur  in  it ;  and  one  known  as  the  "  Chan- 
delier" has  always  been  much  admired.  A  very  strong  light  is  required, 
however,  to  bring  out  all  the  features  of  the  ceiling. 

During  the  autumn  of  1866,  the  upper,  or  eastern,  or  level  portion  of  this 
Chamber  was  explored,  and  the  results  were  described  in  the  Third  Eeport 
(Dundee,  1867).  Mr.  M'Enery,  too,  had  made  extensive,  no  doubt  his  most 
extensive,  diggings  near  the  foot  of  the  incline,  where  he  "  succeeded  in  sink- 
ing a  shaft  to  the  depth  of  30  feet  at  the  bottom  of  the  slope,  with  the  view 
of  reaching  the  original  floor  "*,  which,  however,  was  not  realized.  Having 
broken  the  floor  for  his  shaft,  and  finding  the  work  very  laborious,  he  availed 
himself  of  the  opening  thus  made  to  extend  his  diggings  eastward,  keeping 
just  beneath  the  floor,  which  he  left  spanning  his  broken  ground  like  an 
arch. 

As  it  was  obvious  that  a  very  considerable  amount  of  deposit  still  remained 
intact,  it  was  decided,  on  the  completion  of  Smerdon's  Passage,  to  resume  the 
excavation,  not  only  in  the  hope  of  obtaining  some  of  the  palseontological 
treasures  with  which,  according  to  Mr.  M'Enery,  the  Chamber  abounded,  but 
also  as  a  pre-requisite  to  the  exploration  of  the  "  Wolf's  Den  "  and  the  "  Long 
Arcade,"  into  which  it  opened  on  the  north  and  south  respectively. 

The  uppermost  deposit,  as  in  the  adjacent  parts  of  the  Cavern,  was  the 
Black  Mould  so  frequently  mentioned  in  all  previous  Reports ;  and  as  the 
Chamber  was  the  only  capacious  apartment  near  the  Entrance,  and  the  only 
road  to  the  Western  Division  of  the  Cavern,  which,  from  some  cause,  seems 
to  have  been  more  attractive  than  the  Eastern  to  visitors  in,  at  least,  all 
recent  times  t,  it  might  have  been  expected  that  many  comparatively  modern 
objects  of  interest  would  have  been  found  in  the  Mould.  In  reality,how- 
ever,  such  objects  were  by  no  means  abundant — a  fact  which  may  be  ex- 
phcable,  perhaps,  on  the  hypothesis  that  they  had  been  collected  by  Mr. 
M'Enery  and  other  early  explorers.  The  only  things  found  in  this  deposit 
(which,  it  may  be  stated,  was  of  inconsiderable  depth)  were  shells  of  cockle, 
limpet,  and  pecten  ;  two  potsherds — one  black  and  of  coarse  clay,  the  other 
brown,  in  which  the  clay  was  finer ;  a  flint  chip  and  a  core  of  the  same  ma- 
terial; a  spindle-whorl  of  fine-grained  micaceous  grit,  1'5  inch  in  diameter, 
•5  inch  in  thickness,  and  having  its  external  edges  rounded  off';  and  a  bone 
awl,  3-7  inches  long,  -7  inch  broad  at  the  butt  end,  and  partially  covered 
with  a  film  of  stalagmite. 

Beneath  the  Black  Mould  came  the  ordinary  floor  of  granular  and  lami- 
nated stalagmite,  in  which,  as  well  as  in  the  deposit  beneath,  the  rugged 
character  of  the  ceiling  suggested  that  a  considerable  number  of  large  masses 
of  limestone  would  be  found.  Their  presence  in  the  floor,  moreover,  was 
indicated  by  the  nature  of  its  upper  surface,  which,  though  a  continuous 
sheet,  with  one  exception  to  be  noticed  hereafter,  was  so  very  uneven 
as  to  induce  an  early  guide  to  the  Cavern  to  confer  on  it  the  appellation  of 
the  "  Frozen  BiUows."     Accordingly,  the  Floor  proved  to  be,  with  an  excep- 

*  See  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc,  vol.  iii.  p.  ^8  (1869). 

t  The  following  fact  seems  to  be  confirmatory  on  this  point : — There  are  in  the  various 
branches  of  the  Western  Division  (sometimes  in  places  of  diiBciUt  access)  numerous 
initials  and  dates  on  the  limestone  walls  and  on  bosses  of  stalagmite — some  engraved, 
some  smoked,  and  some  merely  chalked — while  there  are  extremely  few  in  the  Eastern 
Division, 


ON  Kent's  cavern,  Devonshire. 


9 


tion  here  and  there,  a  brecciated  mass  composed  of  large  and  small  pieces  of 
limestone  and  blocks  of  the  well-known  old  crystalline  stalagmite,  all  ce- 
mented together  and  covered  with  a  sheet  of  the  cementing  material. 

Near  the  upper  part  of  the  slope,  and  on  its  southern  margin,  a  space  about 
14  feet  long  and  varying  from  3  to  12  feet  broad  was  without  any  trace  of 
floor,  but  occupied  with  large  loose  pieces  of  limestone.  Elsewhere  the  sheet 
was  perfectly  continuous  until  reaching  the  area  in  which  Mr.  M'Enery  had 
dug  his  shaft.  The  Floor  commonly  measured  from  12  to  30  inches  in  thick- 
ness, but  adjacent  to  the  southern  wall  it  was  fuUy  3  feet,  and  contained  few 
or  no  stones. 

On  being  broken  into  small  pieces  and  carefully  examined,  it  was  found 
to  contain  2  teeth  of  Horse,  a  portion  of  a  jaw,  2  bones,  and  half  of  a  frac- 
tured flint  nodule.  About  30  feet  down  the  slope,  a  series  of  dark  parallel 
lines  were  observed  in  the  Floor,  the  uppermost  being  about  2  inches  below 
the  upper  surface.  On  the  advance  of  the  work,  they  proved  to  be  continuous 
downward,  and  to  have  a  greater  and  greater  thickness  of  stalagmite  over 
them.  On  careful  examination,  it  was  found  that  each  represented  what  for 
a  time  had  been  the  upper  surface  of  the  Stalagmitic  Floor  of  the  Chamber, 
and  was  due  to  the  presence  of  comminuted  charcoal  and  other  dark-coloured 
extraneous  matter.  Such  a  "  charcoal  streak  "  also  occurred,  according  to 
Mr.  M'Enery,  in  the  "  Long  Arcade,"  within  a  few  feet  of  the  same  spot*. 
The  workmen  were  directed  to  detach  a  specimen  of  the  Floor  where  the 
streaks  were  well  displayed,  and  in  doing  so  were  so  fortunate  as  to  make 
their  fracture  at  a  place  where  a  large  cockle-shell  lay  firmly  imbedded  in 
the  lowest  streak,  at  a  depth  of  about  8  inches  below  the  surface.  Whilst 
splitting  up  the  Stalagmite  on  May  16th,  1871,  two  specimens  of  well-marked 
iern-impressions  were  found  in  it,  about  3  inches  below  the  surface.  Nothing 
of  the  kind  had  ever  been  noticed  before. 

Below  the  Stalagmite,  as  iisual,  lay  the  Cave-earth,  in  which,  as  was  an- 
ticipated, pieces  of  limestone  were  unusually  abundant.  Some  of  them 
"leasured  several  feet  in  length  and  breadth,  and  were  fully  2  feet  thick. 
There  were  also  numerous  blocks  of  the  old  crystalline  stalagmite,  measuring 
in  some  instances  upwards  of  4  cubic  yards,  and  not  unfrequently  projecting 
from  the  Cave-earth  into  the  overlying  granular  floor.  Though  they  were 
carefully  broken  up,  nothing  was  found  in  them. 

In  that  portion  of  the  Cave-earth  which  was  found  intact,  there  occurred, 
as  usual,  remains  of  the  ordinary  Cave-mammals,  including  about  550  teeth, 
which  may  be  apportioned  as  in  the  following  Ust : — 


Hyaena 39     per  cent. 

Horse 28-5        „ 

Rhinoceros 14  „ 

Deer     4  „ 

"Irish  Elk"    2-5 

Bear     2-5        „ 


Reindeer 2     per  cent. 

Ox   2 

Elephant 1-5        „ 

Lion 1  „ 

Wolf    1 

Dog  (?)  only  one  tooth. 

It  is,  perhaps,  worthy  of  remark  that  though  wild  animals  still  frequent 
Kent's  Hole,  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  some  of  them  have  in  recent 
times  carried  in  the  bones  of  others  on  which  they  preyed,  though  the  Sloping 
Chamber  is  near  and  between  the  two  high-level  Entrances,  though  the 
Floor  was  broken  up  and  thus  gave  the  readiest  access  to  the  Cave-earth,  and 
though  Mr.  M'Enery  discontinued  his  labours  upwards  of  40  years  ago,  of 
which  more  than  30  were  years  of  quietude  in  the  Cavern,  there  is  in  the 

*  See  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc,  vol.  iii.  pp.  236,  261,  262  (1869). 


10  RtePORT~187L 

foregoing  list  not  only  neither  Sheep  nor  Pig,  but  neither  Badger,  Rabbit, 
Hare,  nor  Vole,  all  of  which  have  been  found  in  other  branches,  in  deposits 
accessible  to  buiTowing  animals. 

In  the  Cave-earth  there  wez-e  also  found  52  flint  implements,  flakes,  and 
chips, — 3  of  them  in  the  fii'st  or  uppermost  foot-level,  16  in  the  second,  15  in 
the  third,  and  18  in  the  fourth  or  lowest.  Though  none  of  them  are  equal 
to  the  best  the  Cavern  has  yielded  in  previous  years,  there  are  some  good 
lanceolate  implements  amongst  them. 

No.  3693  is  of  light  broAvn  translucent  flint>  1'85  inch  in  length,  '9  inch  in 
greatest  breadth,  -175  inch  in  greatest  thickness,  nearly  flat  on  one  side,  and 
carinated  on  the  other.  It  vras  found  with  a  few  bones  in  the  first  foot- 
level,  amongst  loose  stones,  where  there  was  no  Stalagmitic  Floor  over  it ; 
hence  it  may  be  doubted  whether  it  belongs  to  the  Palffiohthic  series — a  doubt 
strengthened  by  the  modern  aspect  of  the  implement. 

No.  3754,  of  the  usual  white  flint,  is  4-2  inches  long,  -9  inch  in  greatest 
j^  -N  breadth,  -3  inch  in -greatest  thickness,  both  longitudinally  and  transversely 
^  ■  '  concave  on  one  side,  has  a  medial  ridge  on  the  other,  from  which,  at  about 
an  inch  from  one  end,  a  second  ridge  proceeds,  and  has  a  thin  but  uneven 
edge.  It  was  probably  pointed  at  each  end,  but  has  unfortunately  been 
broken  at  one  of  them.  It  was  found  on  March  the  6th,  1871,  in  the  second 
foot-level,  with  splinters  of  bone,  beneath  a  Stalagmitic  Floor  18  inches 
thick. 

No.  5430,  also  of  white  flint,  is  Somewhat  irregular  in  form,  but  may  be 
termed  rudely  lanceolate;  it  is  2*7  inches  in  length,  1-5  inch  in  extreme 
breadth,  -3  inch  in  greatest  thickness,  slightly  concave  on  one  face  and  ir- 
regularly convex  on  the  other.  It  was  found  on  March  30th,  1871,  with  2 
teeth  of  Horse,  1  of  Hyasna,  and  fragments  of  bone,  in  the  second  "  foot- 
level,"  withont  any  Stalagmitic  Floor  over  it. 
^  No.  3732,  a  whitish  flint,  is  2-3  inches  long,  1-1  inch  in  breadth,  which  is 

N  nearly  uniform  from  end  to  end,  slightly  concave  on  one  face,  convex  on  the 
other,  on  which  there  are  three  slight,  parallel,  longitudinal  ridges,  sharply 
truncated  at  both  ends,  but  primarily  thin  at  the  sides.  It  was  found  on 
February  27th,  1871,  in  the  third  "  foot-level,"  with  a  tooth  of  Hyaena  and 
fragments  of  bone,  without  any  Stalagmitic  Floor  over  it. 
.17  o,.  j^Q  5435^  a  slightly  mottled  white  flint,  is  2-1  inches  long,  1-1  inch  broad, 
•4  inch  in  greatest  thickness,  flat  on  one  face,  strongly  ridged  on  the  other, 
abruptly  truncated  at  one  end,  but  thin  everywhere  else,  and  retains  its  width 
almost  to  the  opposite  end,  which  is  bluntly  rounded.  It  was  found  on  31st 
March,  1871,  with  a  portion  of  Deer's  jaw  and  fragments  of  bone,  in  the 
third  "  foot-level,"  beneath  a  Stalagmitic  Floor,  2  feet  thick. 

No.  3687,  a  mottled  flint  with  white  prevailing,  is  2-6  inches  long,  1-2 
inch  in  greatest  breadth,  -3  inch  in  greatest  thickness,  broadest  near  the 
middle,  whence  it  tapers  in  both  directions,  somewhat  pointed  at  one  end 
but  not  at  the  other,  nearly  flat  on  one  face  and  convex  on  the  other,  on 
which  there  are  two  ridges — one  subcentral  and  the  other  nearly  marginal. 
It  was  found  on  February  7th,  1871,  in  the  fourth  or  lowest  foot-level,  with 
1  tooth  of  Horse,  1  of  Hyaena,  and  a  fragment  of  bone,  without  any  Stalag- 
mitic Floor  over  it. 

No.  5475  so  closely  resembles  No.  3732,  mentioned  above,  jis  to  need  no 
further  description.  It  was  found  February  27th,  1871,  with  1  tooth  of  Hyaena 
and  fragments  of  bone,  in  the  fourth  "  foot-level,"  but  had  no  Stalagmitic 
Floor  over  it. 

In  this  connexion  may  be  mentioned  a  piece  of  calcareous  spar,  which 


ON  Kent's  cavern,  Devonshire.  11 

appears  to  have  been  used  as  a  polishing-stone.  It  was  found  March  Bth, 
1871,  with  2  teeth  of  Hyaena,  2  of  Horse,  3  of  Rhinoceros,  gnawed  bones, 
and  a  flint  flake,  in  the  fourth  "  foot-level,"  having  over  it  a  Stalagmitic  Floor 
18  inches  thick.     No  such  specimen  had  been  noticed  before. 

A  piece  of  burnt  bone  was  found  on  the  22nd  of  the  same  month,  with 
fragments  of  bone  and  faecal  matter,  in  the  second  "  foot-level,"  having  a 
Stalagmitic  Floor  over  it. 

Mr.  M'Enery  appears  to  have  excavated  beyond  the  limits  of  his  shaft,  not 
only  in  an  easterly  direction,  as  has  been  already  stated,  but  also,  at  least, 
north  and  south  of  it.  So  far  as  can  be  determined,  the  shaft  was  first  sunk, 
and  the  material  taken  out  lodged  between  it  and  the  western  wall  of  the 
Chamber,  after  which  he  undertook  what  may  be  called  the  adjacent  hori- 
zontal diggings,  and  fiUed  up  the  shaft  with  a  portion  of  the  excavated  matter, 
thereby  rendering  it  impossible  to  determine  the  exact  site  of  the  shaft  itself. 
He  does  not  appear  to  have  taken  outside  the  Cavern  any  portion  of  the  deposit 
in  order  to  ensure  its  more  complete  examination ;  hence  it  is  not  probable 
that  all  its  contents  were  detected.  Indeed,  when  speaking  of  his  researches 
in  this  Chamber,  he  says,  "  It  was  feared  that  in  the  ardour  of  the  first  search, 
facts  of  importance  might  have  been  overlooked.  The  mass  of  mould  thrown 
up  on  the  former  occasion  was  therefore  a  second  time  turned  over  and  care- 
fully searched,  but  nothing  new  was  brought  to  light  "*. 

This  mass  the  Superintendents  decided  on  taking  out  of  the  Cavern, 
partly  to  facilitate  the  excavation  of  deposits  certainly  intact  beyond,  and 
also  because  it  was  thought  likely  to  be  lodged  on  unbroken  ground.  Though 
there  seemed  but  httle  prospect  of  finding  any  thing  by  subjecting  it  to  a 
third  search,  such  a  search  was  nevertheless  made,  and  did  not  go  unre- 
warded. The  heap,  though  mainly  of  Cave-earth,  included  fragments  of  the 
granular  Stalagmitic  Floor  and  portions  of  the  Black  Mould,  and  yielded 
hundreds  of  bones  and  portions  of  bones  (one  having  an  artificial  hole  lined 
with  stalagmitic  matter),  fragments  of  antlers,  the  largest  fragment  of  an  Ele- 
phant's tusk  that  the  Committee  have  met  with,  143  teeth  of  Hysena,  153  of 
Horse,  45  of  Rhinoceros,  27  of  Deer,  including  "  Irish  Elk  "  and  Reindeer,  6 
of  Bear,  5  of  Ox,  5  of  Sheep,  3  of  Elephant,  3  of  Wolf,  3  of  Dog  (?),  2  of  Fox, 
2  of  Pig,  and  1  of  Lion,  a  few  marine  sheUs,  several  fragments  of  black  pot- 
tery, 4  pieces  of  stalagmite  with  fern-impressions,  and  13  flint  implements 
and  flakes, — aU,  with  one  exception,  of  the  prevalent  white  colour,  and  two 
of  them  decidedly  good  specimens  of  the  strongly  ridged  lanceolate  forms. 
In  short,  the  virgin  soil,  in  some  parts  of  the  Cavern,  has  been  less  pro- 
ductive than  was  this  mass  which  had  been  twice  carefully  searched,  but  by 
candle-light  only. 

As  was  thought  probable,  the  mass  of  dislodged  materials  proved  to  be 
lying  on  ground  which  had  never  been  broken.  Between  Mr.  M'Enery's 
shaft  and  the  west  wall  of  the  Chamber  there  was  a  space  of  at  least  17 
feet ;  and  at  14  feet  from  the  wall  the  Cave-earth  was  found  to  have  not 
only  the  ordinary  granular  Stalagmitic  Floor  overlying  it,  but  to  be  de- 
posited on  another  and  necessarily  an  older  Floor  of  the  same  material,  but 
which,  instead  of  being  granular,  was  made  up  of  prismatic  crystals — posses- 
sing, in  short,  the  characters  both  of  position  and  structure  of  the  Old  Crys- 
talline Floor  found  in  the  "  Lecture  Hall"  and  "  South-west  Chamber,"  and 
described  in  the  Fourth  Report  (Norwich,  1868), — a  remnant,  in  situ,  of  the 
Floor  which  had  furnished  the  large  blocks  of  stalagmite  found  in  the  Cave- 

*  See  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc,  vol.  iii.  p.  289  (1869). 


13  REPORT 1871. 

earth  in  the  Sloping  Chamber,  as  already  stated.  From  the  point  where  it  was 
first  seen,  it  was  everywhere  continuous  up  to  the  western  wall.  Its  thickness 
has  not  been  ascertained  ;  for  though  it  was  partially  broken  up  in  cutting 
the  four-feet  section,  the  bottom  of  it  was  not  reached.  No  objects  of  any 
kind  were  found  in  it.  Had  Mr.  M'Euery's  excavations  been  carried  but  a 
yard  further  west  he  must  have  encountered  it,  and  would  have  been  enabled 
to  solve  the  problem  of  the  blocks  which  he  so  often  found  in  the  Cave- 
earth. 

The  Committee  are  most  anxious  to  guard  against  the  impression  that,  in 
any  of  the  foregoing  remarks,  they  have  been  unmindful  of  the  service  which 
Mr.  M'Enery  rendered  to  science,  or  have  the  most  remote  wish  to  depre- 
ciate the  value  of  his  long-continued  labours.  Indeed,  when  they  remember 
that  the  means  at  his  disposal  must  have  been  very  limited,  and  that  he  was 
amongst  the  pioneers  in  cavern  searching,  they  cannot  but  feel  that  the 
extent  and  results  of  his  investigations  are  richly  entitled  to  the  warmest 
praise. 

They  venture,  however,  to  take  this  opportunity  of  stating  that,  in  order 
to  a  thorough  and  satisfactory  investigation,  cavern-deposits  should  be  ex- 
cavated, not  by  sinking  occasional  shafts,  but  continuously  in  a  horizontal  direc- 
tion, to  a  uniform  depth  not  exceeding  5  or  at  most  6  feet  at  first ;  that 
the  material  should  be  carefully  examined  in  situ,  and  then  taken  to  day- 
light for  re-examination.  Through  not  following  the  first,  Mr.  M'Enery 
failed  to  understand  the  exact  historical  order  of  the  Cavern-deposits ;  and 
through  not  being  able  to  accomplish  the  second,  he  passed  over  many  speci- 
mens calculated  to  have  modified  his  conclusions,  and  which  he  would  have 
been  delighted  to  have  found.  For  example,  when  speaking  of  the  Sloping 
Chamber,  he  says,  "  The  [Stalagmitic]  crust  is  thickest  in  the  middle  .... 
for  opening  the  excavation,  the  same  means  were  employed  as  to  break  up 
a  mass  of  ancient  masonry.  Flint  blades  were  detected  in  it  at  all  depths, 
even  so  low  as  to  come  in  contact  with  the  fossil  bones  and  their  earthy 
matrix,  but  never  below  them"  *.  During  the  last  six  months,  however,  the  ex- 
cavations made  in  the  same  Chamber,  and  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of 
his,  have  brought  forth  Flint  implements  from  every  level  of  the  Cave-earth 
to  which  the  work  has  been  carried,  and  they  were  actually  found  in 
greatest  numbers  in  the  lowest  levels.  To  this  may  be  added  the  fact  that 
in  his  heap  of  refuse-matter,  which  he  had  twice  examined,  there  were,  as 
has  been  already  said,  upwards  of  a  dozen  flint  blades,  such  as  he  stated 
never  occurred  in  the  Cave-earth.  Had  the  soil  been  examined  in  daylight, 
they  could  not  have  been  overlooked ;  for,  instead  of  being  specimens  of 
little  value,  they  are  better  far  than  some  of  those  which  he  figured  ;  and  it 
is  but  right  to  add  that  many  of  those  found  by  the  Committee  were  thus 
detected. 

Again,  Mr.  M'Enery  was  keenly  watchful  for  extraneous  objects  in  the 
Stalagmitic  Floor ;  and,  from  his  silence  on  the  question,  it  may  be  safely 
concluded  that  he  never  saw  fern-impressions  in  it ;  nevertheless  his  refuse- 
heap  contained  four  small  slabs  of  the  floor,  in  each  of  which  was  a 
weU-marked  impression,  requiring  not  additional  manipulation,  but  simple 
daylight  for  their  detection.  Indeed  every  specimen  of  this  kind  has  been 
recognized  outside  the  Cavern  only. 

The  four  slabs  just  mentioned,  as  well  as  the  two  found  by  the  Committee 
in  the  Floor  they  broke  up,  have  been  submitted  to  Mr.  "W.  Carruthers, 

*  See  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc,  vol.  iii.  p.  247  (1869). 


I 


ON  Kent's  cavern,  Devonshire.  1j> 

F.R.S.,  of  the  British  Museum,  who  has  kindly  furnished  the  following  note 
respecting  them : — 

"British  Museum,  10  July,  1871, 

"  The  ferns  are  specimens  of  Pteris  aquilina,  Linn.,  and  have  belonged  to 
very  luxuriant  plants ;  they  do  not  diifer  from  those  now  growing  in  Eng- 
land. It  is  possible  that  the  fragment  -^^-f  may  be  another  species,  but  it 
is  too  imperfect  to  determine,  and  it  may  only  be  a  barren  portion  of  the 
Pteris,  with  shorter  and  broader  pinnules  than  the  other  specimens. 

(Signed)         "  Wm.  Cabbxjtheks." 

Returning  for  a  moment  to  the  Old  Crystalline  Stalagmitic  Floor  beneath 
the  Cave-earth,  it  was  observed  that,  like  the  modern  and  granular  one,  it 
had  here  and  there  on  its  upper  surface  conical  bosses  rising  above  its  gene- 
ral level,  and  that  there  were  corresponding  protuberances  vertically  above 
them  on  the  upper  floor.  The  same  fact  had  been  noticed  in  the  other 
branches  of  the  Cavern  where  the  two  Floors  occurred  in  the  same  vertical 
sections, — a  fact  apparently  warranting  the  conclusion  that  the  drainage 
through  the  Cavern-roof  underwent  no  important  change  during  the  entire 
period  represented  by  the  two  floors  and  the  intervening  Cave-earth. 
When  to  this  it  is  added  that  such  bosses  are,  at  least  in  most  cases,  verti- 
cally beneath  Stalactitic  pendants  on  the  ceiling,  it  may  be  further  inferred 
that  the  ancient  and  modern  lines  of  drainage  are,  in  the  main,  identical. 

On  the  completion  of  the  work  in  the  Sloping  Chamber,  on  July  11, 
1871,  the  excavation  of  the  "Wolf's  Den,"  which  opens  out  of  its  northern 
side,  was  begun.  It  was  in  this  Den  that  Mr.  M'Enery  found  the  canines 
of  Machairodus  latidens,  which  have  excited  so  much  attention.  No  such 
specimens  have  been  met  with  during  the  present  investigation  up  to  this 
time. 

The  Committee,  believing  it  possible  that  the  subject  might  prove  to  be 
connected  with  their  researches,  have  from  time  to  time  mentioned  the 
-occasional  occurrence  of  living  animals  in  the  Cavern*.  Indeed,  Kent's 
Hole  is  not  better  known  to  the  palaeontologist  as  a  store-house  of  mamma- 
lian remains,  than  to  the  Devonshire  naturalist  as  a  home  of  the  Great 
Horseshoe  Bat  {Ehinolophus  ferrum-equinum,  Leach)  ;  and  every  visitor,  be- 
fore the  present  exploration,  must  have  frequently  seen  them  hanging  from 
the  walls  of  the  more  retired  branches.  The  following  facts  have  presented 
themselves  during  the  last  twelve  months : — 

Whilst  the  excavation  of  one  of  the  lateral  branches  of  Smerdon's  Passage 
was  in  progress,  a  considerable  number  of  fresh  spindle-shaped  faeces,  about 
•6  inch  long  and  -2  inch  thick,  were  observed  lying  on  the  surface  of  the 
Cave-earth,  whUe  between  it  and  the  roof  there  was  an  interspace  just 
sufficient  to  allow  an  animal  about  the  size  of  a  Badger  to  pass. 

The  workmen  having  observed  that  the  candles  were  much  nibbled  during 
their  absence,  that  the  greasy  wooden  candlesticks  were  sometimes  carried  off 
and  some  of  them,  after  a  few  days,  found  secreted  in  small  holes,  set  a  suit- 
ably baited  gin  for  the  suspected  offender.  Their  efforts  were  rewarded  the 
next  morning  by  finding  a  rat  dead  in  the  trap. 

Old  newspapers  &c.  are  occasionally  sent  to  the  Cavern  for  the  purpose  of 
wrapping  up  small  boxes  of  specimens,  or  such  delicate  objects  as  need  more 
than  ordinary  care.  On  November  28th,  1871,  the  workmen,  using  in  this  way 
a  part  of  a  copy  of  the  '  Saturday  Review,'  unintentionally  left  one  complete 
.and  sound  sheet,  i.  e.  two  leaves,  near  the  spot  where  they  had  been  at  work. 

*  See  Eeports  Brit.  Assoc.  1869,  p.  204,  and  1870,  p.  27. 


14  REPORT 1871, 

The  next  morning  they  found  the  paper  precisely  where  they  had  left  it, 
but  with  about  one-fifth  of  one  of  the  leaves  gone,  and  the  broken  margin 
of  the  remainder  apparently  nibbled.  There  was  nothing  to  prevent  the 
whole  from  being  taken  off,  and  it  was  noted  that,  though  left  in  a  preca- 
rious position,  it  had  not  fallen  down.  The  broken  leaf  was  then  torn  oif 
and  preserved,  whilst  the  unbroken  one  was  allowed  to  remain  as  a  further 
experiment.  The  next  morning  no  trace  of  it  was  to  be  seen.  That  even- 
ing a  rat-trap  was  set  at  the  spot,  and  very  near  it  another  leaf  of  paper  was 
placed,  having  on  it  a  small  stone,  which  it  was  supposed  a  rat,  but  not 
a  smaller  animal,  might  be  capable  of  moving.  The  next  morning  the 
paper  was  found  where  it  had  been  put,  but  very  much  nibbled,  whilst  the 
trap  and  the  grease  with  which  it  was  baited  appeared  to  have  not  been 
touched.  Before  leaving  work,  the  men  baited  the  trap  with  a  tempting  end 
of  candle,  and  placed  it  on  a  leaf  of  paper ;  whilst  another  leaf,  weighted 
with  a  lump  of  earth,  was  placed  near.  On  the  following  morning  both 
pieces  of  paper  were  found  to  be  considerably  eaten  or  torn ;  and  it  was 
noted  that  the  injury  done  to  the  former  was  within  the  margin  of  the  trap 
placed  on  it,  whilst  the  trap  itself,  as  well  as  its  bait,  remained  unaffected, 
further  than  that  there  were  on  it  a  few  spindle-shaped  fteces  about  a  quar- 
ter of  an  inch  long.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  some  animal,  probably 
smaller  than  a  rat,  carried  off  the  missing  leaf  to  a  recess  in  the  Cavern, 
where  it  may  serve  to  make  its  nest  comfortable,  and  perhaps  hereafter  to 
puzzle  a  cavern  searcher  who  may  discover  it. 


Fourth  Report  of  the  Committee  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  the 
rate  of  Increase  of  Underground  Temperature  downwards  in  vari- 
ous Localities  of  Dry  Land  and  under  Water.  Drawn  up  by  Prof. 
Everett,  at  the  request  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Sir  Wm. 
Thojison,  F.R.S.,  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  J.  Clerk 
Maxwell,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  Phillips,  F.R.S.,  G.  J.  Symons,  F.M.S., 
Dr.  Balfour  Stewart,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  Ramsay,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  A. 
Geikie,  F.R.S.,  James  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  Rev.  Dr.  Graham, 
E.  W.  BiNNEY,  F.R.S.,  George  Maw,  F.G.S.,  W.  Pengelly, 
F.R.S.,  S.  J.  Mackie,  F.G.S.,  Edward  Hull,  F.R.S.,  and  Prof. 
Everett,  D.CL.  (Secretary). 

In  last  year's  Report,  the  intention  was  expressed  of  boring  down  at  the 
bottom  of  Rosebridge  Colliery,  if  the  Association  would  provide  the  necessary 
funds.  The  circumstances  were  exceptionally  inviting,  and  the  Association 
very  liberally  granted  the  sum  asked.  The  Secretary  thereupon  paid  two 
visits  to  Eosebridge,  descended  and  to  some  extent  explored  the  coUiery,  in 
company  with  Mr.  Bryham,  and,  after  a  careful  study  of  the  plans  and  sec- 
tions, agreed  upon  a  particular  spot  where  the  bore  was  to  be  sunk.  Tra- 
cings of  the  plans  and  sections  were  kindly  sent  by  Mr.  Bryham,  who  in 
every  way  cooperated  most  cordially,  and  gave  much  valuable  assistance  in 
arranging  the  scheme  of  operations.  Several  weeks  elapsed,  which  were 
occupied  in  making  and  testing  a  very  large  spirit  thermometer,  suitable  for 
reading  in  the  bad  light  of  a  mine,  and  capable  of  being  read,  by  estimation. 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE.  15 

to  the  hundredth  of  a  degree,  from  90°  to  110°  F. ;  and  on  the  7th 
November  the  Secretary  wrote  to  Mr.  Bryham  requesting  him  to  commence 
operations.  Unfortunately,  during  this  brief  interval,  circumstances  had 
changed.  In  a  neighbouring  pit,  where  the  workings  were  in  the  same  seam  of 
coal  as  at  Eosebridge,  though  less  deep  by  200  yards,  a  considerable  quantity 
of  water  was  found  in  sinking  into  the  strata  underlying  this  seam.  This 
was  a  very  unexpected  circumstance ;  and  as  any  irruption  of  water  at  the 
bottom  of  Eosebridge  pit,  which  is  now  quite  dry,  would  be  a  most  serious 
affair,  Mr,  Bryham  was  afraid  to  risk  the  experiment  of  boring  do^vn.  Sub- 
sequent reflection  has  only  confirmed  him  in  the  opinion  that  such  a  step 
would  bo  hazardous,  and  the  Committee  have  accordingly  been  most  reluc- 
tantly compelled  to  renounce  the  plan.  Mr.  Bryham's  final  refusal  was 
received  on  the  28th  February. 

Professor  Ansted  read  a  paper  last  year,  in  the  Geological  Section  of  the 
Association,  upon  the  Alpine  tunnel,  commonly  called  the  Mont-Cenis  tuii- 
nel,  and  in  that  paper  some  interesting  statements  were  made  regarding  its 
temperature.      Since  that  time,  Professor   Ansted  has  interchanged  very 
numerous  letters  with  the  Secretary,  and  has  furnished  mxxch  valuable  in- 
formation, gathered  from  Prof.  Sismonda,  of  Turin,  and  from  M.  Borelli,  the 
resident  engineer  of  the  tunnel.     Observations  which  appear  to  be  reliable 
have  been  made  in  bore-holes  in  the  sides  of  the  tunnel,  and  the  tempera- 
tures thus  observed  have  been  compared  with  the  estimated  mean  tempera- 
ture at  the  surface  overhead,  which  in  the  highest  part  is  a  mile  above  the  tun- 
nel, or  2905  metres  above  sea-level.    It  is  directly  under  this  highest  part  that 
the  highest  temperature  is  foimd  in  the  walls  of  the  tunnel,  namely  29°-5  C, 
or  85°"1  F.,  which  is  9°  F.  lower  than  the  temperature  found  at  the  bottom 
of  the  Eosebridge  shaft  at  the  depth  of  only  815  yards.     But  though  the 
tunnel  is  at  more  than  double  this  depth  fi'om  the  crest  of  the  mountain 
over  it,  we  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  surface-temperatures  are  very  dif- 
ferent.   In  a  paper  pubKshed  by  the  engineer  of  the  tunnel,  M.  F.  Giordano, 
the  mean  temperature  of  the  air  at  the  crest  of  the  mountain  (Mont  Frejus) 
is  calculated  to  be   — 2°-6  C,  or  27°'3  F.     Assuming  this  estimate  to  be 
correct,  we  have  a  difference  of  57°-8  F.  between  the  deepest  part  of  the  tun- 
nel and  the  air  at  the  surface  vertically  over  it ;  assuming  further,  as  we  did 
in  the  case  of  Eosebridge  in  last  year's  Eeport,  that  the  surface  of  the  hill  itself 
has  a  mean  temperature  1°  F.  lower  than  that  of  the  air  above  it,  we  have  a 
difference  of  56°-8  F.,  and  the  thickness  of  rock  between  is  1610  metres,  or 
5280  feet  (exactly  a  mile).   This  gives,  by  simple  division,  a  rate  of  increase  of 
1°  F.  for  93  feet ;  but  a  very  large  correction  must  be  applied  for  the  con- 
vexity of  the  ground ;  for  it  is  evident  that  a  point  in  the  ground  vertically 
under  a  steep  crest  is  more  exposed  to  the  cooling  influence  of  the  air  than 
a  point  at  the  same  depth  beneath  an  extensive  level  surface.    No  correction 
for  convexity  would  be  needed  if  the  temperature  of  the  air  decreased  up- 
wards as  fast  as  the  temperature  of  the  internal  rock ;  but  this  is  very  far 
from  being  the  case,  the  decrease  being  about  3|  times  more  rapid  in  the 
rock  than  in  the  air.     To  form  an  approximate  notion  of  the  amount  of  this 
correction,  we  must  determine,  as  well  as  we  can,  the  forms  of  the  succes- 
sive isothermal  surfaces  in  the  interior  of  the  mountain.     The  tendency  is 
for  all  corners  and  bends  to  be  eased  off  as  we  descend,  so  that  each  suc- 
ceeding isothermal  surface  is  flatter  than  the  one  above  it.     Accordingly,  if 
we  have  a  mountain  rising  out  of  a  plain,  without  any  change  of  material,  the 
isothermals  will  be  further  apart  in  a  vertical  through  the  crest  of  the  moun- 
.tain  than  under  the  plain  on  either  side ;    they  will  also  be  further  apart 


16  REPORT — 1871. 

at  the  highest  part  of  this  vertical,  that  is  close  under  the  crest,  than  at  a 
lower  level  in  the  same  vertical.  It  would  be  absurd  to  pretend  to  fix  the 
amount  of  the  correction  with  accuracy ;  but  it  seems  not  unreasonable  to 
estimate  that,  in  the  present  case,  the  numer  of  isothermals  cut  through  by  a 
vertical  line  descending  from  the  crest  of  the  ridge  to  the  tunnel  itself  is 
about  seven-eighths  of  the  number  which  wovdd  be  cut  through  in  sinking 
through  an  equal  distance  in  level  ground,  other  circumstances  being  the  same. 
Instead  of  1°  in  93  feet,  we  should  thus  have  1°  in  ^  of  93,  that  is,  in  81  feet. 

This  is  a  slow  rate  of  increase,  and  is  about  the  same  as  Mr.  Fairbaim 
found  at  Dukenfield.  The  rocks  penetrated  by  the  tunnel  consist  of  highly 
metamorphosed  material,  and  are  described  as  belonging  to  the  Jurassic 
series.  No  fossils  have  been  found  in  them.  For  two-thirds  of  the  length 
of  the  tunnel,  beginning  from  the  Italian  end,  they  are  remarkably  uniform, 
and  it  is  in  this  part  that  the  observations  have  been  taken.  The  following 
account  of  them  has  been  given  by  Prof.  Ansted  (Pop.  Sci.  Review,  Oct. 
1870,  p.  351)  : — "  The  rocks  on  which  the  observations  have  been  made  are 
absolutely  the  same,  geologically  and  otherwise,  from  the  eatrance  to  the 
tunnel,  on  the  Italian  side,  for  a  distance  of  nearly  10,000  j'^ards.  They 
are  not  faidted  to  any  extent,  though  highly  inclined,  contorted,  and  sub- 
jected to  slight  slips  and  slides.  They  contain  little  water  and  no  mineral 
veins.  They  consist,  to  a  very  large  extent  indeed,  of  silica,  either  as 
quartz  or  in  the  form  of  silicates,  chiefly  of  alumina,  and  the  small  quantity 
of  lime  they  contain  is  a  crystalline  carbonate." 

This  uniformity  of  material  is  very  favourable  to  conduction,  and  the  high 
inclination  of  the  strata  (in  which  respect  these  rocks  resemble  those  at 
Dukenfield)  also  appears  to  promote  either  conduction  proper  or  aqueous  con- 
vection, which  resembles  conduction  in  its  effects.  As  regards  Mons.  Gior- 
dano's estimate  of  the  mean  air- temperature  at  the  crest,  it  is  obtained  in 
the  following  way : — The  hill  of  San  Theodule  is  430  metres  higher,  and 
the  city  of  Turin  is  2650  metres  lower  than  the  crest ;  the  temperature  of 
the  former  has  been  determined  by  one  year's  observations  to  be  —  5°'l  C, 
and  that  of  the  latter  is  12°-5  C.  If  a  decrease  of  1°  C.  for  every  174  metres 
of  elevation  be  assumed  (1°  F.  for  317  feet),  we  obtain,  either  bj'  com- 
parison with  San  Theodule  or  with  Turin,  the  same  determination  — 2°-6 
for  the  air-temperature  at  the  crest  of  the  ridge  over  the  tunnel. 

This  mode  of  estimating  the  temperature  appears  very  fair,  though  of 
course  subject  to  much  uncertainty ;  and  there  is  another  element  of  uncer- 
tainty in  the  diff'erence  which  may  exist  between  the  air-temperature  and 
the  rock-temperature  at  the  summit. 

These  two  elements  of  uncertainty  would  be  eliminated  if  a  boring  of 
from  50  to  100  feet  were  sunk  at  the  summit,  and  observations  of  tempera- 
ture taken  in  it.  The  uncertain  correction  for  convexity  would  still  remain 
to  be  applied.  It  would  therefore  be  desirable  also  to  sink  a  boring,  of  about 
the  same  depth,  in  the  plateau  which  extends  for  about  a  quarter  of  the 
length  of  the  tunnel,  beginning  near  the  Italian  end,  its  height  above  the 
tunnel  being  about  a  third  of  a  mile. 

In  November  last,  when  very  little  information  had  reached  this  country 
respecting  the  temperature-observations  in  the  tunnel,  an  urgent  appeal  was 
addressed,  jointly  by  your  Committee  and  by  the  Geographical  Society  (of 
which  Prof.  Ansted  is  Foreign  Secretary),  to  M.  Sismonda,  requesting  him 
to  use  his  influence  with  the  Italian  authorities  to -secure  a  series  of  accu- 
rate observations  of  the  temperature  in  the  sides  of  the  tunnel,  before  time  had 
been  allowed  for  this  temperature  to  undergo  sensible  change  from  its  original 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE. 


17 


value.  It  was  also  suggested  that  the  mean  temperature  of  the  surface 
overhead  should  be  examined  by  boring. 

M.  Sismonda  speedily  replied,  stating  that  he  fully  recognized  the  impor- 
tance of  such  experiments,  and  had  already  made  arrangements  with  the 
Government  at  Turin,  and  with  the  contractors  for  the  railway  works,  to 
have  them  carried  out  as  fully  and  fairly  as  possible.  Had  the  communica- 
tion reached  him  at  a  time  of  year  when  he  could  have  travelled  without 
great  inconvenience,  he  would  have  gone  to  the  spot  himself;  but  as  that 
was  now  impossible,  the  Government  Commissioner  for  the  works,  M.  Salva- 
tori,  had  undertaken  to  see  the  experiments  carried  through  by  employes 
under  his  orders.  M.  Sismonda  further  stated  that,  from  the  commence- 
ment of  the  tunnel,  the  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Turin  had  instituted  a  series 
of  scientific  observations  in  it,  in  which  observations  of  temperature  were 
included.  The  results  of  these  observations  he  promised  to  forward  as  soon 
as  they  were  completed  and  tabulated. 

On  the  receipt  of  the  final  refusal  to  bore  down  at  the  bottom  of  Eosc- 
bridge  Colliery,  inquiries  were  instituted  as  to  the  feasibility  of  executing  a 
similar  operation  in  the  deepest  part  of  the  Alpine  tunnel.  The  contractors 
have,  however,  declined  to  grant  permission,  as  the  operation  would  involve 
additional  encumbrance  of  the  very  narrow  space  in  which  their  works  are 
proceeding.  It  appears  that  a  length  of  a  mile  or  more  in  the  deepest  part 
of  the  tunnel  has  not  yet  been  opened  out  to  the  full  width,  so  that  oppor- 
tunity niay  yet  be  given  to  excavate  a  lateral  heading  and  bore  down,  if  the 
Association  encourage  the  plan. 

Mr,  G.  J.  Symons  has  repeated  his  observations  in  the  Kentish  Town 
weD,  at  every  fiftieth  foot  of  depth,  from  350  to  1100  feet,  which  is  the 
lowest  point  attainable.  As  the  water  begins  at  the  depth  of  210  feet,  all 
these  observations  may  be  regarded  as  unaff'ected  by  the  influence  of  the 
external  air,  and  they  have  now  been  sufficiently  numerous  at  each  depth 
to  render  further  verification  needless.  The  following  are  the  results  finally 
adopted,  and  they  do  not  diifer  materially  from  those  first  published  (Report 
for  18693. 


18^ 


Depth,  in 

Tempera- 

Difference 

Difference 

Difference 

Peet  per 

feet. 

ture. 

for  50  feet. 

from  69°-9. 

from  1100  ft. 

degree. 

ft. 

o 

ft. 

ft. 

350 

56-0 

400 

57-9 

1-9 

13-9 

750 

54-0 

450 

59-0 

1-1 

12-0 

700 

58-3 

500 

60-0 

1-0 

10-9 

650 

59-6 

550 

60-9 

•9 

9-9 

600 

60-6 

600 

61-2 

•3 

9-0 

550 

61-1 

650 

61-3 

•1 

8-7 

500 

57-5 

700 

62-8 

1-5 

8-6 

450 

52-3 

750 

63-4 

•6 

7-1 

400 

56-3 

800 

64-2 

•8 

6-5 

350 

53-8 

850 

65-0 

•8 

5-7 

300 

52-6 

900 

65-8 

•8 

4-9 

250 

51-0 

950 

66-8 

1-0 

4-1 

200 

48-8 

1000 

67-8 

1-0 

3-1 

150 

48-4 

1050 

69-0 

1-2 

2-1 

100 

47-6 

1100 

69-9 

•9 

•9 

50 

55-6 

1. 

r* 

18  REPORT 1871. 

The  uumbers  in  the  last  column  are  the  quotients  of  those  in  the  two  pre- 
ceding, and  denote  the  average  number  of  feet  of  descent  for  1°  F.  of  in- 
crease, as  deduced  from  comparing  the  temperature  at  each  depth  of  obser- 
vation with  the  temperature  at  the  lowest  depth.  The  earlier  numbers  in 
this  column  of  course  carry  more  weight  than  the  later  ones.  The  amount 
of  steadiness  in  the  increase  of  temperature  of  the  water  is  best  seen  by 
inspecting  the  third  column,  which  shows  that  the  freest  interchange  of  heat 
occurs  at  about  the  depth  of  600  feet.  This  must  be  due  to  springs.  The 
soil,  from  the  depth  of  569  to  that  of  702  feet,  is  described  as  "  light-grey 
chalk,  with  a  few  thin  beds  of  chalk-marl  subordinate."  The  soil  consists 
in  general  of  chalk  and  marl,  from  325  to  910  feet,  and  below  this  of  sandy 
marl,  sand,  and  clay  (see  list  of  strata  in  last  year's  Report,  p.  41).  The 
mean  rate  of  increase  in  the  former  is  a  degree  in  56  feet,  and  in  the  latter 
a  degree  in  49  feet.  The  mean  rate  of  increase  from  the  surface  of  the 
ground  to  the  lowest  depth  reached  is  certainly  very  nearly  1°  F.  in  54  feet. 

Mr.  David  Burns,  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  has  furnished  observations 
taken  in  the  W.  B.  lead-mines,  at  and  near  AUenheads,  Northumberland,  by 
the  kind  permission  of  Thomas  Sopwith,  Esq.,  F.ll.S.,  and  with  the  valuable 
assistance  of  Mr.  Ridley,  Underground  Surveyor,  who  continued  the  obser- 
vations after  Mr.  Burns  had  Isft. 

The  mineral  for  which  these  mines  are  worked  is  galena.  There  are  very 
extensive  old  workings  at  a  lower  level  than  the  present  workings,  and  filled 
with  water,  which  is  kept  down  by  pumping ;  but  the  quantity  daily  pumped 
out  is  very  small  in  comparison  with  the  whole,  so  that  the  change  of  water 
is  slow. 

From  the  offices  of  the  lead-mines  a  small  windlass  with  a  supply  of  fine 
brass  wire  was  obtained,  which  enabled  the  thermometer  to  be  lowered 
steadily  and  quickly. 

The  first  observations  were  taken  in  Gin-Hill  shaft,  3rd  June,  1871.  The 
observers  proceeded  as  far  down  in  the  works  as  they  were  able,  and  took 
their  station  in  a  level  leading  from  the  shaft,  290  feet  from  the  surface  of 
the  ground,  and  38  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water  in  the  shaft. 

The  following  observations  were  then  made  : — 


Depth  under  Depth  in                             Temperature, 

ground.  water.  Fahr. 

ft.  ft. 

340     12  49-3 

340 12  49-2 

390     62  51- 

390     62  51- 

440     112  51-3' 

440     112  51- 


} 


The  mean  temperature  at  the  shaft  mouth  for  the  year  ending  31  st  May 
1871,  was  44°-3,  as  derived  from  daily  obsei'vations  of  maximum  and  mini- 
mum thermometers,  without  applying  a  correction  for  diiirnal  range.  Add- 
ing 1°  to  this,  to  obtain  the  probable  mean  temperature  of  the  surface  of 
the  ground,  and  taking  the  temperature  at  400  feet  of  depth  as  51''-3,  Mr. 
Burns  computes  that  the  rate  of  increase  downwards  is  6°  in  400  feet,  or  1° 
in  66'6  feet.  The  data  for  this  calculation  are  obviously  in  many  respects 
very  uncertain. 

On  the  21st  June  Mr.  Ridley  took  observations  in  another  shaft  in  the 
same  workings,  called  the  High   Underground  Engine  Shaft.     It  is  sunk 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE.  19 

from  a  level  at  the  depth  of  398  feet  below  ground,  and  the  surface  of  the 
water  in  it  is  399  feet  down  the  shaft,  or  797  feet  below  the  surface  of  the 
ground.  There  are  pumps  in  the  shaft,  but  they  had  been  stationary  for  more 
than  24  hours  before  the  observations  were  made.  Immediately  after  the 
observations  they  were  started,  and  when  they  had  been  working  for  some 
time  the  temperature  of  the  water  lifted  was  found  to  be  65°-2.  They  draw 
their  water  at  a  depth  of  957  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  ground. 
The  following  were  the  observations : — 

Depth  under  Depth  in  Temperature, 

ground.  water.  Fahr 
ft.                                         ft. 

807  10  65-n 

807  10  64-9  f 

857  60  65-41 

857  60  65-7  f 

807  10  65-4 

The  thermometer  could  not  be  lowered  beyond  857  feet  without  risk  of 
losing  it,  by  getting  fast  in  the  wooden  framework  with  which  the  pumps 
were  secured.  Mr.  Burns  thinks  that  some  of  the  temperatures  here  re- 
corded are  too  low,  from  the  index  being  shaken  down  by  reason  of  the  im- 
pediments presented  by  the  upper  portions  of  the  framework.  The  surface 
of  the  ground  over  this  shaft  is  about  300  feet  higher  than  over  Gin-Hill 
shaft.  If  we  allow  1°  for  this  increase  of  height,  and  call  the  temperature  of 
the  surface  of  the  ground  44°-3,  as  against  45°-3  at  Gin  Hill,  we  have,  by 
comparison  with  the  observed  temperature  65°-7  at  the  depth  of  857  feet, 
an  increase  of  21°-4  in  857  feet,  or  1°  in  40  feet. 

On  the  6th  July  Mr.  Eidley  took  observations  in  another  sump  or  under- 
ground shaft  at  Slitt  mine,  Weardale.  This  shaft  is  sunk  from  the  lowest 
level  in  the  working,  and  had  been  standing  full  of  water  during  the  five 
months  which  had  elapsed  since  it  was  sunk.  The  only  source  of  disturbance 
was  a  little  water  running  along  the  level  across  the  top  of  the  shaft,  so  as 
to  enter  the  shaft  (so  to  speak)  on  one  side  and  leave  it  on  the  other.  This 
may  affect  the  temperature  at  3  feet,  but  could  scarcely  affect  the  tempera- 
ture at  53  feet,  which  may  be  regarded  as  veiy  reliable. 

The  following  are  the  observations  ; — 

Depth  under                            Depth  in  Temperature, 

ground.  water.  Fahr. 

ft.  ft. 

610  3     64-51 

610  3     64-5  f 

660  53     65-li 

660  53 64-9/ 

Mr.  Burns  says  "  the  surface-temperature  at  Slitt  mine  will  be  nearly  the 
same  as  that  at  Gin-Hill  shaft,  judging  from  their  relative  elevations, 
aspects,  and  [exposure  to  the  winds."  Assuming  it  then  to  be  45°-3,  and 
reckoning  the  temperature  at  660  feet  as  65°,  we  have  an  increase  down- 
wards of  19°-7  in  660  feet,  or  1°  in  33-5  feet.  The  only  datum  that  seems 
doubtful  here  is  the  surface-temperature.    If,  instead  of  45°'3,  it  be  assumed 

f  44°-3  )  f  ^1  Q  1 

as  j  4go.3  y  ,  it  gives  an  increase  of  1°  in  i  g^'^  I  feet. 

Mr.  Eidley  has  also  taken  observations  in  Breckon-Hill  shaft,  which  is 
near  the  river  Allen,  about  1^  mile  from  Gin-HiU  shaft,  and  at  an  elevation 

c2 


} 


20  REPORT 1871. 

not  much  above  the  bottom  of  the  valley,  but  1174  feet  above  sea-level.  It 
was  sunk  some  years  ago,  and  has  since  stood  nearly  fuU  of  water.  At  the 
time  of  the  observations  the  surface  of  the  water  was  24  feet  down  the 
shaft.  The  following  are  the  observations  taken  in  this  shaft  on  June 
13th  :— 

Depth  under  Depth  in  Temperature, 

ground.  water.  Fahr. 

ft.  ft. 

50   26  47-2 1 

50  26  47-2 1 

100  76  46-9" 

100  76  46-8 

150  126  46-8) 

150  126  46-7  J 

200   176  46-6 

250  226  46-8 

300  276  46-8 

350  326  46-9 

These  observations  were  taken  early  in  the  morning,  when  the  air  and 
springs  were  so  cold  as  to  allow  the  maximum  thermometer  to  be  cooled  below 
the  temperature  of  the  shaft.  In  order  to  test  more  thoroughly  the  apparent 
uniformity  of  temperature  from  100  feet  down  to  350  feet,  Mr.  Ridley  took 
a  second  series  of  observations,  extending  from  the  22nd  to  the  27th  June. 
In  these  observations  the  thermometer  was  lowered  in  a  tin  case  fiUed  with 
water  colder  than  that  of  the  shaft.  The  thermometer  was  supported  within 
the  case  in  a  vertical  position  by  a  wooden  frame,  and  prevented  from  shak- 
ing about.  It  was  allowed  to  remain  at  each  depth  several  hours,  was  then 
lifted,  and  read  with  all  possible  care.  The  following  are  the  observations 
thus  obtained : — 


Depth  under 
ground, 
ft. 
42      

Length  of 
immersion, 
h      m 
...      10  40      . . 

Temperature  before 
immersion. 

42-0     .... 

Temperature  after 
immersion. 

. . . .     46  5 

92      

.  ..      11  20      .. 

44-0      .... 

. . .  .     46-5 

142      

...     11  40     . . 

42-4      .... 

. .  . .     46-6 

192      

...      12  20      . . 

461     .... 

. .  . .     46-6 

242      

...     34     0     . . 

44-0     .... 

.  .  . .     46-6 

292      

...     13  40     . . 

45-4     .... 

. .  . .     46-6 

342      

...     10  25     . . 

45-4     .... 

.  .  .  .     46-6 

Here  the  temperature  is  even  more  uniform  than  in  the  first  series.  As 
to  the  causes  of  this  uniformity,  Mr.  Burns  remarks  that  the  shaft  is  not 
connected  with  any  working,  but  is  cut  through  solid  strata.  It  is  a 
few  yards  to  the  east  of  the  Allen,  while,  in  the  bed  of  that  stream,  and 
making  a  great  spread  on  the  west  side  of  the  valley,  is  a  bed  of  hmestone 
nearly  70  feet  thick,  and  dipping  at  an  angle  of  about  10^  to  the  east.  The 
top  of  this  limestone  was  cut  in  the  shaft  about  40  feet  down,  which  occa- 
sioned a  great  influx  of  ivater  into  the  shaft,  and  drained  a  strong  spring  on 
the  other  side  of  the  river. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  chief  difference  between  the  two  sets  of  ob- 
servations is  just  at  the  place  where  this  limestone  was  cut.  The  second  set 
were  taken  after  and  during  much  rain,  and  the  first  set  after  a  week  of  very 
little  rain.     It  appears  probable  that  the  difference  of  temperature  at  this 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE.  21 

depth  was  due  to  the  difference  of  temperature  of  the  surface-water  which 
soaked  in  through  the  limestone  in  the  two  cases.  As  regards  the  tempera- 
tures at  depths  exceeding  200  feet,  it  would  appear  that,  in  times  of  compa- 
rative drought  (as  in  the  first  set),  the  heat  of  the  soil  at  the  greater  depths 
has  time  to  produce  a  little  augmentation  in  the  temperature  of  the  water 
before  it  soaks  away. 

This  shaft  is  obviously  not  adapted  for  giving  any  information  as  to  the 
rate  of  increase  downwards.  Collecting  the  best  determinations  from  the 
other  shafts  we  have  : — 

Depth  of  Temperature.  Calculated 

thermometer.  Fahr,  increase, 

ft.  „  „  ft. 

Gin-Hill  Shaft 400     51-3     1  in  66-6 

High  Underground  Engine     857     65-7      1  in  40 

Slitt  Mine     660      65-1      1  in  33-5 

Mr.  Burns  considers  that  little  or  no  weight  should  be  attached  to  the  first 
of  these  determinations,  as  a  pumping-engine  was  working  in  a  neighbouring 
shaft  communicating  with  it  at  the  time  when  the  observations  were  taken. 
The  jump  of  2°  in  descending  from  340  to  390  feet  also  renders  the  inter- 
pretation of  these  observations  difficult. 

The  closeness  of  the  temperatures  in  the  other  two  shafts,  at  depths  differ- 
ing by  about  200  feet,  suggests  the  idea  that  they  are  both  fed  by  the  same 
spring,  and  that  the  temperatures  indicated  are  the  temperature  of  the  origin 
of  the  spring  slightly  modified  by  the  different  temperatures  of  the  strata 
through  which  it  has  passed ;  but  their  positions  appear  to  render  this  im- 
possible. 

Mr.  Burns's  opinion  from  all  the  observations  is  that  the  mean  rate  of  in- 
crease downwards  at  Allenheads  is  about  1°  in  35  feet  ;  but  this  cannot  at 
present  be  held  as  proved. 

The  strata  consist  mainly  of  alternate  beds  of  sandstone  and  shale,  with  a 
few  beds  of  limestone  intermixed.  In  Slitt  mine  there  is  also  a  bed  of 
basalt  158  feet  thick,  overlying  the  vein  of  fluor-spar  in  which  the  workings 
are  carried  on,  the  workings  being  55  feet  down  in  this  vein. 

Preparations  are  being  made  for  taking  observations  in  the  dry  part  of  the 
mines,  by  making  shallow  bores  at  different  levels,  inserting  the  thermometer, 
plugging  up  the  hole  for  a  few  days,  and  then  reading. 

Another  gentleman  connected  with  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  Mr.  R.  L. 
lack,  has  taken  observations  in  a  bore  at  Crawriggs,  Kirkintilloch,  near 
Cilasgow.  They  were  taken  on  the  29th  November  1870,  the  temperature 
of  the  air  being  34°.  The  surface  of  the  water  in  the  bore  was  6  feet  below 
the  surface  of  the  ground,  the  latter  being  200  feet  above  sea-level.  The 
Poilowing  were  the  observations : — 

Depth  from  surface     Time  of  lowering  lime  of  withdrawing         Temperature. 

of  ground.                 thermometer.  thermometer.  Fahr. 

feet.                             h    m  h     m  o 

50  12  52P.M 1  7p.m 47 

100  1  10  „  1  28  „  48| 

150  1  33  „  1  52  „  49| 

200  1  58  „  2  14  „  50 

250  2  22  „  2  43  „  50 

300  3  15  „  3  34  „  50| 

350 3  40  „  3  50  „  51 

A  few  feet  below  350  feet  an  obstruction  in  the  bore  prevented  further 


22  REPORT— 1871. 

observations ;  but  tbe  bore  continues  for  aboiit  70  feet  further.  We  have 
here  a  total  increase  of  4°  in  300  feet,  which  is  at  the  rate  of  1°  in  75  feet ; 
but  the  intermediate  steps  are  so  irregular  that  not  much  weight  can  be 
attached  to  this  determination. 

The  Secretary  has  corresponded  with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  respect- 
ing the  great  bore  at  St.  Louis,  which  was  described  in  last  year's  Report, 
and  also  respecting  the  Hoosac  Tunnel  which  passes  under  a  mountain  and 
will  be  4|  miles  long,  but  the  correspondence  has  not  yet  led  to  any  definite 
result. 

It  was  stated  in  last  Report  that  application  had  been  made  to  General 
Helmersen,  of  the  Mining  College,  St.  Petersburg,  for  information  regarding 
the  temperature  of  a  very  deep  bore  in  course  of  sinking  at  Moscow,  as  well 
as  regarding  underground  temperatures  in  Russia  generally.  A  long  delay 
occurred,  owing  to  the  General  being  absent  from  home  for  seven  months, 
and  not  receiving  the  communication  till  his  return  ;  but  shortly  after  his 
return  he  dispatched  a  very  polite  answer,  from  which  the  following  passages 
are  extracted: — "  We  have  an  artesian  well  in  St.  Petersburg,  bored  in  the 
Lower  Silurian  strata.  At  the  depth  of  656  English  feet  this  well  stops  at  the 
granite,  a  granite  which  perfectly  resembles  that  of  Finland.  The  lowest 
portion  of  these  Silurian  strata  is  merely  a  degraded  granite,  a  grit  combined 
with  debris  of  felspar.  About  353,000  hectolitres  of  water  flow  from  the 
well  per  diem,  and  this  water  issues  with  a  constant  temperature  of  9°-8 

Reaumur You  are  doubtless  aware  of  the  existence  of  a  series 

of  observations  on  the  temperature  of  the  soil  at  the  bottom  of  a  well  which 
was  sunk  in  the  town  of  Yakoutsk  in  Eastern  Siberia.  This  well  has  shown 
us  that  the  soil  of  Siberia,  at  least  in  this  part  of  its  great  extent,  is  frozen 
to  a  depth  of  540  English  feet.  The  mean  temperature  of  Yakoutsk  is 
— 8°-2  R.  At  the  depth  of  100  feet  the  temperature  of  the  soil  was  found  to 
be  —  5°-2.  Prom  this  depth  to  the  bottom  the  temperature  increased  at  the 
rate  of  1°  R.  for  every  117  feet;  whence  it  would  follow  that  the  soil  at 
Yakoutsk  is  frozen  to  the  depth  of  about  700  feet. 

"  It  appears  to  me  a  very  interesting  circumstance  that,  according  to  ac- 
counts just  received  by  the  Icademy  of  Sciences  from  Baron  Maydel,  traveller 
in  the  country  of  the  Tchukchees  [des  Tschouktschi],  there  are  found  in 
those  regions  layers  of  ice,  quite  pure,  alternating  with  sand  and  clay.  The 
interesting  letter  of  the  Baron  will  shortly  be  printed  in  the  publications  of 
the  Academy.  It  was  in  making  excavations  in  search  of  mammoths  that 
Maydel  made  this  discovery." 

If  we  assume  the  temperature  of  the  surface  of  the  soil  at  St.  Petersburg 
to  be  39°- 17  F.,  which,  according  to  '  Herschel's  Meteorology,'  is  the  mean 
temperature  of  the  air  at  the  Magnetic  and  Meteorological  Observatory,  and 
if  we  take  the  temperature  of  the  water  as  that  of  the  bottom  of  the  well, 
we  have  an  increase  downwards  of  14°-88  F.  in  656  feet,  which  is  at  the  rate 
of  1°  F.  in  44-1  feet.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  we  suppose  the  surface  of  the 
ground  to  be  4°  F.  warmer  than  the  air  (and  the  difference  at  Yakoutsk  ap- 
pears to  be  greater  than  this),  we  deduce  an  increase  at  the  rate  of  1°  F.  in 
60  feet. 

The  rate  of  increase  at  Yakoutsk  from  the  depth  of  100  feet  to  the  bottom 
of  the  frozen  well  at  540  feet  is  given  above  by  General  Helmersen  as  1°  R, 
in  117  feet.     This  is  1°  F.  in  52  feet. 

An  account  of  the  Yakoutsk  well  is  given  in  '  Comptes  Rendus,'  tome  vi. 
1838,  p.  501,  in  an  extract  from  a  letter  by  Erman  (fils),  who  visited  Ya- 
koutsk when  the  well  had  attained  a  depth  of  50  feet.     He  gives  the  tem- 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE.  23 

perature  at  this  depth  from  his  own  observations,  and  the  temperatures  at 
77,  119,  and  382  feet  from  the  subsequent  observations  of  the  merchant  to 
whom  the  well  belonged.  His  figures  differ  very  materially  from  those  given 
above ;  but  it  may  fairly  be  presumed  that  General  Helmersen's  account  is 
the  more  accurate. 

Before  the  receipt  of  General  Helmersen's  letter,  <;he  following  communi- 
cation respecting  the  Moscow  boring  had  been  received  by  the  Secretary  from 
Mons.  N.  Lubimoff,  Professor  of  Natural  Philosophy  in  the  University  of 
Moscow. 

"  December  ^^,  1870. 

"  Dear  Sir, — I  beg  your  pardon  for  not  having  replied  sooner  to  your  letter. 
I  am  sorry  to  say  that  the  information  which  I  can  now  communicate  is  very 
deficient.  The  great  bore  of  Moscow  is  not  yet  terminated,  and  the  experi- 
ments on  temperature  which  have  been  made  hitherto  are  but  of  a  preli- 
minary kind.  It  was  in  the  hope  of  renewing  the  measurements  under  more 
satisfactory  conditions  that  I  delayed  my  answer ;  but  as  certain  circum- 
stances did  not  permit  me  to  resume  the  observations,  which  are  therefore 
deferred  to  the  spring  of  1871, 1  must  restrict  myself  to  describing  the  old  ones. 

"  These  were  made,  on  my  commission,  by  M.  Schiller,  B.A.,  in  April  1809. 
The  bore  was  then  about  994  feet  deep,  and,  from  56  feet  to  the  bottom, 
full  of  water.  A  mercury  thermometer  of  a  peculiar  kind  was  constructed, 
on  an  idea  of  my  own.  It  consisted  of  a  capillary  tube  of  thick  glass,  ter- 
minating below  in  a  large  reservoir  ;  at  the  upper  end  a  funnel-like  piece 
was  adjusted,  into  which  the  mercury  flowed  off  as  soon  as  the  temperature 
rose  above  a  certain  value  [sketch  annexed].  The  whole  was  placed  within 
a  closed  case,  which  was  plunged  to  a  chosen  depth  into  the  bore,  and  re- 
versed by  means  of  a  special  arrangement.  It  was  then  brought  again  to  the 
right  position  and  drawn  up  to  the  surface,  a  poftion  of  mercury  having 
flowed  away.  Here  the  thermometer  was  plunged  into  a  water-bath,  the 
temperature  of  which  was  so  regulated  that  the  mercury  attained  the  end  of 
the  capillary  tube  ;  this  was  then  the  temperature  required. 

"  The  measurements  were  made  at  the  depths  of  175,  350,  525,  700,  875, 
and  994  feet.  From  350  feet  to  the  bottom  the  temperature  throughout  the 
bore  was  found  to  be  nearly  constant,  namely  10°'l  C,  with  deviations  of 
+  0°-l.  The  temperatures  of  the  upper  parts  of  the  bore  were  not  quite 
precisely  ascertained,  the  chief  attention  being  given,  in  these  first  experi- 
ments, to  the  deeper  parts.     The  air-temperature  at  the  surface  for  the  time 


( 


11  April  to  ?^4^^  varied  between  -f-7°-5  and  -l°-9  C. 
29     ^  5  May  / 


"  As  soon  as  the  boring  is  completed,  and  the  present  impediments  removed 
from  the  bore,  the  observations  will  be  resumed,  and  perhaps  some  new 
methods  will  be  applied  for  the  sake  of  verification,  though  the  above  de- 
scribed apparatus,  previously  tried,  seemed  to  give  very  exact  results. 

"  I  shall  be  very  glad  to  communicate  to  you,  as  soon  as  possible,  the  re- 
sults of  the  new  experiments.  As  to  underground  temperatures  for  Russia 
in  general,  there  is,  so  far  as  I  know,  no  place  where  regular  and  trustworthy 
observations  have  been  made  {^should  be  made  in  original]  except  the  Central 
Physical  Observatory  at  St.  Petersburg,  the  results  of  which  are  published  by 
Dr.  Wild,  Director  of  the  establishment,  in  his  printed  Annual  Reports." 

From  the  sketch  annexed  to  the  description  in  Professor  Lubimoff's  letter, 
it  appears  that  the  enlargement  at  the  open  end  of  the  capillary  tube  is  quite 
sudden,  and  not  likely  to  retain  any  mercury  when  inverted.  The  idea  of 
error  from  this  cause  may  therefore  be  dismissed ;  but  the  instrument  is  en- 


24  REPORT 1871. 

tirely  unprotected  against  the  pressure  of  the  water  in  which  it  is  immersed, 
and  it  is  important  to  consider  what  effect  this  pressure  will  have. 

In  thermometers  of  the  ordinary  construction  this  pi'essure  acts  only  ex- 
ternally, and  produces  much  greater  diminiition  of  the  internal  volume  than 
when,  as  in  Prof.  Lubimoff's  thermometer,  it  acts  both  externally  and  in- 
ternally, a  mode  of  action  with  which  we  are  familiar  in  the  case  of  CErsted's 
piezometer. 

From  Eegnault's  experiments  it  appears  that  the  apparent  compression  of 
mercury  in  glass,  when  the  pressure  is  thus  applied,  is  -000001234  per  atmo- 
sphere, whereas  the  apparent  expansion  of  mercury  in  glass  for  heat  is  -0000857 
per  degree  Fahi-enheit.  The  latter  number  is  69  times  the  former  ;  it  there- 
fore appears  that  a  pressure  of  69  atmospheres  would  be  required  to  falsify 
the  indications  of  Prof.  Lubimoff's  thermometer  to  the  extent  of  1°  F.  The 
actual  pressure  at  the  bottom  of  the  well  is  less  than  the  half  of  this,  and 
therefore  should  only  produce  an  error  of  a  few  tenths  of  a  degree.  This, 
however,  is  on  the  assumption  that  the  glass  undergoes  no  change  of  figure,  a 
condition  which  may  easily  fail  of  being  fulfilled,  owing  to  the  want  of  perfect 
uniformity  in  the  glass. 

Mr.  Donaldson  has  written  from  Calcutta  to  the  effect  that  the  thermo- 
meter which  was  sent  to  him  has  been  entrusted  to  a  competent  observer, 
who  has  taken  numerous  observations  with  it,  which  will  be  sent  shortly. 

M.  Erman's  letter  above  referred  to  is  immediately  followed  in  the  '  Comptes 
Rendus'  by  an  account,  by  M.  Walferdin,  of  some  observations,  which  appear 
to  be  very  reliable,  taken  in  artesian  weUs  in  the  basin  in  which  Paris  is 
situated.  They  were  taken  with  maximum  thermometers  of  the  kind  in- 
vented by  Walferdin  himself,  in  which  the  mercur3'  overflows  into  a  reservoir 
when  the  temperature  exceeds  a  certain  limit,  the  thermometers  being  her- 
metically sealed  in  glas^  tubes  to  protect  them  from  pressure. 

The  observations  which  he  first  describes  were  taken  in  a  well,  newly 
sunk  to  the  depth  of  263  metres,  at  St.  Andre,  about  50  miles  to  the  west  of 
Paris,  and  which  failed  to  yield  a  supply  of  water.  The  temperature  was 
carefully  observed  at  the  depth  of  253  metres  by  means  of  two  thermometers, 
which  were  allowed  to  remain  at  that  depth  for  ten  hours.  Their  indications 
agreed  to  -03  of  a  degree  Centigrade,  and  gave  a  mean  of  17°-95  C.  For  the 
sake  of  comparison,  M.  Walferdin  observed  the  temperature  at  the  bottom  of 
a  well  75  metres  deep,  situated  at  a  distance  of  only  13  metres  from  the  other 
well, and  found  it  12°-2C.,  showing  a  difference  of  5°-75C.  in  178  metres, which 
is  at  the  rate  of  1°  C.  in  30-95  metres,  or  1°  F.  in  56-4  feet.  He  mentions  that 
he  also  employed  two  Six's  thermometers  (deux  thermometrographes)  enclosed 
in  copper  tubes  to  protect  them  from  pressure,  but  both  of  these  gave  erroneous 
indications.  The  copper  case  of  one  was  imperfect,  and  allowed  a  little  water 
to  enter.  This  one  read  l°-25  too  high,  owing  probably  to  the  effect  of 
pressure ;  the  other  read  2°-15  too  low,  owing  probably  to  the  index  being 
shaken  down. 

The  temperature  at  the  depth  of  400  metres  in  the  puits  de  Grenelle  at 
Paris  was  observed  on  two  difierent  occasions.  The  indications  were  23°-5 
on  the  first  and  23°-75  on  the  second  occasion;  and  these  M.  Walferdin  com- 
pares with  the  constant  temperature  ll°-7  in  the  caves  of  the  Observatory  at 
the  depth  of  28  metres.  Taking  the  mean  of  the  two  observations,  23°-6,  we 
have  a  difference  of  ll°-9  in  372  metres,  which  is  at  the  rate  of  1°  C.  in  31-2 
metres,  or  1°  F.  in  56-9  feet. 

Observations  in  the  well  of  the  Military  School,  at  a  distance  of  600  metres 
from  the  puits  de  Grenelle,  showed  a  temperature  of  16°-4  C.  at  the  depth  of 


ON  UNDERGROUND  TEMPERATURE.  25 

173  metres.     This  gives,  by  comparison  with  the  Observatory  caves,  au  in- 
crease at  the  rate  of  1°  C.  in  30-85  metres,  or  1°  F.  in  56-25  feet. 

These  three  determinations  are  in  wonderfully  close  agreement  with  each 
other.  All  three  wells  are  sunk  in  the  chalk  of  the  Paris  basin.  In  the 
case  of  the  St.  Andre  well  the  thicknesses  of  the  different  strata  were : — 

metres. 

Plastic  clay 13-52 

White  chalk     122-46 

Marly  chalk 29-24 

Glauconie     13-64 

Greensand    84-36 

263-22 

The  thermometer  which  the  Committee  have  been  employing  for  the  last 
three  years  is  a  Phillips's  maximum,  having  so  fine  a  bore  that  the  detached 
column  of  mercury  which  serves  as  the  index  is  sustained  in  the  vertical 
position  by  capillary  action,  and  will  bear  a  moderate  amount  of  shaking 
without  slipping  down.  Numerous  instances,  however,  have  occurred  in 
which  the  index  has  slipped  in  consequence  of  jerks  or  concussions  sustained 
by  the  thermometer  in  hauling  it  up  from  a  depth.  During  the  past  six 
months  the  Secretary  has  been  in  correspondence  with  Messrs.  Negretti  and 
Zambra  respecting  a  proposed  modification  of  the  maximum  thermometer 
known  by  their  name,  which  occurred  to  him  more  than  a  year  ago,  and  was 
described  by  him  privately  to  some  meteorological  friends  at  the  last  Meeting 
of  the  Association.  It  was  then  supposd  to  be  new,  but  it  now  appears  that 
Messrs.  Negretti  and  Zambra  have  made  something  of  the  kind  for  the  last 
fourteen  or  fifteen  years.  Several  changes,  however,  were  necessary  before 
the  thermometer  was  adapted  to  the  uses  of  the  Committee,  and  the  first 
complete  instruments  were  received  in  June  last.  They  are  enclosed,  like  the 
thermometers  previously  used,  in  hermetically  sealed  tubes,  for  protection 
against  pressure,  and  they  have  the  advantages  (1)  of  being  able  to  bear 
more  severe  jolts  without  derangement  of  their  indications,  and  (2)  of  pre- 
senting to  view  a  much  broader  column  of  mercury,  so  as  to  be  more  easily 
read  in  a  dim  light. 

The  instrument  is  to  be  used  in  a  vertical  position,  with  the  bulb  uppermost. 
Between  the  bulb  and  the  stem  there  is  a  contraction,  through  which  the 
mercury  will  not  pass  except  under  pressure.  It  is  set  by  holding  it  with 
the  bulb  end  lowest,  and  tapping  this  end  on  the  palm  of  the  hand,  tiU  the 
part  between  the  contraction  and  the  bulb  is  fuU  of  mercury.  It  can  then 
be  held  with  the  bulb  up,  and  the  mercury  in  the  stem  wiU  run  down  to  the 
lower  end,  from  which  the  graduations  begin.  In  this  position,  the  top  of 
the  column  indicates  the  temperature  of  setting,  which  must  be  lower  than 
the  temperature  intended  to  be  observed. 

The  instrument  is  then  to  be  lowered  into  the  bore  to  any  required  depth, 
and  allowed  to  remain  there  for  about  half  an  hour,  to  ensure  its  taking  the 
temperature  of  the  surrounding  water.  The  expansion  of  the  mercury  in 
the  bulb  with  heat  will  force  a  portion  of  the  liquid  through  the  contraction, 
and  subsequent  cooling  in  hauling  up  will  not  cause  any  of  it  to  return. 
The  portion  which  has  thus  escaped  from  the  bulb  into  the  stem  will  usually 
be  found  rem^iining  close  to  the  contraction,  when  the  thermometer  has  been 
hauled  up.  The  instrument  must  then  be  gently  inclined,  so  as  to  make  the 
bulb  end  slightly  the  lowest,  when  the  mercury  in  the  stem  wiU  all  unite 
into  one  column,  which  will  run  down  to  its  place  on  again  raising  the  bulb. 
The  head  of  the  column  will  then  indicate  the  required  temperature. 


26  REPORT— 1871. 

Report  on  Observations  of  Luminous  Meteors,  1870-71.  By  a  Com- 
mittee consisting  of  James  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  of  the  Royal 
Observatory,  Greenwich,  Robert  P.  Greg,  F.R.S.,  Alexander 
S.  Herschel,  F.R.A.S.,  and  Charles  Brooke,  F.R.S.,  Secre- 
tary to  the  Meteorological  Society. 
The  object  of  the  Committee  being,  as  in  the  previous  year,  to  present  a 
condensed  Report  of  the  observations  which  they  have  received,  and  to  indi- 
cate the  progress  of  Meteoric  Astronomy  during  the  interval  vrhich  has 
elapsed  since  their  last  Eeport,  the  reviews  of  recent  publications  relating  to 
ileteoric  Science  which  will  be  found  in  the  sequel  are  preceded  by  a  state- 
ment of  the  results  obtained  by  the  observers,  who  have  during  the  past 
year  contributed  a  valuable  list  of  communications  on  the  appearances  of 
luminous  meteors  and  regular  observations  of  star-showers  to  the  Com- 
mittee. The  real  heights  and  velocities  of  thirteen  shooting-stars  obtained 
by  the  cooperation  of  Mr.  Glaisher's  staff  of  observers  at  the  Royal  Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich,  during  the  simultaneous  watch  for  meteors  on  the  nights 
of  the  5th  to  12th  of  August  last,  are  sufficiently  accordant  with  the  real 
velocity  of  the  Perseids  (as  already  previously  determined  by  similar  means, 
in  the  year  1863)  to  afford  a  satisfactory  conclusion  that  the  results  of  direct 
observation  are  in  very  close  agreement  with  those  derived  from  the  astro- 
nomical theory  of  the  August  meteor-stream.  Shooting-stars  were  observed 
to  be  more  than  usually  frequent  on  the  nights  of  the  17th  of  August  and 
24th  of  September  last,  accompanying  on  the  latter  night  a  rather  brilliant 
display  of  the  Aurora.  On  the  nights  of  the  18th-20th  of  October  last  the 
sky  was  bo  generally  overcast  as  to  conceal  the  view  of  any  meteoric  shower 
which  may  have  taken  place  on  that  well-established  meteoric  date.  But  on  the 
mornings  of  13th-loth  of  November  last  a  satisfactory  series  of  observations  of 
the  November  star-shower  (so  far  as  its  return  could  be  identified)  recorded 
at  the  Royal  Observatory,  Greenwich,  and  at  several  other  British  stations, 
concurs  with  very  similar  descriptions  of  its  appearance  in  the  United  States 
of  America  in  showing  the  rapid  decrease  of  intensity  of  this  display  since 
the  period  of  greatest  brightness,  which  it  attained  in  the  years  1866  and 
1867.  Notices  of  the  extreme  brightness  with  which  it  was  visible  in  the 
following  year  (1868)  are  extracted  from  astronomical  and  meteorological 
journals  kept  in  Switzerland  and  Scotland.  A  short  view  of  the  sky  on  the 
night  of  the  12th  of  December  last  was  obtained  at  Birmingham,  where  the 
accurate  divergence  of  the  meteors  observed  by  Mr.  Wood  from  the  radiant 
point  in  Gemini  of  the  December  meteors  sufficed  to  verify  the  periodical 
return  of  that  meteoric  current.  The  state  of  the  sky  was  not  favourable 
for  observations  of  meteors  on  the  first  two  nights  of  January ;  but  during 
two  hours,  when  the  sky  was  clear,  on  the  night  of  the  20th  of  April  last, 
the  well-known  group  of  April  meteors  was  noted,  on  the  periodical  date, 
diverging  in  considerable  numbers,  and  with  the  characteristic  features  of 
brightness,  and  leaving  a  persistent  streak  from  the  direction  of  a  nearly  fixed 
centre  in  the  constellation  Lyra.  One  meteor  of  the  shower,  simultaneously 
observed  at  Birmingham  and  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  afforded  sufficiently  accu- 
rate materials  for  calculating  its  real  distance  from  the  observers,  and  the 
length  and  velocity  of  its  visible  flight  relatively  to  the  earth.  The  com- 
bined observations  of  the  regularly  recurring  meteor-showers  during  the 
past  j'ear  having  at  present  proved  successful  in  contributing  some  valuable 
materials  to  their  history,  the  Committee  propose  to  resume  during  the 
coming  year  a  systematic  watch  for  their  return,  and  to  provide  observers 


OBSEKVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  27 

of  the  regular  star-showers  of  August  and  November,  and  those  of  smaller 
interest  and  abundance  in  January,  April,  October,  and  December,  with 
suitable  maps  and  instructions  to  enable  them  to  obtain,  without  unnecessary 
pains  bestowed  in  preparations  or  expense,  the  most  careful  and  complete 
records  of  their  extraordinary  displays.  In  order  that  the  operations  of  the 
Committee  may  thus  continue  to  be  systematically  directed  towards  the 
objects  which  have  acquired  important  interest  from  the  discovery  of  the  as- 
tronomical connexion  of  shooting- stars  with  the  orbits  of  comets,  introducing 
the  strictest  methods  of  inquiry  into  the  laws  of  their  appearance,  the  Com- 
mittee earnestly  desire  the  r^ewal,  in  the  coming  year,  of  the  support  which, 
since  its  first  formation,  by  their  correspondence  and  cooperation,  observers 
have  hitherto  freely  contributed  to  the  British  Association. 

Notices  of  the  appearance  of  twenty-two  fireballs  and  smaU  bolides  have 
during  the  past  year  been  received  by  the  Committee,  fourteen  of  which 
were  compared  to  the  apparent  size  and  brightness  of  the  moon,  and  the 
latter  include  three  detonating  meteors  of  the  largest  class.  Descriptions  of 
some  of  the  largest  of  these  meteors  are  contained  in  the  accompanying  list 
and  in  the  following  paragraphs  of  the  Report.  No  notice  of  the  fall  of  an 
aerolite  during  the  past  year  has  been  received,  although  the  occurrences  of 
large  meteors  during  the  months  of  autumn  and  spring,  preceding  April  last, 
were  more  than  ordinarily  frequent.  Of  one  of  these,  which  appeared  with 
unusual  brilliancy  in  Cornwall,  Devonshire,  and  the  south-western  counties 
of  England  on  the  evening  of  the  13th  of  February,  it  is  possible  to  estimate, 
at  least  approximately,  the  locality  and  the  real  elevation  of  its  flight. 
Careful  observations  of  such  phenomena  when  they  appear  are,  however, 
again  recommended  by  the  Committee  to  all  observers  who  may  have  the 
necessary  astronomical  skill,  and  the  rare  opportunity  to  note  their  brilliant 
courses  by  the  stars. 

In  the  discussion  of  some  papers  on  Meteoric  Astronomy  which  follow  the 
foregoing  observations,  it  will  be  seen  that  in  the  hands  of  its  talented  origi- 
nator. Prof.  Schiaparelli,  the  cosmical  theory  of  periodical  shooting-stars  has 
received  fresh  and  valuable  illustrations,  and  the  apparently  inexplicable 
grouping  of  radiant-points  for  several  successive  days  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  a  general  centreof  divergence,  if  not  explained,  appears  to  depend  upon  effects 
of  planetary  disturbances  of  a  single  meteoric  stream  from  which  the  parasitic 
radiant-points  have  been  derived.  The  discussion  of  such  examples  is  sim- 
plified, and  their  complete  explanation  is,  perhaps,  not  beyond  the  reach  of 
the  persevering  application  with  which  skilled  astronomers  in  every  country 
are  now  bent  on  the  solution  of  the  complicated  and  intricate  geometrical 
problems  presented  to  them  by  the  distribution  and  features  of  the  known 
radiant-points  of  shooting-stars.  To  a  brief  description  of  this  interesting 
memoir  are  added,  at  the  close  of  the  Eeport,  some  notices  of  works  which 
have  recently  appeared  on  the  more  general  branches  of  meteoric  science. 

I.    MeTEOES  DOtTBLT  OBSERVED. 

1.  A  Table  of  the  real  heights  of  sixteen  shooting- stars  doubly  observed  in 
England  during  the  meteoric  shower  of  August  1870,  independently  of  the 
observations  recorded  at  the  Royal  Observatory,  Greenwich,  was  presented 
in  the  last  volume  of  these  Reports.  A  comparison  of  the  observations  made 
on  that  occasion  at  the  Royal  Observatory,  (jreenwich,  with  those  recorded 
at  the  other  stations,  enables  the  real  paths  of  thirteen  meteors  (ten  of 
which  are  new  to  the  former  list),  seen  by  Mr.  Glaisher's  staff  of  observers, 
to  be  satisfactorily  determined  j   and  the  real  heights  and  velocities  of  the 


28 


REPORT 1871. 


meteors  thus  identified,  together  with  the  particulars  of  the  ohservations 
from  which  they  are  concluded,  are  entered  in  the  Table  opposite. 

The  accompanying  diagram  (drawn  on  the  same  scale  as  that  in  the  last 
Eeport)  readily  exhibits  to  the  eye  the  actual  heights  at  appearance  and  dis- 
appearance (or  the  heights  of  the  centres  of  the  visible  paths  of  the  meteors 
Nos.  1,  4,  9)  above  the  earth's  surface.  The  last  vertical  line  on  the  right 
represents  (as  in  the  last  Report)  the  average  height  at  first  appearance  and 
that  at  disappearance  of  all  the  meteors  regarded  as  identified  in  the  present 
list,  of  which  the  approximate  heights  of  those  points  have  been  satisfactorily 
ascertained.     The  resulting  average  heights  are  : — 

At  first  appearance.  At  disappearance. 
74-1  B.  S.  miles.         47-6 


Of  16  meteors  in  the  last  Heport .  . 

Of  10  meteors  in  the  present  list     .  .    71  "7 

Of  20  meteors  observed  in  Aug.  1863  81-6 


54-4 
57-7 


1    2 


Fig.  1. 

Eeferenee  nvimbera. 
3    4    5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12     13 


120 


100 


I 


•43 


t 


W 


80 


60 


40 


20 


1 

1 

1 

1 

120 


100 


80 


I 

CD 

'u 

m 


60 


40 


20 


Heights  at  appearance  and  disappearance  of  tliirteen  shooting-stars  simultaneously  ob- 
served at  the  Royal  Observatory,  Greenwich,  and  at  other  stations  in  England,  August 
6th-llth,  1870.     (Nos.  1,  4,  9  are  calculated  heights  at  the  centres  of  the  real  paths.) 

The  present  average  heights  are  somewhat  less  than  those  observed  in  the 
year  1863 ;  but  they  agree  more  closely  with  the  general  average  height  at 
first  appearance,  70-05  miles,  and  that  at  disappearance,  54-22  miles  (as  given 
in  the  Report  for  1863,  footnote  on  p.  328),  of  nearly  all  the  shooting-stars 


1 


[^To  face  pcu/e  28. 


-(B.)  Birmingham  ;  (H.)  Hawkhurst,  Kent ;  (L.)  Eegent's  Park, 
:ust,  1870. 


3 

|Zi 

o 
o 


Velocity 

inB.  S. 

miles 

per 

second. 


Position  of  the  radiant-point. 


E.  A. 

N. 
Decl. 

0 

0 

195 

+64 

26 

+  58 

50 

+  54 

23 

+  58 

27 

+  62 

40 

+  71 

45 

+  62 

40 

+  57 

54 

+67 

Ajjproximate  by 
the  stars. 


Obserrers,  Eemarks,  &c. 


3' 
4 

5i 
6, 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 
13 


IS 


123? 

73? 

123? 

92? 


27 

39 
52 


K  Draconis 

e  Cassiopei;B  . . . 

a  Persei 

e  Cassiopeia;  ... 
e  Cassiopeia^  ... 

Gustos  Messiuin 

B  Camelopardi 

ij  Persei 

B  Camelopardi 


G.  L.  Schultz. 
W.  il.  Wood. 
W.  C.  Nash. 

E.  P.  Greg. 

W.  Barber.       f  Course  apparently 

F.  Hewlett.     \      ascending? 
W.  C.  Nash,     r  A  rery  doubtful 
T.  Crumplen.  \      accordance. 
W.  Marriott,  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

W.  C.  Nash. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

W.  Marriott,  W.  Barber. 

T.  Cruinplen. 

T.  Wright,  W.  Marriott,  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  Wright,  W.  Marriott. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  V/right,  W.  Marriott,  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  Wright,  W.  Marriott.  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 


3.7 

miles 

per  see. 


46 


-62 


I  Average  velocity  and  position  of  the 
/3  Camelopardi  ...  <      radiant-point     of    the     Perseids, 
[      Nos.  11,  12,  1.3. 


[Tofaci  i><ujf  as. 

JU-al  Heights  unci  Velocities  of  Shooting- stars  simultuueously  observed  at  the  Roynl  Observatory,  Greenwich  ((Jr.),  and  at  other  stations  in  England — (B.)  liirmingham ;  (H.)  Hawkhurst,  Kent ;  (L.)  Itegent's  Park, 

London  ;  (M.)  Manchestci- ;  (T.)  East  TiBted,  HanU— on  the  nights  of  the  Cth-llth  August,  1870. 


1 

(Approii- 

Apparent 
mngnitudo, 

Hour;) 
0.  U.  T. 

fixed  stars. 

§ 

B. 

h    m    • 

Gr. 

II   II  :8 

2 

». 

(11   II   ij) 

Or. 

10   10     6 

, 

U. 

(.0  10    ol 

Venn.. 

10  as  IS 

3 

(10  »s    «) 

(ir. 

10  19     X 
(10  .!  30) 

>i 

L. 

I) 

10  33  10 

1 

(10  3.    0) 

X 

Ur. 

10  49  4s 

Jupitur. 

(,0,9     0) 

>CBp«Ua. 

10  ss  19 

* 

(.<,  s6    «! 

3 

II     I  40 

X 

U. 

{11     0    0) 

3 

Or. 

10  37  so 

(10  36    o] 

X 

10  39  10 

(10  37    0) 

H. 

2 

Or. 

II     i  18 

n.  !(ii    .   oi 

■  Lvnr 

Or,  M   38  >6 

1 

H.   (11   36  30] 

3 

Oj.l  11  «    0 

a 

H. 

Cli  +3  30) 

3 

Bluiah. 

YoUow. 
Bluish  wJiitc. 
Dluiiil)  nliiW. 

While. 


White. 

BliiiMi  wliito. 

W^ito. 

Tclluwisli. 

Orftngo-rt'd. 

Blui»h  wliilc. 


Wiiilo. 
Bluish  white. 

Yellow. 
Yellowiah. 

Wliit*. 

Bluish. 

Ornnce-yellow. 

Yollowuh. 

Whit*. 

Bluuh. 


Streak,  und 
ltd  duration. 


Bright  etrcalc. 

Btreuk. 

^  wcund. 

Fine  alrciik. 

\  eccutid. 

Bright  Btroab. 


Streak, 
1  seoood, 

Nono. 

Fine  strcok, 

3  seconds. 

Pine  streak. 

Bright,  3  woiinds, 

Fine  strmk. 

Kono. 

Stroak. 

Nono. 


Obsoryed  points  of 


Disappear- 


R.  A. 

N. 
Detil. 

a  A. 

(,o 

+70 

centre 

a3 

+40 

16 

17s 

+  SI. 

170 

,08 

+4S 

,18 

X7 

+  SS 

+41 

6 

160 

+6! 

!« 

+80 

|«S 

+60 

3'S 

11 

+  k7 

X40 

60 

+67 

140 

88 

+6, 

'SS 

+  59 

ao 

+  S8 

a 

7 

+st. 

344 

a7 

+7> 

18 

+  (9 

33a 

+68 

317 

X4.1 

+66 

'!7 

X15 

+  S8 

«3» 

347 

+4! 

333 

34S 

+71 

30s 

IS 

+6S 

3X5 

■H 

+8. 

'93 

llli 

+4S 

J»7 

+  78 

•87 

path.) 


Average  heights  imd  length  of  pitth  (omitting  doubtful  vqIun,  nmrked  thiis?},  in  British  statute  niilo^ 


"io" 

8 

06 

6 

0-6 

*o 

•S 

»S 

09 

0-8 

7 

07 

11 

OS 

Computjjd  heights  and  places  of 


Appearance. 


(10 
147! 
90 

'35* 
95 
(4+ 


Sa  so 
S3  " 
S'  39 
5'  43 
Sx  17 
53  4 
sa  30 
sa  a 
5'   33 


0  aoE. 

1  49  W. 


a     3E. 
I  xsE. 


centre 

56 


SI  sa 
51  z6 


o  soE. 
o  23  £, 
o  41  E, 


centre 


of 
S3     8 
S6 

of 
SI  37 


51  S4 

S"  3+ 


S 

s'  37 


path.) 
\  31 W. 
I  19  E. 
path?) 
3  20  E. 
3  7W. 
o  57  E. 
o  43  E. 
path  ?) 
o  57  W. 
o  28  E. 
o  5E. 
o  isE. 


Length 
of  path 

n  fe.  S. 

miles. 


Velocity 


'35? 


(One  centre  of 
S**      puth.  71  miles.) 


Position  of  the  radiant' point. 


miles 
per  sec. 


eCossiopeix'  .... 

a  Persei 

E  CB£sio|>eiii'  . .  . 
eCaMiopeiit  .... 
Gustos  Messiuin . 


Observers,  Remarks  &c. 


B  Camelupardi. 

II  Persei 

B  Camelupardi. 


(  Course  apparently 
(      ascending? 
J  A  very  doubtful 

aocordaiice. 


G.  L.  Schuliz. 

W.  H.  Wood. 
J  W.C.Nash. 
1  R.P.Greg. 
'  W.  Barber 

F.  Eowlott, 

W.  C.  Nash. 

T.  Crumplen. 

W.  Harriott.  W.  Barbt] 

A.  S.  Hersohel. 

W.  C.  Noah. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

W.  Marriott.  W.  Barber. 

T.  Crumplen. 

T.  Wright.  W.  Marriott.  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  Wright.  W.  Marriott, 

A.  S.  Hersehel. 

W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  Wright,  W.  Marriutt,  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

T.  Wright.  W.  Marriott.  W.  Barber. 

A.  S.  Herschel. 

AV.  Barber. 

.  A.  S.  Herschol. 


0  Camelopnrdi  . 


(Average  Telocity  and  position  of  the 
radiant-poiot  of  the  Per^eide, 
Nos.  U,  12,  13. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS, 


29 


simultaneously  observed  until  the  beginning  of  that  year.  The  average 
velocity  of  the  Perseids,  relatively  to  the  earth,  observed  in  the  year  1863 
was  34-4  miles  per  second,  and  that  of  the  three  Perseids  satisfactorily  well 
observed  in  the  present  list  is  37  miles  per  second.  In  his  original  letters  to 
Father  Secchi  on  their  connexion  with  Tattle's  comet  (Comet  III.,  1862), 
now  universally  accepted  as  a  true  basis  of  their  cosmical  theory,  Prof. 
Schiaparelli  calculated,  from  the  known  elements  of  the  comet's  orbit,  that 
the  velocity  with  which  the  Perseids  enter  the  earth's  atmosphere  (allowing 
for  a  very  minute  influence  of  the  earth's  attraction)  is  38  miles  per  second. 
That  the  direct  determination  of  the  velocities  of  the  August  shooting-stars 
which  were  made  last  year  should,  in  this  instance,  so  exactly  agree  with  the 
value  found  by  calculation  (although  from  the  small  number  of  identifiable 
meteors  the  probable  error  of  the  determination  is  rather  large),  is,  from  the 
great  scale  and  general  excellence  of  the  observations,  at  least  provisionally, 
a  successful  confirmation  of  the  astronomical  theory  of  the  August  meteors, 
and  a  satisfactory  conclusion  from  the  simultaneous  watch. 

2.  During  the  corresponding  observations  of  the  meteor-shower  of  No- 
vember last,  in  which  the  observers  of  Mr.  Glaisher's  staff  at  the  Eoyal 
Observatory,  Greenwich,  also  took  an  important  share,  the  coincidence  of 
the  times  of  appearance  and  of  the  other  particulars  of  a  single  meteor  only 
of  the  shower  simultaneously  observed  at  Greenwich  and  at  Tooting,  near 
London,  could  be  established,  the  descriptions  of  which,  as  given  by  the 
observers  at  those  stations,  were  as  follows : — 


No. 

in 

Lists. 

Date. 

Approximate 

hour. 

G.  M.  T. 

Place  of 
observation. 

Magnitude 
as  per  stars. 

Colour. 

Duration. 

Apparent  course. 

Appearance, 
streak,  &c. 

7 

1870 
Not.  15 

h   m    B 

1    5    56 

A.M. 

Eoyal 
Observatory, 
Greenwich. 

=  Istmagni- 
tnde  star. 

Bluish 
white. 

07  seconds. 

FromflUrssEMa- 
joris,  passed  a 
little  belowPo- 
laris,  in  the  di- 
rection    of    p 
Cephei. 

Left  a  streak. 

(8) 

„     15 

1     5      0 
A.M. 

Tooting, 

London, 

S.W. 

=  8irius. 

White. 

Short 
duration. 

From      between 
the  'Pointers' 
of   the    Great 
Bear,  shot  one- 
third     of    the 
way  towards  o 
Cygni. 

Left  a  long  streak 
lasting  a  second 
or  two. 

7 
(8) 

„     15 
„,    15 

1     5    56 
15      0 

Greenwich... 
Tooting 

Length  of  path  15°.    Observer,  Wm.  Maeriott. 
Meteor  fairly  well  observed.     Observer,  H.  W.  Jacksox. 

The  apparent  paths  of  the  meteor  among  the  constellations  present  a  con- 
siderable parallax  in  the  right  direction  of  displacement,  as  seen  from  the 
two  observers'  stations,  to  lead  to  a  positive  determination  of  its  real  altitude 
above  the  earth.  The  concluded  path  of  the  meteor  is  nearly  horizontal  at 
a  height  of  about  fifteen  miles  above  the  earth's  surface.  The  small  distance 
(only  seven  miles)  between  the  two  stations,  greatly  increasing  the  effect  of 
the  errors  most  difficult  to  avoid  in  the  observation  and  description  of  such 
transitory  phenomena,  must,  however,  for  the  present  be  regarded  as  pre- 
cluding certainty  from  the  conclusion,  which  would  otherwise  attach  to  this 
unusually  low  elevation  of  a  meteor's  real  path. 


30 


REPORT 1871. 


3.  Preparations  for  observing  the  meteors  of  the  20th  of  April  last  were 
also  made  at  many  stations  in  England  and  Scotland  with  only  partial 
success.  A  meteor  of  the  April  shower  was,  however,  observed  simul- 
taneously at  Birmingham  and  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  of  which  the  following 
descriptions  were  recorded : — 


No. 

Date. 

Approximate 

hour. 

G.  M.  T. 

Place  of 
observation. 

Magnitude 
as  per  stars. 

Colour. 

Duration. 

Apparent  course. 

Appearance, 
streak,  &c. 

(6) 

1871. 
Apr.  20 

h  m 

U  8  P.M. 

Birmingham 

=  1st  magni- 
tude star. 

Blue. 

1'23  second. 

From  Af  Hercu- 
lis  to  y  Draco- 
ni8-8°. 

The  meteor  in- 
creased in  size. 

(9) 

„    20 

h   m    s 

11  10  15 

P.M. 

Thurston, 
near 
Bury  St.  Ed- 
munds. 

=  1st  mag- 
nitude 

star. 

White. 

3  seconds. 

Krom  i  a  Draoo- 
nis.f  UrsseMa- 
joris,  crossing 
rUrsaeMajoris, 
to  i  (k  12) 
Lyncis. 

Small  in  the 
first,  growing 
brighter  in  the 
last  half  of  its 
course.  Left  a 
slender  streab 
at  first,  which 
remained  2  se- 
conds on  the 
last  half  of  its 
course. 

f6) 
(9) 

„    20 

„    20 

11    8  Birmingham 

11  10  1.5...  Thurston   ... 

Length  of  path  11°.  One-third  of  the  sky  overcast.  Observer,  W.  H.  Wood. 
Length  of  path  45».     Sky  very  clear.     Observer,  A.  S.  HebSCHEL. 

Although  the  times  at  both  the  stations  were  uncertain  to  rather  more 
than  a  minute  from  true  Greenwich  time,  and  the  approximate  times  of  the 
meteor's  appearance  recorded  at  the  two  stations  differ  from  each  other  by 
rather  more  than  two  minutes,  yet  the  very  similar  descriptions  of  its  ap- 
pearance at  the  two  stations,  and  the  fact  that  no  other  meteor  at  either 
station  preceded  it  or  foUowed  it  within  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  during  a  very 
attentive  watch,  as  well  as  the  good  agreement  together  of  the  apparent 
paths  recorded  by  the  two  observers,  render  it  scarcely  possible  to  doubt  that 
the  same  meteor  was  simultaneously  observed.  The  apparent  length  of  path 
and  duration  are,  however,  much  longer  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds  than  at  Bir- 
mingham, where  the  meteor  was  seen  foreshortened  near  the  radiant-point ; 
and  on  this  peculiar  circumstance  Mr.  Wood  (in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Herschel) 
makes  some  important  remarks,  which  offer  a  veiy  interesting  field  for  fur- 
ther observations.  "  My  view  of  the  meteor's  course  was  evidently  very 
oblique,  and  yours,  very  direct  (nearly  at  right  angles),  would  obscure  a  faint 
tail  to  me.  There  is  also  another  peculiarity  which  I  have  observed  in 
oblique-visioned  courses,  that  they  appear  to  endure  about  half  the  time  of 
that  obtained  by  direct  vision,  which  I  fancy  arises  from  its  invisibility  to 
one  observer,  whilst  it  is  visible  to  the  other  in  the  earliest  portion  of  its  flight, 
and  the  amount  of  the  invisible  course  to  bear  some  proportion  to  the  recorded 
differences  in  the  durations."  In  perfect  agreement  with  this  explanation  the 
point  of  disappearan  ce  of  the  meteor  is  well  fixed  (by  combining  the  observations) 
at  a  height  of  about  sixty-five  miles  above  a  place  near  Bourne,  in  Lincolnshire. 
The  observations,  on  the  other  hand,  do  not  agree  in  determining  the  point  of 
first  appearance.  The  first  and  faint  half  of  the  meteor's  apparent  path,  as 
recorded  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  is  placed  too  far  from  the  north  pole  of  the 
heavens  to  be  nearly  comformable  to  the  radiant-point  near  Z  Lyrse  (from 
some  point  near  and  below  which  the  apparent  course  of  the  meteor,  as  seen 


OBSEKVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS,  31 

at  Birmingham,  was  directed),  while  this  portion  of  the  meteor's  flight 
appears  to  have  entirely  escaped  observation  at  Birmingham.  Prolonging 
the  meteor's  visible  flight  at  Birmingham  7°  backwards  towards  the  radiant- 
point,  and  approaching  the  point  of  first  appearance  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds 
about  the  same  distance  towards  the  north  pole  of  the  heavens,  the  agree- 
ment of  the  observations  in  fixing  the  point  of  first  commencement  at  a 
height  of  about  eighty  miles  over  the  neighbourhood  of  Norwich  is  nearly 
as  exact  as  the  determination  of  the  place  of  the  meteor's  disappearance. 
The  length  of  its  visible  path  was  about  seventy-five  miles,  and  its  radiant- 
point  in  Taurus  Poniatovii,  on  the  same  meridian,  was  about  40°  south  of 
the  usual  radiant-point  (QHJ  of  the  April  meteors.  Although  its  apparent 
course,  as  observed  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  evidently  denoted  it  as  an  erratic 
member  of  the  group,  its  general  resemblance  to  the  other  Lyraids  observed 
on  the  same  evening  was  a  remarkable  feature  in  its  long  and  striking  course. 
Adopting  Mr.  "Wood's  suggestion  of  (provisionally)  increasing  the  duration, 
as  observed  at  Birmingham,  from  1-25  to  2  seconds  in  the  simple  proportion 
of  the  increased  length  of  the  apparent  course,  prolonged  towards  the  radiant- 
point,  and  adopting  2^  seconds  (the  average  between  this  duration  and  that 
recorded  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds)  as  the  time  of  flight,  the  resulting  velocity, 
relative  to  the  earth,  of  this  single  member  of  the  April  meteoric  stream 
doubly  observed  on  the  night  of  the  20th  of  April  last,  was,  within  very  few 
miles,  about  thirty  miles  per  second.  The  theoretical  velocity  of  the  same 
meteors  (see  the  Note  on  the  last  page  of  this  Eeport)  is  not  quite  thirty  miles 
per  second. 

4,  Several  observations  of  the  very  brilliant  firebaU  observed  in  Devon- 
shire and  in  the  south-western  counties  of  England  on  the  evening  of  the 
13th  of  February  last  were  collected  and  compared  together  by  Mr.  Wood, 
the  result  of  whose  investigation  will  shortly  be  given,  with  descriptions  of 
that  meteor,  as  the  most  probable  conjecture,  from  the  materials  at  present 
at  their  disposal,  arrived  at  by  the  Committee  respecting  its  real  height  and 
the  locality  of  its  nearest  approach  to  the  British  isles. 

II.  Large  Meteoes. 
In  addition  to  the  conspicuous  meteors  described  in  the  accompanying  list, 
the  following  descriptions  of  remarkable  meteors  have  appeared,  or  were 
communicated  to  the  Committee  by  the  observers  : — 

1.  1870,  Nov.  1,  11^  30""  P.M.,  London.  "I  saw  a  splendid  meteor  last 
night,  at  1 1*"  30",  through  the  blind  of  my  bedroom  windoiu.  The  whole  room 
was  illuminated,  and  the  meteor  must  have  been  at  least  half  as  large  as  the 
moon.  I  went  to  the  window  quickly,  but  could  see  no  trail.  The  path 
must  have  been,  say,  5°  to  the  right  of  a  Aurigae,  ending  10°  to  left  of  a,  /3 
Geminorum.     I  only  saw  the  end. 

"  T.  Ceumplen,  London,  N.W.,  Nov.  2nd,  1870." 

2.  1870,  Nov.  4,  shortly  before  S*"  a.m.  (local  time),  Agra,  India  :— 
Extraordinary  Meteor. — "  The  following  account  of  an  extraordinary  me- 
teor occurs  in  a  letter  I  received  from  a  brother  who  is  a  missionary  stationed  in 
Agra.  He  does  not  give  the  exact  place  where  he  was  at  the  time,  but  it 
must  have  been  very  near  to  Agra.  The  letter  is  dated  Agra,  24th  November, 
1870.     A  missionary  from  Allahabad  was  with  him  when  he  saw  it. 

"  MUls  Hill,  Chadderston,  near  Manchester.  Robert  Getson. 

"  Agra,  Nov.  24,  1870. — I  recently  saw  a  marvellous  meteor.  I  was  in 
camp,  and  had  risen  for  an  early  march  a  few  minutes  before  3  a.m.  on 


32 


REPORT ISri. 


November  4th.  I  was  standing  under  the  shade  of  a  cluster  of  trees,  when 
a  sudden  flash  of  light  fell  around.  Two  or  three  camp  fires  were  blazing 
near,  and  at  first  I  thought  it  might  be  a  sudden  flare  up  from  one  of  them  ; 
but  on  casting  my  eyes  up  towards  the  heavens,  I  saw  a  large  oval  light, 
stationary.  It  appeared  to  be  composed  of  a  large  number  of  irregularly 
shaped,  differently  sized  stars,  yet  so  closely  packed  as  to  form  one  light,  yet 
giving  the  whole  a  sort  of  dappled  appearance.  At  first  I  was  struck  dumb 
with  amazement — thought  it  must  be  some  mental  illusion,  or  that  my  eyes 

were  playing  me  false.     But  as  I  gazed  it  remained  steadily  fixed.     , 

of  Allahabad,  was  with  me.  I  roused  him  ;  he  was  soundly  asleep,  and  some 
seconds  passed  in  waking  him  up.  In  the  interval  it  appeared  to  have  been 
lengthened,  nearly,  though  not  quite,  by  a  straight  line,  and  as  we  gazed  it 
assumed  the  shape  of  a  large  magnet,  with  the  upper  limb  rather  shorter  than 
the  other.  It  then  gradually  expanded,  diminishing  in  brightness  as  it  in- 
creased in  size,  assuming  a  wavy,  serpentine  form,  though  keeping  much  to 
a  horseshoe  shape,  until  it  became  so  attenuated  as  to  be  no  longer  visible. 
It  must  have  continued  in  sight  five  minutes.  It  was  seen  by  all  the  ser- 
vants ;  and  one  of  them  cried  out,  '  Bhagwauka  seela  hae,'  by  which  he  ap- 
peared to  mean  that  in  his  opinion  the  Almighty  was  amusing  Himself  with 
fireworks  ;  literally,  '  It  is  God's  sport  or  amusement.'  " — Nature,  Jan.  12th, 
1871. 

3.  1870,  Dec.  20,  &"  40""  p.m.,  Hawkhurst.  Kent.—"  This  evening  at 
gh  4(jni  J  noticed  the  descent  of  a  beautiful  meteor.  It  appeared  to  start 
almost  from  the  zenith  towards  the  S.S.E.,  and  it  was  visible  for  about  three 
seconds.  It  had  very  much  the  appearance  of  a  sky-rocket  in  its  flight,  but 
without  any  explosion,  and  it  displayed  vivid  red  and  orange  colours.  The 
evening  was  very  dark,  but  the  stars  were  visible ;  the  meteor  did  not  in- 
crease the  amount  of  light  in  the  place  where  I  was  walking.  According 
to  my  '  star-map,'  I  should  lay  down  its  course  as  follows."  [See  the  sketch 
of  the  meteor's  course.]— T.  HrurHKEY,  Hawkhurst,  Dec.  20th,  1870. 


o 

Andvo  - 
medu 


0       o 
Cefus 


j-egasus 
04  " 


00! 


Pi  sees 


4.  1871,  Feb.  13,  9"^  4™  p.m.,  Bristol.— "I  saw  a  very  briUiant  meteor 
last  evening,  February  13th,  at  9^  4™.  During  the  time  that  it  continued 
visible  the  whole  of  the  sky  was  illuminated  by  the  light  it  emitted.  The 
first  appearance  of  the  meteor  was  not  witnessed,  but  the  direction  and 
situation  of  the  latter  portion  of  its  path  was  approximately  determined.  It 
passed  through  the   S.  part  of  Orion,  just  under  Eigel,  so  [see  sketch]  : — 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  33 

It  disappeared  near  B,  which  is  equal  to  about  R.A.  4''  10™,  Decl.  S.  15°. 
At  A  it  left  a  train  about  2°  in  length,  -which  endured  for  ten  minutes.  In 
that  portion  of  the  sky  near  which  the  meteor  disappeared  many  stratus 
clouds  were  visible. 

"  P.S. — I  omitted  to  state  that  the  brilliancy  of  the  meteor  excelled  that 
of  any  of  the  planets.  When  at  its  brightest  the  light  was  about  equal  to  that 
of  a  clear  full  moon.  I  only  saw  the  disappearance." — William  F.  Denning, 
Bristol,  February  14th,  1871. 


HeteX 
(fcuse  ^ 


At  Rugby  the  meteor  was  observed  very  bright  at  about  %^  10™  p.m.,  and 
it  was  described  as  "  starting  from  near  0  Orionis,  and  proceeding  towards  a 
point  a  little  north  of  y  Eridani,  when  it  was  lost  behind  a  belt  of  cloud." 
(Communicated  to  'Nature,'  February  16th,  1871,  by  J.  M.  Wilson.) 

These  two  descriptions  of  its  visible  path  (apparently  from  the  relative 
positions  of  the  stations)  are  so  similar  that  little  can  be  certainly  concluded 
from  them  regarding  the  real  distance  of  the  meteor. 

At  Exeter  "  a  briUiant  meteor  traversed  the  constellation  of  Orion,  ap- 
pearing near  the  Belt  and  passing  from  south  to  west.  The  direction  was 
south-west,  altitude  35°.  Its  light  equalled  or  exceeded  that  of  fuU  moon, 
and  it  left  a  train  of  colours  for  some  time."  ('  English  Mechanic,'  Feb.  24th.) 

At  Torquay,  "  The  meteor  started  near  BeUatrix  in  Orion,  altitude  35°, 
passing  due  west,  leaving  in  its  track  a  brilliant  train  of  colours,  green  pre- 
dominating."    (Ibid.,  March  3rd.) 

The  meteor  was  also  seen  at  Callington,  in  Cornwall,  casting  a  brilliant  dif- 
fused light,  and  occupjdng  two  seconds  in  its  transit.     (Ibid.) 

By  comparing  together  the  foregoing  observations  of  its  course,  and  obtain- 
ing an  approximate  estimation  of  its  real  height,  Mr.  Wood  is  led  to  adopt 
the  following  provisional  positions  of  its  visible  track.  The  meteor  first 
appeared  at  an  elevation  of  fifty-five  miles  over  the  English  Channel,  seventy 
miles  S.S.W.  from  Torquay.  It  thence  descended,  with  an  inclination  of 
16°,  to  a  height  of  thirty-five  miles  over  a  point  sixty-four  miles  west  of 
Torquay,  thus  describing,  from  S.E.  by  S.  to  N.W.  by  N.,  a  path  of  eighty 
miles  in  two  seconds,  across  the  centre  of  the  county  of  Cornwall,  terminating 
at  its  western  coast,  near  St.  Columb  Minor.  The  radiant  of  the  meteor  was 
near  a  Hydras.  As  the  meteor  was  probably  distinctly  seen  in  Cornwall,  the 
Scilly  Isles,  and  in  the  south  of  Ireland,  additional  descriptions  of  its  appa- 
rent course  from  those  places,  as  seen  from  points  considerably  west  of  the 
place  where  it  appears  to  have  approached  the  earth,  would  afford  the  best 
materials  for  verifying  the  present  approximate  conjecture  of  its  real  path. 
As  seen  at  Torquay,  it  was  .notably  described  by  an  observer  to  Mr.  Greg  as 
lighting  up  the  whole  bay  and  presenting  a  magnificent  appearance. 

1871.  D 


34 


REPORT — 1871. 


5.  1871,  July  31st,  9^  27"^  p.m.,  Bristol.—"  I  observed  a  meteor  of  some 
briliiancy  on  Monday  evening  last,  July  31st,  at  91^  27=^.  It  was  first  seen  a 
little  above  /3  Pegasi,  and  passing  downwards  obliquely,  it  went  about  3°  east 
of  a  Pegasi,  and  disappeared  when  it  reached  a  point  somewhere  near  E.  A.  13°, 
N.  Declin.  29°.  It  left  no  train  of  light  that  was  perceptible,  and  I  suppose 
that  the  meteor  was  visible  for  about  three  seconds.     As  far  as  could  be 


i\ 


Observations  oi 


Date. 


1870. 
Sep.  12 


23 


Oct.    2 


Hour. 


h   m 

10  25   p.m 


8  10   p.m, 


10  8   p.m 


Caraden  Town, 
Loudon. 


Birmingham 


29 


Nov.  13 


12  15   a.m 
9  37  59 


»     21 
„     20 


1871. 
Mar.  1 


Place  of 
Observation. 


Ibid, 


Glasgow 


Royal  Observa 
tory,  Green- 
wich. 


9  35   p.m. 
9     0   p.m 

10  10  p.m. 


17 


About  10  40 

p.m. 
(local  time). 


Apparent  Size. 


3x  I|, large  disk... 


One-third  diameter 
of  the  full  moon, 
or  2  X  $ . 

■V-   


Colour. 


Blue. 


Duration. 


Slow  moving., 


Pale  blue About  2  sees, 


Silvery-white. 


3  seconds . 


Red 

Yellowish . 


Glasgow 


Scarborough 


Charing  Cross, 
London. 


Paris,    Rochelle, 
&c.,  France. 


=  V-- 


Apparent  shape  and 
size  of  the  half- 
moon. 


Splendid  meteor . 


White  3  seconds 


0-4  second 
3  seconds.. 


Apparent  Course. 


Began  near  a  Ursi 
Majoris,  and  en 
ed  near  Cor  C; 
roll. 

Commenced  at 
a=66,    5=-t-3& 

From    92° -1-44° 
to    116  +37 


Bluish 


Brilliant  white 


Green 


About  3  sees. 


20  seconds 


' 


Commenced  at  Cd 
Caroli. 

Passed  midway  be; 
tween  «  and 
Draconis,  ai 
continued  iti 
path  parallel  to  ^ 
and  T]  Ursae  Mj 
joris. 

From  i  (/3,  S) 
rigse  to  o  Ural 
Majoris. 

Descended  from  aci 
point  about   15 
above  the   S.WjJ 
horizon.  il 

From  near  /3  Caini|| 
Minoris  to  aboni 
5°  or  6°  east  of, 
and  at  the  sami 
altitude  as, «  On\ 
onis. 


104 
Mm 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS. 


35 


judged  it  was  of  a  red  colour,  and  somewhat  star-like  in  appearance.  At  the 
time  of  its  appearance  the  sky  was  rather  cloudy  and  misty,  and  the  meteor 
was  not,  therefore,  seen  advantageously.  It  did  not  seem  to  explode  at  the 
time  of  its  extinction.  I  have  sent  the  ahove  particulars  thinking  they  may 
be  useful  for  comparison  with  other  results." — William  F.  Denning,  Gotham 
Park,  Bristol,  August  2nd,  1871. 


irge  Meteors,  1870-71. 


Appearance;  Train  or 
Sparks. 


very  large  globular  nu- 
cleus. Seen  through 
haze,  -which  dimmed  its 
light. 

globular  nucleus,  with- 
out tail  or  streak. 

ucleus  pear-shaped,  with 
short  adhering  white 
tail,  projecting  dull-red 
fragments  forwards  on 
its  course ;  increasing 
and  exploding  at  maxi- 
mum brightness. 


Length  of  Path  and 
Direction. 


25°  ;  downwards  to  left.. 


»10°  ;  directed  from  Ca- 
pella,  radiant  Fj. 


Remarks. 


Observer  and 
References  &c. 


;ft  a  very  fine  streak 


ft  no  streak . 


e  meteor  only  seen  as  it 
passed  behind  the  edge 
of  a  cloud. 

icleus  pear-shaped,  fol- 
lowed by  a  short  train 
"or  a  second.  Point  of 
irst  appearance  near 
louses,  which  concealed 
:he  neighbouring  star 
?rocyon. 
explosion ;  but  many 
parks  projected  from 
he  nucleus.  Left  a  lu- 
ninous  track,  which  re- 
aained  visible  for  more 
ban  an  hour. 


From  radiant  Fj 


5°  while  in  sight ;  directed 

from  6  Ursae  Majoris. 
40°  


15°  J  from  radiant  in  Taurus 


Fell  perpendicularly 


The  stars  scarcely  visible  through 
haze,  but  recognized  sufficiently 
near  the  meteor's  path. 

View  of  the  end  of  its  course  in- 
tercepted when  at  an  altitude 
of  4°  or  5°. 


From  radiant  a  Tauri.     End 
path  hidden  by  houses. 


of 


T.  Crumplen. 

W.  H.  Wood. 
Id. 


Robert  Maclure. 
T.Wright. 


Pro- 
cyon 


a  Ori- 
^  onis 


Appeared  with  two  flashes,  which 
lit  up  all  the  heavens. 


Sky  clear.  The  meteor  appeared 
extremely  bright  in  the  full 
moonlight. 


Seen  also  at  Chichester,  10'»  30"" 
p.m.,  >  ? ,  from  near  the  ze- 
nith, with  a  remarkably  long 
duration,  to  near  the  S.W'.  hori- 
zon. Bright  gold  colour  at 
last,  leaving  a  brilhant  train 
visible  for  3  or  4  minutes  ('  The 
Times,'  Mar.  21st). 


Robert  Maclure. 


T.  H.  WaUer. 


F.  H.  Ward. 


Messrs.  Prevost, 
Samberg,  and 
other  obser- 
vers ('  Comp 
tes  Rendus,' 
March  20th, 
1871). 


d2 


36 


REPORT 1871. 


Date. 


Hour. 


1871. 
Mar.18 


23 


m 

20    a.m 
(local  time), 


24 


Apr.  11 


h 
12 


Place  of 
Observation. 


6  35   p.m 


4  25    a.m. 
(local  time). 


Turin  and  other 
places  in  Pied- 
mont. 


Broadstairs 
(Kent). 


Volpeglino,  and 
other  stations 
in  Piedmont. 


Apparent  Size. 


Colour. 


Apparent  diameter 
of  full  moon. 


Disk  of  apparent 
size  of  Sirius,  in- 
cluding his  rays. 


Nucleus  25'  diame 
ter. 


9  46   p.m.  Ibid,  Moncalieri 
(local  time).      Piedmont. 


„     12 

„     14 

„     22 


15   p.m 
(local  time) 


Lodi;  Moncalieri, 
Piedmont. 


11  39   p.m.TheObservatory, 
(local  time).]     Naples 


10  37  30 

p.m. 
(local  time). 


Moncalieri, 
Piedmont. 


Nucleus  10'  diame. 
ter. 


Very  large  and  bril- 
liant. 


Duration. 


Brilliant  white 


Nucleus  green, 
with  red 
train. 


Brilliant  white 


Apparent  Course. 


About    2    mi- 
nutes. Very 
protracted 
course,   and 
slow  speed 


Bluish  white. 


Slow    and 
stately   mo- 
tion. 


■n. 

■n. 


Reddish,  then 
bright  blue. 


White 


Passed  directly  over 
the  townof  Turin 
from  the  moun- 
tains near  Susa, 
towards  the  op 
posite  horizon. 

First  appearance  at. 
a  point  about  30° 
above  the  N.  J  E. 
horizon. 


From 

a   Cygni,  a- 

cross    a 

Andro- 

medoe,  tc 

)  near  ? 

Piscium, 

or 

a  = 

8= 

From  309° 

+45° 

to 

10 

+  7 

a  = 

S= 

From  21  r 

-10° 

to 

223 

+  28 

[From 

221 

-11 

to 

111 

+  28 

From 

175 

+  15 

to 

111 

+  32] 

From 

HI 

+  7 

to 

105 

+   2 

From 

98 

+  70 

to 

15 

+  39 

From  233 

+23 

to 

18  +  88 

(Polaris) 

[From 

212 

+  20 

to 

87 

+  45] 

6.  Meteors  of  the  largest  class,  as  described  in  the  foregoing  list  of  such 
occurrences,  were  more  than  ordinarily  frequent  during  the  months  of  March 
and  April  last,  ajjpearing  principally  on  the  nights  of  the  17th-18th  and 
23rd-24th  of  March,  and  on  those  of  the  11th  and  12th  of  April  last.  On 
the  first  of  these  dates  two  fireballs  were  observed  in  France  and  Italy,  the 
former  of  which  was  also  seen  in  the  south  of  England,  at  Chichester.  A 
large  meteor  was  seen  in  Kent  and  Essex,  on  the  second  date,  a  few  minutes 
after  sunset ;  and  two  detonating  meteors  were  observed  at  Urbiuo,  and  were 
generally  visible  in  Italy  on  the  same  night.  The  third  detonating  meteor 
of  which  accounts  have  reached  the  Committee,  made  its  appearance  in  Pied- 
mont on  the  evening  of  the  12th  of  April  last.  Professor  Serpieri  and  Mr. 
Denza,  at  the  Observatories  of  Urbino  and  Moncalieri,  near  Turin,  are  collect- 
ing sufficient  details  of  these  large  meteors  to  calculate  their  real  course. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS. 


37 


Appearance  ;  Train  or 
Sparks. 


Length  of  Path  and 
Direction. 


Remarks. 


Observer  and 
References  &c. 


Nucleus  an  elongated  mass  Horizontal,  from  W.N.W, 
of  stars.      Left  an  ini-j     to  E.S.E. 
mensely      broad      and 
bright  streak,  which  re- 
mained visible  for  10"' 
or  15™. 

Mucleus    followed     by    a  15° 
train  of  red  sparks.   Ex- 
ploded, projecting  many 
luminous  fragments. 


lieft  a  few  bright  red  sparks 
and  a  very  persistent 
ruddy  streak  on  its  whole 
course. 


lucleus  very  brilliant.  At 
TT  Bootis  it  paused  for 
an  instant,  and  advanced 
with  irregular  motion 
towards  its  termination. 
Left  a  brilliant  streak. 


descending  towards 
the  east,  at  an  inclina- 
tion of  about  45°. 


ieft  a  reddish  streak  for 
20  seconds. 

lucleus  followed  by  a 
bright  streak,  which  re- 
mained visible  for  3^ 
minutes. 


The  meteor  was  also  seen  at  Ley 
ton,  Essex,  a  few  minutes  after 
sunset,  appearing  in  the  E.N.E., 
and  taking  a  southerly  direction 
(J.  F.  Dutliie,  'Nature,'  Mar. 
30th,  1871.) 

Burst  with  a  violent  detonation ; 
heard  about  J  a  minute  after 
its  disappearance.  [Seen  and 
heard  at  Urbino,  where  it  was 
preceded  at  2''  a.m.  by  a  per 
fectly  similar  detonating  meteor 
equally  brilliant,  and  leaving  a 
persistent    streak. — A.   Serpi 

ERI.] 

[The  last  two  apparent  positions 
are  those  at  Alessandria,  and 
Volpeglino,  where  the  meteor 
was  also  observed.] 


Burst  with  a  detonation,  which 
was  heard  in  houses  with  closed 
doors. 


Letter  in  Turin 
newspaper  (by 
F.  Denza)  of 
Mar.  31st. 


Communicated 
by  Jas.  Chap. 


Letter  in  Turin 
newspaper  of 
March  31st, 
1871,  by  F. 
Denza. 


Communicated 
by  F.  Denza. 


Id. 


Id. 


[The  last  apparent  position  is  that  Id. 
observed   at   Volpeglino    (Tor- 
tona),  where   tlie  meteor  was 
also  seen,  and  its  bright  streak 
remained  visible  for  one  minute.] 


III.  Aerolites. 

The  following  dates  of  aeroKtic  falls  appear  to  have  escaped  notice  in  the 
Catalogue  (Report  for  1860)  and  in  subsequent  Reports : — 
Date. 

1804,  November  24 San  Luis  Potosi,  Mexico. 

1864,  June  26 Yolynia,  Russia. 

186-5,  February  or  March     .  .    Gorruckpore,  India. 

1866,  October  5    Ahmednuggur,  Eombay. 

1867,  January  19 Khetrie,  Rajpootana,  India. 

1868,  May  22    Slavetic  Croatia. 

1868,  November   Danville,  Alabama,  U.S. 

1868,  December    Frankfort,  Alabama,  U.S. 

Date  unknown Goalpara,  Assam. 


38 


REPORT 1871. 


The  analysis  of  the  last  of  these  meteorites  by  Mr.  Tschermak  (Jahrbuch 
fiir  Mineralogie,  for  1871,  p.  412)  shows  approximately  the  following  com- 
position : — 

Iron.         Ilydrocarbon.         Olivine.  Enstatite.       Magnetic  Pyrites. 

8-49  +0-85  +61-72         +30-01         +(traces)       =101-07. 

The  occurrence  of  carbonaceous  matter  in  the  meteorites  of  Hessle,  Upsala 

(1st  January,  1869),   was   recently   also  recognized  by  Nordenskjold,  who 

found  in  them  a  black    flocculent    substance,    containing    71  per  cent,  of 

carbon.     (The  '  Academy,'  August  loth,  1871.) 

IV.  Meteoeic  Showers. 
1.  Meteor-sliowers  in  January  and  February  1837. — From  the  tracks  of 
meteors  recorded  in  the  last  annual  Catalogue  of  the  British  Association,  and 
in  the  '  Bulletin  of  the  Moncalieri  Observatory'  for  November  1869,  observed 
during  the  months  of  January  and  February  of  that  year,  Mr.  Greg  has 
established  the  existence  of  the  following  old,  and  of  one  new  radiant-point, 
which  made  their  appearance  in  those  months : — 


Duration  of  meteoric 
shower  in  1869. 

Position  of  radiant- 
point. 

If  umber  of 
meteors 
mapped. 

Symbols,  durations,  and  positions  of  the  same 
meteor-showers    in   the   British  Association 
Report  for  186?,  p.  401. 

Sym- 
bol. 

Duration. 

Position. 

a. 

«. 

By  the  stars. 

a. 

S. 

By  the  stars. 

Jan.  9-19,  and  Jan.  ■> 
30  to  Feb.  6 / 

Jan.  29  to  Feb.  6   

Feb.  U-20  (chiefly)  ... 

Feb.  11-16  (chiefly)  ... 

72° 

223 
194 
103 

o 
+  2 

+54 
+  15 
-25 

«,  z,  Orionis... 

In  Quadrans... 

eVirginis  

S  Canis  Majo- 
ris. 

14  (Italian).. 

7  (Italian)... 

8  (English).. 

10    (English 
and  Italian). 

(AGi 

K3 

S4 

Dec.  20  to  Feb.  6. 
Jan.  2-3 

63 

232 
190 

105 

105 

+20aTauri)? 

+49  c  Quadrantis. 

+  l,yVirginis. 

— 27'*  Canis  Majoris. 

March  5-17  

January 

1 

A  succession  of  radiant-points  near  the  apex  of  the  earth's  way  following 
the  appearance  of  the  November  shower,  of  which  the  general  meteor-shower 
LH  (Report  for  1868,  p.  403)  from  the  head  of  Hydra,  lasting  until  the 
12th  of  December,  presents  a  parallel  instance,  is  remarkably  described  in  the 
following  MS.  note,  recorded  by  the  late  Sir  J.  Herschel  during  his  residence 
at  the  Cape:—"  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  1837,  January  2nd,  I''  30"  M.  T.  [_i.  e. 
from  midnight].  A  me teor= second-magnitude  star  crossed  the  zenith,  leav- 
ing a  train.  Course  right  from  the  (qje.v  in  the  east,  whence  they  have  all 
come  since  November  12th.  N.B.  This  has  been  extremely  remarkable  and 
well-sustained ;  really  very  few  exceptions. 

"  February  1-5. — The  meteors  now  chiefly  go  from  S.W.  to  N.E." 
The  tendency  of  radiant-points  to  group  themselves  in  families  so  as  to 
make  newly  observed  centres  difficult  to  distinguish  from  older  ones  appear- 
ing nearly  on  the  same  date,  is  well  seen  by  the  examples  of  the  new  radiant- 
poiut  in  Orion,  and  of  the  extensions  (apparently)  of  old  radiant-points,  pointed 
out  by  Mr.  Greg.  Some  attempts  to  explain  this  singular  peculiarity  and 
the  striking  instances  of  groups  of  radiant-points  in  the  months  of  January 
and  February  have  recently  been  published  by  Professor  SchiapareUi,  a  fur- 
ther account  of  whose  speculations  on  their  probable  history  wUl  be  found  at 
the  close  of  this  Report. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  -89 

2.  The  Meteor-shower  of  November  1868,  which  was  seen  in  its  greatest 
brilliancy  in  the  United  States  of  America,  and  which  was  also  partially 
recorded  at  Glasgow,  by  Professor  Grant,  between  5  and  6  o'clock  on  the 
morning  of  the  14th  of  November,  was  observed  at  the  same  hours  in  the 
north  of  Scotland,  and  described  in  the  '  Journal  of  the  Scottish  Meteorolo- 
gical Society'  (for  December  1868)  : — ^^ Meteors  and  Falling-stars. — The  star- 
shower  of  the  13th  and  14th  of  November  was  observed  at  many  of  the 
stations.  In  the  north  it  was  very  fine.  Mr.  Clark,  the  observer  at  North 
Unst,  writes  : — '  On  the  morning  of  the  14th  there  was  a  great  falling  of 
shootiug-stai's  from  all  directions  of  the  sky ;  it  was  something  like  a  shower 
of  stars.'  And  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hamilton  observes  that  at  Bressay  '  There 
was  an  extraordinary  meteoric  shower,  which  continued  from  3""  30™  a.m.  of 
the  13th  [?  14th]  till  the  sun  rose,  and  the  number  of  stars  or  meteors  falling 
was  innumerable.' "  The  following  descriptions  of  its  appearance  in  Swit- 
zerland are  given  by  Dr.  Rudolf  Wolf  in  his  'Astronomical  Contributions': — 
'« 1868,  November  13th :  from  12''  5">  to  12'^  15""  I  saw  four,  from  12'^  IS" 
to  12"  30"  nine,  and  from  12'^  30"  to  12'^  40"  two  brilliant  meteors  radia- 
ting from  the  constellation  Leo.  The  sky  (up  to  the  latter  time  quite  clear) 
then  clouded  over  from  the  east,  and  all  further  view  of  the  meteors  at 
Ziirich  was  prevented.  Mr.  Rieder,  at  Klosters,  reports: — 'As  an  unusual 
phenomenon  I  have  to  state  that  at  4*^  15"  on  the  morning  of  the  14th  of 
November,  1868,  an  extraordinary  number  of  shooting- stars  were  visible  in 
the  western  sky ;  from  five  untU  six  o'clock  a  real  rain  of  shooting-stars  took 
place,  diffusing  such  great  brightness  that  one  might  easily  have  read  by 
their  light.  Several  of  the  meteors  left  streaks  of  bright  light  in  the  sky, 
which  remained  visible  for  two  or  three  seconds.'  At  Eugelberg  '  from  five 
until  after  six  o'clock  a.m.  on  the  morning  of  the  14th  of  November,  repeated 
flashes  of  lightning  were  perceived,  and  shortly  before  five  o'clock  a  swiftly 
passing  flash,  like  a  ball  of  light,  was  observed,  whilst  the  sky  was  com- 
pletely overcast.'  "  An  admirably  compiled  history  of  the  November  pheno- 
menon in  the  year  1868,  comprising  the  exact  details  of  observations  at  aU 
the  places  where  it  was  well  observed,  and  notices  of  its  general  description 
at  places  in  all  parts  of  Europe,  the  United  States  of  America,  and  the 
Atlantic,  where  it  was  witnessed,  is  published  in  his  Memoirs  V.  and  VI.,  on 
'  Shooting-stars  of  November  1868  and  August  1869,'  by  Sig.  F.  Denza.  The 
same  volume  contains  (in  the  sixth  memoir)  an  equally  full  collection  of  obser- 
vations and  theoretical  deductions  of  great  value  regarding  the  appearance  of 
the  August  meteor-shower  in  the  year  1869.  Among  the  latter  may  be  cited 
the  suggestion  of  Professor  Newton  *,  borne  out  by  the  observations  of  the 
shower  made  in  America,  and  by  those  of  Professor  Serpieri  at  Urbino  in 
that  yearf,  that  the  radiant-region  of  the  Perseids  is  in  reality  a  narrow, 
elongated  space  extending  from  near  the  cluster  at  ^  Persei  to  the  star  B 
(B.  A.  C.  1058)  Camelopardi.  The  radiant-region  of  the  Leonids  in  the  pre- 
vious year  was  similarly  observed  by  Professor  Newton  to  be  better  repre- 
sented by  a  short  line  extending  between  the  stars  e,  y  Leonis,  from  about  the 
star  .r,  in  the  centre  of  the  Sickle  (B.  A.  C.  3423),  to  the  latter  star,  than  by  a 
single  point.  The  direction  of  elongation  of  the  radiant-region  is  towards  the 
sun's  apparent  place,  a  conclusion  which  is  regarded  by  Prof.  Newton  as  throw- 
ing light  of  some  importance  upon  the  theory  of  the  November  meteor-stream. 

*  Bulletins  of  the  Eoyal  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Belgium,  ser.  2.  vol.  xxvi.  1868, 
pp.  450,  451. 

t  Letter  from  Prof.  Serpieri  to  Prof.  Scliiaparelli,  January  5th,  1870 ;  communicated 
to  the  Royal  Institute  of  Sciences  of  Lombardy. 


40  REPORT 1871. 

3.  TJie  August  Shower  in  1870. — In  the  'Meteorological  Bulletin'  of  the 
Moncalieri  Observatory  for  October  1870,  the  first  results  of  observations  in 
Piedmont  on  the  star-shower  of  the  10th  and  11th  of  August  last  are  com- 
municated. As  already  observed  in  the  last  Report,  the  frequency  of  the 
meteors  did  not  exceed  the  ordinary  average  of  the  shower,  and  they  were 
somewhat  more  frequent  on  the  night  of  the  10th  than  on  that  of  the  11th 
of  August.  They  appeared  to  proceed  from  several  radiant-points,  besides 
the  principal  one  of  the  shower,  in  Perseus.  Among  the  contemjjoraneous 
radiant-points,  T^,  Pj  (the  former  occurring  in  August  in  Pegasus,  and  the 
latter  usually  appearing  in  Auriga  in  the  latter  part  of  September)  were 
observed  to  be  conspicuous. 

4.  The  November  Shower  in  1870. — The  preparations  made  for  recording 
the  return  of  the  November  meteors  in  1870  were  in  a  great  measure  disap- 
pointed by  the  cloudy  state  of  the  sky  at  several  of  the  English  stations. 

The  following  letter  from  Mr.  Backhouse  announced  a  more  favourable 
condition  of  the  sky  at  Sunderland  on  the  morning  of  the  14th  of  November 
than  that  which  prevailed  at  Manchester,  Birmingham,  York,  and  London, 
where  no  meteors  of  the  shower  could  be  observed : — 

"  Between  2"  20"°  and  3''  42"^  a.m.,  on  the  14th,  I  watched  for  meteors  ;  I 
only  saw  seven  in  fifty-six  minutes,  watching  in  a  cloudless  sky.  Of  these 
only  four  belonged  to  the  shower.  I  enclose  the  particulars.  I  did  not 
watch  much  on  the  morning  of  the  15th.  It  was  mostly  cloudy,  and  I  saw 
no  meteors." — Of  the  conformable  meteors  two  left  trains,  one  was  station- 
ary close  to,  and  the  others  radiating  very  nearly  from,  the  small  star  x 
Leonis.  The  unconformable  meteors  appeared  with  short  courses  in  and  near 
the  constellation  Taurus,  and  of  these  one  was  as  bright  as  Sirius.  It  was 
of  a  yellow  colour,  describing  a  path  of  3°,  near  e  Arietis,  from  the  direction 
of  the  Pleiades,  and  it  left  no  streak. 

Five  meteors,  from  undetermined  radiant-points,  were  seen  through  breaks 
in  the  clouds  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Clark,  at  York,  on  the  morning  of  the  14th,  and 
two  Leonids  of  some  brightness,  in  a  watch  of  one  hour  (interrupted  by  the 
clouds),  on  the  morning  of  the  1.5th  of  November. 

On  the  morning  of  the  14th  of  November  the  sky  was  clear  at  Glasgow 
from  2^  lO™  until  5''  15""  a.m.,  and  twenty-six  meteors  were  recorded  by 
Mr.  A.  S.  Herschel,  of  which  twenty-one  were  conformable.  Of  the  latter 
the  paths  of  eleven,  prolonged  backwards,  crossed,  and  of  five  passed  close  to 
the  curve  of  Leo's  sickle.  Seven  meteors  left  persistent  streaks,  which  were 
faintly  visible  in  the  full  moonlight.  The  proportion  of  magnitudes  of  the 
conformable  meteors  was  :— 

Of  meteors  equal  to  or  brighter  than  a  ist-mag.  »  ;  2nd  do. ;  3rd  do. ;  4th  do. 
Number  of  meteors  seen 3  675 

Meteors  of  smaller  magnitudes  were  rendered  invisible  by  the  moon's  light ; 
and  the  most  striking  conformable  meteor  of  the  shower,  recorded  at 
4''  25"  A.M.,  was  as  bright  as  Sirius.  It  described  a  course  of  25°,  directed 
nearly  from  fi  Leonis,  in  three-quarters  of  a  second,  and  left  a  broad  streak 
on  its  whole  path  for  two  seconds.  The  following  numbers  of  conformable 
and  unconformable  meteors  were  recorded  in  the  half-hours  ending  at 

hm     hm     hm     hm     hm     hm 

1870,  November  14th,  a.m 2  40     3  10     3  40    4  10    440     5  10 

Conformable  meteors  146253 

Unconformable  meteors i  o  o  4  o  o 

In  the  fii'st  and  last  half-hours  the  sky  was  partially  concealed  by  clouds  ; 
at  3**  38"  A.M.  a  group  of  three  first-,  second-,  and  third-magnitude  meteors, 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  41 

leaving  streaks  directed  from  Leo,  appeared  almost  together.  In  the  next 
half-hour  two  meteors,  directed  apparentlj''  from  Cor  Caroli,  appeared  to  be 
unconformable  to  the  Leo  radiant.  The  remaining  unconformable  meteors 
aU  proceeded  from  the  direction  of  a  radiant-point  in  Taurus.  At  5''  15™  a.m. 
the  sky  became  completely  overcast ;  but  a  shooting-star  from  the  direction 
of  Leo,  of  first  magnitude,  was  observed  by  Mr.  E,.  Maclure,  at  6''  20™  a.m., 
through  an  opening  of  the  clouds.  On  the  morning  of  the  15th  the  sky  at 
Glasgow  was  again  completely  overcast. 

On  the  evening  of  the  13th  a  bright  meteor  (described  in  the  above  List) 
was  seen  at  the  Eoyal  Observatory,  Greenwich,  and  three  vivid  flashes  of 
light,  between  12"^  15™  and  12''  30™  a.m.,  on  the  14th,  which  must  have  pro- 
ceeded from  large  meteors,  at  an  altitude  of  about  20°,  due  S.  were  seen 
through  the  clouds,  which  from  this  time  overspread  the  sky  during  the 
remainder  of  the  night.  On  the  morning  of  the  15th  a  clear  sky  enabled 
Mr.  Glaisher's  staff  of  observers  to  make  continuous  observations  of  the 
meteors  visible  in  the  bright  moonlight,  from  midnight  until  5''  33™  a.m., 
when  the  sky  was  again  quite  obscured  bj"  clouds.  Fifty-three  meteors  were 
recorded,  in  this  interval  by  the  five  observers,  the  apparent  paths  of  forty- 
five  of  which  were  traced  upon  a  map.  Of  the  meteors  so  recorded,  twenty- 
eight  proceeded  from  the  usual  radiant-point  in  Leo,  eight  from  a  radiant- 
point  situated  apparently  not  far  from  Cor  Caroli,  seven  from  a  radiaut-point 
between  Taurus  and  Musca,  and  two  meteors  from  uncertain  radiant-points. 

The  following  were  the  numbers  of  the  meteors  observed  in  the  successive 
half-hours  ending  at 

hm    hhm    h    hm    h    hm    h    hm    h    hm 
1870,  November  15th,  A.M. ...    1230    i     130    a    230    3    3  30    4    4  30    5    530    Total 
Number  of  meteors  seen 2        232217687      13         53 

A  very  beautiful  meteor  of  bluish-white  colour,  and  of  the  apparent  size  and 
brightness  of  Jupiter,  proceeding  apparently  from  the  direction  of  the  radiant- 
point  in  Musca,  descended  towards  the  east,  at  4''  45™  25*  a.m.,  through  an 
arc  of  more  than  25°,  in  about  three  seconds,  leaving  a  streak  of  light  upon 
its  course.  Most  of  the  conformable  meteors  left  a  persistent  train,  but  none 
of  those  observed  rivalled  this  fine  meteor  in  brightness  or  in  length  of 
course.  The  proportion  of  apparent  magnitudes  of  the  remaining  meteors, 
seen  during  the  watch  is  shown  in  the  following  list : — 

Brighter  tban  first-magnitude  stars  ;    =i8tdo. ;     =2nd  do. ;     =  3rd  do.    Total 
Number  of  meteors  seen 6  24  17  5  52 

From  these  descriptions  of  the  meteor-shower  it  appears  that,  on  both  the 
mornings  of  the  14th  and  15th  of  November,  the  number  of  the  conformable 
meteors  considerably  exceeded  that  of  the  unconformable  meteors  which 
appeared  duiing  the  hours  of  the  continued  watch ;  but  that  the  scale  of  the 
shower,  as  it  was  observed  iu  England,  was  very  far  inferior  to  the  brightness 
with  which  it  was  recorded  in  the  preceding  year. 

At  Tooting,  near  London,  Mr.  H.  W.  Jackson  observed  on  the  mornings  of 
the  14th,  15th,  and  16th  of  November,  and  noted  one  shooting-star  on  the 
night  of  the  13th,  but  failed,  on  account  of  haze  and  clouds,  followed  by  rain 
during  the  morning  of  the  14th,  in  securing  another  observation.  Between 
midnight  and  1^  55™  a.m.,  on  the  morning  of  the  1.5th,  eight  meteors  were 
carefully  observed  and  mapped,  and  four  or  five  smaller  meteors  were  seen, 
all  but  two  of  which  (of  short  course,  near  the  radiant-point  in  Taurus)  were 
conformable  to  the  Leo  radiant-point.  Of  these,  the  brightest,  at  l**  5™  a.m., 
which  left  a  long  streak,  was  simultaneously  observed  at  Greenwich.  Of  the 
two  unconformable  meteors,  that  which  appeared  at  12''  7™  a.m.  was  white 


42  REPORT 1871. 

and  nearly  as  bright  as  Jupiter,  moving  for  two  seconds  in  a  slightly  curved 
course  from  r  to  \p  Orionis,  and  leaving  a  short  streak  upon  its  track. 
Flashes  of  faint  reddish  lightning  were  perceived  at  12''  28"  and  12''  SS"  a.m. 
Between  12''  30""  and  1"  30""  a.m.  on  the  morning  of  the  16th  some  meteors 
were  observed,  but  did  not  appear  to  present  features  worthy  of  special  note. 
At  Newhaven,  in  the  United  States,  three  observers  noted,  in  three  hours, 
thirty-one  meteors,  of  which  only  six  were  conformable  to  the  radiant-point 
in  Leo.  On  the  following  morning  (the  14th)  Professor  Newton,  with  five 
other  observers,  obtained  the  following  enumeration  of  the  meteors  visible  in 
the  half-hours  ending  at  1870,  November  14th,  a.m.  : — 

hm  h  hmhhmhhmhhmhm 

(1870,  November  1 3tb,  P.M....    1 1  30  12)  1230    i    130    2    230    3    330    345*  Totals 

Conformable  meteors    o  i  5       10     12     9      15      8      12        7  79 

Unconformable  meteors   6  8         4        7       810157        7        2  74 

After  3''  45""  the  sky  was  so  nearly  overcast  that  regular  counting  was 
abandoned,  while  in  open  spaces  of  the  sky  it  was  still  apparent  that  up  to 
six  o'clock  no  marked  increase  in  the  number  of  the  meteors  had  taken  place. 
After  half-past  five,  however,  the  clouds  already  began  more  nearly  to  cover 
the  sky.     (American  Journal  of  Science  and  Arts,  vol.  i.,  January  1871.) 

5.  Meteor-shower  of  December  12t7i,  1870. — The  state  of  the  sky  was  not 
generally  favourable  for  observations,  Mr.  H.  W.  Jackson  reporting  from 
Louth  that  on  the  nights  of  the  12th  and  13th  the  sky  was  overcast,  with 
frequent  rain  from  8"  30""  p.m.  on  the  night  of  the  12th.  At  Glasgow,  York, 
and  Manchester  it  was  equally  obscured.  At  Birmingham  Mr.  "W.  H.  Wood 
was  more  fortunate  in  securing  a  short  view  of  the  sky  on  one  of  the  periodic 
nights,  and  the  following  is  his  description  of  the  shower : — • 

"The  overcast  state  of  the  skies  from  the  10th  to  the  13th  permitted  only 
of  a  partial  view  of  the  character  of  the  shower,  which  occurred  during  a 
temporary  clearance  of  the  sky  for  one  hour  only,  from  11''  30""  p.m.  on  the 
12th  to  12''  30'"  A.M.  on  the  13th.  Five  meteors  were  recorded  in  three- 
quarters  of  an  hour,  radiating  accurately  from  radiant  G  (6  Geminorum). 
Meteors  white  or  blue,  and  trainless  (one  observer)."  A  list  of  the  recorded 
paths,  and  a  description  of  the  meteors  seen,  accompanies  Mr.  Wood's  report. 
The  position  of  the  radiant-point  from  which  the  meteors  approximately 
diverged  was  near  the  stars  k-  and  g,  in  Gemini. 

No  observations  were  recorded,  owing  to  a  cloudy  state  of  the  sky,  on  the 
shower-meteor  nights  of  the  1st  and  2nd  of  January,  1871. 

6.  Meteor-shower  of  April  20th,  1871. — The  last  weU-marked  appearance 
of  the  ApiH  meteor-shower,  to  the  annual  occurrence  of  which  attention 
was  first  drawn  by  Herrick,  in  the  United  States,  took  place  on  the  morning 
of  the  21st  of  April,  1863 1,  when,  for  a  few  hours,  meteors  were  observed 
by  Mr.  Wood,  at  Weston-super-Mare,  to  be  as  frequent  as  in  a  moderately 
bright  August  star-shower.  Two  Julian  intervals  of  four  years  each  having 
elapsed  since  that  occurrence,  the  astronomical  conditions  of  its  reappearance 
suggested  special  preparations  and  a  simultaneous  watch,  which  were  ac- 
cordingly made  for  its  return.  Besides  the  staflp  of  observers  at  the  Eoyal 
Observatory,  Greenwich,  Mr.  Glaisher's  son,  Mr.  James  Glaisher,  volunteered 
to  take  part  in  the  observations  at  Cambridge,  where  Professor  Adams  also 
offered  his  aid,  to  join  in  recording  the  shooting-stars  which  might  be  visible  at 
the  Obsei-vatory.  The  other  observers  who  awaited  the  display  were  those 
who  have  most  frequently  assisted  the  Committee  by  their  recorded  observa- 
tions at  Glasgow,  York,  Manchester,  Birmingham,  and  London.     Such,  how- 

*  In  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  t.  Eeport  for  1863,  p.  325. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  43 

ever,  was  the  unfavourable  state  of  the  sky  which  prevailed  during  the 
forty-eight  hours  intended  to  have  been  devoted  to  the  watch  (and  which 
continued  to  prevent  further  observations  during  the  last  remaining  nights 
of  the  months  of  April),  that  with  the  exception  of  a  few  meteors  of  the 
shower  observed  by  Mr.  Wood  at  Birmingham,  and  of  the  corresponding 
group  of  meteors  recorded  by  Mr.  Herschel  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  no  un- 
broken series  of  observations  were  received.  The  sky  first  became  quite  clear 
at  the  latter  place  at  9*^  30"  p.m.,  and  the  following  numbers  of  meteors  were 
seen  in  the  half-hours  ending  at — 

h  m      h     h  m      h       h  m      h        h  m 

1871,  April  20 p.m.  9  30     10    1030    11     11  30     12     (12  30  a.m.  April  21).     Total. 

Number  of  meteors  seen     ...31  31  11  6  25 

All  but  eight  of  their  apparent  paths,  projected  upon  a  map,  when  prolonged 
backwards,  pass  across  a  circular  area  about  15°  in  width,  of  which  the 
centre  is  at  a  point  in  R.  A.  267°,  N.  Decl.  35°.  Nine  of  these  conformable 
meteors  left  bright  trains.  Of  the  eight  unconformable  meteors,  four  are 
widely  erratic  meteors  of  the  same  shower,  and  the  remaining  four  moving 
in  the  opposite  direction  were  directed  from  an  unknown  radiant-point  in  the 
south.  The  path  of  one  of  the  latter  was  remarkably  serpentine  in  the  latter 
portion  of  the  meteor's  course.  The  following  are  the  numbers  of  meteors  of 
the  different  magnitudes  observed  : — 

As  bright  as  Jupiter  or  Sirius.     As  1st  mag.  star.  2nd.       Srd.       4th.       5t.h.     Total. 
3  4  S  5  4  4  25 

The  last  meteor  was  observed  at  12''  35™  a.m.  on  the  21st.  The  sky  then 
rapidly  clouding  over  did  not  permit  the  progress  of  the  shower,  at  Bury  St. 
Edmunds,  to  be  further  watched.  On  the  previous  and  on  the  following 
night  the  sky  was  also  cloudj\ 

At  Birmingham  Mr.  W.  H.  "Wood  recorded  the  appearance  of  nine 
shooting-stars  between  the  hours  of  lO""  20™  and  11''30™  p.m.  on  the  night  of 
the  20th  of  April,  five  of  which  were  noted  in  the  fii'st,  and  four  in  the  latter 
half  of  the  watch  ;  five  meteors  diverged  from  the  constellation  Lyra,  three 
from  that  of  Corona,  and  the  remaining  meteor  moved  transversely  to  the 
former  ones  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Polaris.  The  numbers  of  meteors 
seen  of  different  magnitudes  were,  l  =  Sirius,  2  =  lst  mag.*,  l  =  3rd  do., 
5  =  4th  do. :  total  9  meteors.  The  brightest  meteor  of  the  shower  moved  with  a 
nucleus  of  briUiaut  blue,  flickering  light,  about  the  brightness  of  Sirius,  from  the 
direction  of  Corona.  Soon  after  half-past  11  o'clock  the  sky  became  over- 
cast, and  remained  so  at  I''  and  2^  a.m.  on  the  morning  of  the  21st,  when 
regular  watching  was  abandoned.  The  maximum,  as  far  as  could  be  ascer- 
tained from  these  observations,  occurred  after  midnight  on  the  morning  of 
the  21st ;  the  rate  of  apparition  for  one  observer,  while  the  sk)'^  was  clear, 
being  seven  or  eight  per  hour  between  ten  and  eleven  o'clock,  and  twelve  or 
fifteen  per  hour  during  the  half-hour  immediately  before  and  that  imme- 
diately after  midnight.  Between  ll**  15™  and  11''  45™  p.m.  on  the  night  of 
the  2ist,  Mr.  Wood  observed  no  meteors  at  Birmingham,  although  one-third 
of  the  sky  was  visible,  quite  clear,  through  the  broken  clouds.  The  appear- 
ance of  the  April  shower  in  this  year  appears,  therefore,  to  have  taken  place 
on  the  date  and  at  about  the  hour  expected  for  its  return,  from  the  time 
of  its  last  conspicuous  appearance. 

7.  Meteor-shower  of  July  1871. — At  sea,  between  Norway  and  England, 

Mr.  A.  S.  Herschel  watched  for  the  periodical  meteors  (first  pointed  out  by 

.  Capocci,  at  Naples)  on  the  night  of  the  16th  of  July.     The  sky  was  perfectly 

clear  from  ll**  p.m.  until  2''  a.m.  on  the  morning  of  the  17th  of  July,  and 


44  REPORT 1871. 

seventeen  meteors  were  observed,  six  in  the  first,  six  in  the'  second,  and 
five  in  the  third  hour  of  the  watch.  On  the  night  of  the  17th  the  sky  was 
again  clear ;  but  three  meteors  only  were  observed  in  three-quarters  of  an 
hour,  between  10''  55"  and  ll*"  40"  p.m.  The  meteors  observed  on  both 
nights  were  small,  and  appeared  generally  with  short  courses  near  a  radiant- 
region  around  tt  Herculis,  from  which  they  appeared  to  diverge.  The  num- 
ber of  meteors  seen  of  the  different  magnitudes  were,  2  =  1st  mag.*,  4=2nd, 
4= 3rd,  6= 4th,  4  =  5th  :  total  20  meteors  seen  in  3|  hours  by  one  observer, 
in  a  clear  sky,  with  no  moon. 

V.  Papers  relating  to  Meteoric  AsTROifOMT. 

1.  Under  the  title  *  Alcuni  Resiiltati  Preliminari  tratti  dalle  osservazioni 
di  SteUe  Cadcnti  publicate  neUe  Effemeride  degli  anni  1868,  1869,  1870;' 
Professor  Schiaparelli  communicates,  in  connexion  with  the  three  Catalogues 
of  Shooting-Stars  observed  in  Italy,  published  in  the  Ephemeris  of  the  Milan 
Observatory  for  the  years  1868, 1869,  and  1870,  a  first  report  on  the  radiant- 
points  obtained  by  mapping  the  meteor-tracks  contained  in  them  from  Janu- 
ary to  June.  For  a  convenient  nomenclature  of  the  radiant-points,  the  year 
is  divided  into  seventy-two  pentads,  of  five  days  each,  of  which  six  are  con- 
tained in  every  month.  While  the  first  five  pentads  in  every  month  are 
complete,  the  sixth,  and  last,  consists  of  three,  four,  five,  or  six  days,  ac- 
cording to  the  length  of  the  month  to  which  it  belongs.  Since,  however,  the 
observations  for  a  single  night  of  the  year  only  (collected  from  all  the  years) 
are  combined  together  to  detect  the  radiant-points,  of  which  several  may 
occur  in  each  pentad,  the  letters  of  the  alphabet  added  to  the  Roman  num- 
ber of  a  pentad  (thus,  XIX.  a)  designate  the  radiant-points  in  those  pentads  in 
the  order  in  which  they  were  successively  discovered  by  Professor  Schia- 
parelli. Besides  a  strict  separation  of  meteors  observed  on  one  from  those 
observed  on  the  next  following  or  on  the  next  preceding  night,  to  avoid  the 
risk  of  confusing  together  meteors  belonging  to  different  radiant-points  under 
a  false  assemblage  of  two  radiant-points  into  a  single  meteoric-shower.  Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelli  distinguishes  as  different  meteor-currents  those  whose 
radiant-points,  as  shown  by  laying  down  the  recorded  paths,  are  more  than 
10°  apart.  The  precision  with  which  the  radiant-points  must  be  determined 
(from  the  shooting-star  observations  of  a  sinr/le  night)  is  necessarily  very 
great,  in  order  that  this  rule  may  be  rigorously  appUed.  Even  omitting  the 
errors  of  observation  (which  are  frequently  considerable),  it  is  found  that 
different  meteoric  showers  present  different  characters  of  radiation.  In  some 
the  radiant-region  is  small,  and  the  meteor-tracks  prolonged  backwards  meet 
nearly  in  a  point,  when  it  is  caUed  "  exact ";  in  others  it  is  larger,  the  meteor- 
tracks  prolonged  backwards  crossing  each  other  in  a  confused  manner  over  a 
considerable  apparent  space,  in  which  case  it  is  called  "  diffuse."  The 
shooting -stars  which  make  their  appearance  witliin  the  radiant-region  (when 
this  is  rather  large)  may  appear  to  be  moving  in  every  variety  of  opposite  direc- 
tions, and  their  paths  are  usually  noticed  to  be  extremely  foreshortened  by 
perspective  in  this  position.  Lastly,  if  they  diverge  from  two  or  more  points 
the  character  of  the  radiation  is  said  to  be  double  or  multiple ;  and  it  ap- 
pears probable,  on  certain  theoretical  grounds,  which  will  be  shortly  stated, 
that  a  diffuse  radiant-region  in  general  arises  from  the  close  assemblage  of 
many  radiant-points  togetherinto  a  multiple  group.  The  November  meteor- 
shower  is  an  example  of  exact,  and  the  August  star-shower  an  instance 
either  of  multii^le  or  of  diffuse  radiation,  according  to  the  various  descriptions 
of  the  observers  who  have  examined  the  direction  of  its  radiant-point  most 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  45 

attentively.  Meteoric  showers  composed  principally  of  very  smaU  shooting- 
stars  are  confined  to  the  parts  of  the  heavens  immediately  surrounding  the 
radiant-point ;  while  those  consisting  of  large  meteors  spread  far  from  the 
centre  of  divergence,  the  meteors  (apparently  from  their  brightness)  being  as 
plainly  visible  when  they  are  seen  by  transverse  as  when  they  are  seen  fore- 
shortened by  very  oblique  vision.  Meteor- showers  of  the  former  kind  are 
called  "contracted";  and  of  the  latter  kind  "extended"  (stretta;  larga).  The 
foregoing  are  the  principal  terms  employed  by  Professor  Schiaparelli  in  de- 
scribing the  meteor-showers  of  which  the  positions  of  the  radiant-points  have 
now  been  published.  The  explanation  of  the  phenomena  of  "  diffuse  "  and 
"  multiple  "  radiant-points  is  ingeniously  supplied  by  Professor  Schiaparelli 
in  the  following  manner.  A  very  small  nebular  mass  of  meteoroids  or  of 
cometoids  having  been  deflected  from  its  original  parabolic  (or  very  excen- 
tric)  into  an  orbit  of  moderate  period  round  the  sun  by  the  attraction  of  some 
powerful  planet  in  its  path,  the  foremost  and  swiftest  particles  of  the  stream 
produced  by  this  disturbance  gradually  gaining,  and  the  slowest  losing 
ground  on  the  central  particles  of  the  mass,  an  elongated  form  of  the  mass  is 
gradually  assumed  directed  along  the  line  of  the  meteoric  orbit.  The  dif- 
ference of  velocity,  or  of  periodic  time,  between  the  foremost  and  hindmost 
particles  of  the  row  is  sufficient  to  ensure  the  gradual  lengthening  of  the  line, 
until  the  foremost  particle  joins  with  the  last  in  forming  a  continuous  ring  or 
wreath  of  meteoric  substance  closing  the  orbit  of  the  original  meteoric  clond. 
Should  the  two  ends,  before  meeting  each  other  (as  must  usually  be  the  case), 
have  undergone  different  pertui'bations  from  the  action  of  the  planets,  in- 
stead of  exactly  overtaking  the  retreating  end,  the  foremost  end  of  the  wreath 
will  overlap  it,  and  the  meteor-stream  will  begin  to  assume  the  form  of  a 
spiral  curve  of  a  single  coil.  When  the  foremost  end  has  gained  two  revolu- 
tions upon  the  retreating  one,  a  spiral  of  two  coils  wiU  be  produced ;  and 
continuing  this  process  during  many  revohitions  gained  by  one  end  of  the 
coil  upon  the  other,  the  wreath  of  meteoroids,  without  losing  its  continuity, 
wiU  at  last  form  an  endless  hoop,  or  belt,  of  many  strands  overlying  and 
interlacing  with  each  other  in  as  many  convolutions  as  the  fastest  particles 
have  gained  revolutions  in  their  course  upon  the  slower  ones.  The  direction 
and  velocity  of  the  particles  in  one  of  the  strands  wiU  also  differ  as  widely  as 
their  positions  from  those  of  particles  in  a  neighbouring  strand,  and  the  whole 
wreath,  without  ever  losing  its  perfect  continuity  from  end  to  end,  will  cross 
and  recross  itself  in  constantly  going  and  returning  waves.  In  these  stages 
of  transformation  a  meteoric  stream  woiild  si;ccessively  exhibit  the  characters 
of  double  and  multiple  radiant-points.  Supposing  the  same  process  to  con- 
tinue,, and  new  perturbations  of  the  stream  to  be  constantly  deflecting  par- 
ticles fi'om  the  front  or  rear  into  different  courses,  these  particles  overtaking 
each  other  at  the  point  where  the  earth  passes  through  the  stream  would 
produce  the  mixed  assemblage  of  radiant-points  and  of  dii'ections  of  the 
meteors  of  the  August  shower,  which  give  it  the  character  of  multiple  or  of 
diffuse  radiation.  In  the  following  list  of  radiant-points  those  marked  with 
an  asterisk  (*)  were  described  in  the  last  Eeport  (1870,  p.  98)  ;  those  at  the 
end  of  the  list  are  not  included  by  Prof.  Schiapai'elli  in  his  present  list,  which 
only  represents  the  most  important  radiant-points  observed,  at  present,  in  the 
first  half  of  the  year.  In  the  cases  where  their  identity  with  radiant-points 
in  Heis's  list,  or  in  that  of  the  British  Association t,  is  suggested  by  Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelh,  the  position  and  duration  of  those  radiant-points  are 
added  for  comparison  in  the  same  columns  of  the  Table. 

t  Eeport  for  1868,  p.  401  et  seq. 


46 


REPORT 1871. 


List  of  the  Principal  Meteoric  showers  occurring  in  the  first  half  of  the  year  whose  radian 
points  are  derived  from  observations  of  shooting-stars  in  Italy,  published  in  the  Ephemerid 
of  the  Milan  Observatory,  for  the  years  18G8,  1869,  and  1870.     By  G.  V.  SchiapareUi. 


Sign  or 
Symbol. 

Date  and 

duration  of 

shower. 

Apparent 
Position. 

Cliaracter  of 
radiation. 

Characters  of  the  Meteors, 
General  Remarks,  &c. 

Authority. 

a,. 

h. 

0 

0 

[act. 

II «. 

.Jan.  6  

199 

+  58 

Contracted  and  ex- 

Observed  in  1868  and  1869 

SchiapareUi 

II  A. 

Jan.  6  

7  7 

175 
J'i84 
I182 
(172 
I187 

+48 
+  28 
+  29 

+  31I 
+40/ 

Ill  a*. 

Jan.  11-12 

,,               ,j                 ,,     •• 

Jan.  II,  j869'1 

[MG,. 

Jan.  1-25... 

dan,  12,  1 6 09  J 

Maximum  Jan.  24 

R.  P.  Greg. 

III^.. 

Jan.  12    ... 

197 

+  59 

Contracted  and  ex- 
act. 

Jan.  12,    1869  (traces  on  Jan.   11, 
1869),  possibly  a  continuation  of 

TT  n 

SchiapareUi 

lYa*. 

Jan.  18     ... 

232 

+  36 

Most  certain    and 
exact. 

A  splendidly  well-defined   meteor- 
shower.     Jan.  18  (traces  on  Jan. 
19),  1869. 

ii 

IV  A. 

.Jan.  19     ... 
Jan.  19    ... 

198 

220 

+28 
+40 

Jan.  19  (traces  on  the  i8th),  1869  . 
Many  small  meteors  Jan.   19   {no 
trace  on  the  i8th),  i86g. 

IV  c. 

1) 

» 

IV  d. 

Jan.  19     ... 

200 

+  58 

Contracted  and  ex- 
act. 

Jan.  19  (no  traces  on  i8th),  1869; 
apparently  independent  of  II  a, 
III  A,  and  Yb  from  absence  of 
intermediate  meteors. 

>» 

Ya. 

Jan.  21     ... 

205 

4-49 

Jan.  2 1  (no  trace  on  1 9th  and  20th), 
1869.     Independent   of  the  ra- 

)» 

diants  IV  fZ,  Via. 

Yb. 

Jan.  24    ... 

200 

+  56 

Uncertain   to    5  °  ; 
diffuse,      perhaps 
multiple. 

Jan.  24,  1868,  many  meteors.  ?Con- 
nected    with    VI  a,  VI  b:    see 
the  following  Table  (p.  48). 

»J 

Yla. 

Jan.  25-27 

205 

+47 

Uncertain  to  5°  ... 

Chiefly  Jan.    27,    1868.     (Perhaps 
identical  with  the  last  ?) 

»» 

VI 5. 

Jan.  29    ... 

198 

+  54 

Extended  ;   diffuse, 
perhaps  multiple. 

Jan.  29,   1868.     No  traces  of  this 
shower  on  Jan.  28. 

)t 

Vic*. 

Jan.  28     ... 

236 

+^5 

Extended  ;  confus- 
ed, but  distinct. 

Jan.  28,  1868.     ?  If  connected  with 
VI  d  Jan.   30  ;    no   intermediate 
meteors. 

1 

Ylg*. 

Jan.  28    ... 

67 

+25 

Diffuse 

Jan.  28,  1868.     [Probably  identical 
with  the  next.] 

■ 

J 

/ 

"     ■ 

[AGj. 

Dec.2o-Feb. 

68 

+20 

Elongated  and  dif- 
fuse. 
Extended,     uncer- 

Maximum Dec.  24 

R.  P.  Greg.; 

Y\d. 

6. 
Jan.  30    ... 

225 

+  34 

Jan.   30,   1868.     ?Connected  with 

tain  to  10°. 

VI  c,  VI  e ;  but  no  intermediate 
meteors  with  IV  a. 

Vie. 

Jan.  31     ... 

221 

+  28 

Contracted ;    well- 
defuied. 

Jan.  31,  1868.     ?Connected  in  one 
group  with  IV  a,  IV  c,  VI  c  and 

VI  d :  see  following  Table  (p.  48).' 

^H 

viy*. 

Jan.  31    ... 

134 

+40 

Few  meteors   

Jan.  31,  1868.     Traces  on  preced- 
ing evenings. 

^1 

[Ml, ,. 
Vila. 

Jan.  a-Peb. 

9- 
Feb.  3 

128 

153 

+40 
+21 

Maximum  Jan.  25—31    

R.  P.  GreJ 

Contracted  and  ex- 

Feb. 3,  1869  ;  a  few  traces  on  pre- 

SchiapareB 

act. 

ceding  nights. 

^M 

Xa*. 

Feb.  16    ... 

74 

+48 

Apparently  double 

Feb.  16,  1868.    Traces  on  the  15th. 

~^^H 

(71 

+41) 

and  exact. 

A  few  meteors  only  from  the  se- 
cond  radiant-point.       Identical 
with  the  next. 

[A3,  4- 

Feb.  9-17  . 

73 

4-40 

Well-defined    and 
limited. 

R.  P.  Grej 

OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS. 


47 


Date  and 

duration  of 

shower. 


Apparent 
Position. 


Cliaracter  of 
radiation. 


Characters  of  the  Meteors, 
General  Remarks,  &c. 


Authority. 


Feb.  15-28 
Mar.  20  ... 


Mar.  16-31 
Mar.  31- 
Apr.  2. 


Apr.  2-3 . 


nil  a*. 


^Pr-  9 

Apr- 9 

Apr.  10   .. 

Apr.  II    .. 


Apr.  1-15 
Apr.  20  .. 
Apr.  20   .. 

Apr.  14   .. 


Apr.  45    ... 


Apr.  30- 
May  I. 

Apr.  23- 
June  4. 
May  I -3 1   . 
June  13-14 


May    6- 
June  20. 


76 

144 


150 
260 
262 


258 
260 

246 
163 


+40 
+48 


+47 
+  46 

+49 


+  36 

+40 
+  36 

+46 
+47 


193  +11 


18s 
199 
160 

167 


142 


237 

237 
23s 

232 
280 


2S0 


+22 
+  '4 
+49 

+47 


+  53 


+  35 

+  35 
+  50 

+27 
+  3S 


+  39 


Centre  of  an  elon- 
gated radiant-re 
gion. 


Mar.  20,  1868.  From  a  =  130° 
5= +46°  to  a  =  162°  5= -1-60°; 
evidently  identical  with  the  next. 


Extended;  unexact 


Mar.  31,  1868  1  Endures  three  days. 

April  2,  1868  I  Perhaps  connected 
and  1 8 69...  J  as  a    twin-radiant 
■with  the  next. 

Apr.  2,  1868  1  Distinct  from  but 
and  1S69    I  may  belong    to    the 

Apr.  3,  1868  I  same  family  as  Greg's 

Apr.  9,  1869  J  QHj  with  centre  near 
TT  Herculis. 

Apr.  9,  1869.  Twin -radiant  with 
the  last. 

Apr.  10,  1869.  Traces  on  Apr.  9 
?If  connected  with  XXI  b ;  no  in- 
termediate meteors. 

Apr.  II,  1869;  no  traces  on  adja- 
cent nights :  belongs  to  tlie  same 
family  as  the  two  next. 


Well  -  determined 
and  exact. 


Apparently  belonging  to  the  same 

family  as  XX  c  and  XXI  b. 
Apr.  14,  1868  and  1869.     Connect 

ed   by  no   meteors   with   XX  c, 

among  many  observed  on  inter 

mediate  nights. 
Apr.  25,  1868.     Appears  to  have  no 

connection  with   any  other  me 

teoric  shower. 
Apr.  30,  1867  1  Apparently       con 

and  1868...  I  nected  or  identical 
May    I,  1868  J  with  the  two  next. 


Well-defined 


June  13,  1869.  On  this  and  pre- 
vious evening  some  meteors  from 
direction  of  Vega  (ZezioH). 

June  14,  1869.  Perhaps  identical 
or  of  the  same  system  with  the 
next. 


Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 


Heis.] 
Schiaparelli 


Heis. 

Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 


E.  P.  Greg.] 

Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 


E.  P.  Greg.] 


adiant-points  contained  in  the  former  and  omitted  in  the  present  list  (see  Eeport  for  1870,  p.  98.) 


Feb.  6  .. 
Apr.  13 
May  22 
June  30 


183 

+56^ 

231 

+  ^7. 
+  25  ^ 
+  19J 

232 

240 

SchiaparelH. 


many  of  the  foregoing  radiant-points,  although  separated  from  each  other  in  position,  or 

•ghts  in  -which  no  intermediate  meteors  were  observed,  nevertheless  possess  in  common 

features    of   very  close  resemblance,  they   are   regarded   by  Professor   SchiapareUi 


48 


REPOKT 1871. 


as  forming,  in  some  cases,  distinct  meteor-systems  or  families  of  radiant- 
points,  of  which  the  principal,  occurring  in  the  first  half  of  the  year,  may  be 
grouped  as  follows : — 

Families  or  groups  of  Radiant-points. 


Sym- 
bol. 

Date. 

Position. 

General  ^ 
centre.    . 

S  0 
^g 

Sym- 
bol. 

Date. 

Position. 

General 
centre. 

Eefer- 
ence. 

a. 

S. 

a. 

S. 

II  a. 
III*. 
IV  d. 

Ya. 

Yb. 
Via. 
VI 6. 

Jan.  6  ... 

„      12... 

„      19- 
„      21  ... 

„      24... 

,.    25-^7 
„      29... 

0 
199 

197 

200 

205 

200 

205 

198 

0 

+  58 

+  59 
+  58 
4-49 
+  56 
+47 
+  54 

Between 
jj  and  5 

Ursae 
Majoris. 

•  & 
u 

XIX  «. 

XIX  6. 
XXa. 

XX*. 

Mar.  31- 
Apr.  2. 

Apr.  2-3 

Apr.  9  ... 

Apr.  9  ... 

Mar.  15- 
Apr.  23 

0 
261 

259 

^55 
246 
268 

0 

+48 

+  38 

+  36 
+46 

+25 

■  S  2  r 

In  Cerbe- 
rus. 

Scliiapa- 
relli.       j 
1 

R.  P. 
Greg.] 

IV  a. 
IV  c. 
Vic. 
Yld. 
Vie. 

Jan.  18... 
„      19... 

„     28... 
„     30... 
..     31- 

232  +36 

220  +40 
236+25 

Between 
a  Coronje 

and 
5  Bootis. 

XXI  a. 

[84- 

[«5- 

Apr.   1 1 . 
Apr.  1-15 
Apr.  20  . 

193 
185 
199 

+22 
+  14 

Between 

S  and  e 

Virginis 

Schiapn. 

Heis.] 

Heis.] 

225 
221 

+28 

XX  c. 

XXI  *. 

Apr.  10  . 
Apr.  14  . 
Apr.  20  . 

163 
167 
160 

+47 
+47 
+49 

1 

Schiapa- 

relli. 
Heis.] 

:::::::::) 

Should  the  effect  of  planetary  perturbations,  which  retarded  the  retiirn  of 
Halley's  comet  in  the  year  1859  nearly  one  month  from  the  time  of  its  perihelion 
passage,  as  calculated  by  D'Alembert  and  Clairault,  also  explain  the  wide  differ- 
ence between  the  separate  coils  of  spiral  meteoric  streams  apparently  encoun- 
tered by  the  earth  in  the  meteor-systems  of  which  the  above  groups  or  families 
of  radiant-points  appear  to  present  unmistakable  examples,  a  new  field  of 
investigation  in  meteoric  astronomy,  and  of  future  observation  and  reseai'ch, 
is  beginning  to  unfold  itself  in  these  new  and  interesting  discoveries. 

2.  On  Comets  and  Meteors,  by  Professor  Kirkwood,  Indiana  University, 
U.S.  (read  before  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  November  19,  1869). 
In  an  able  treatise  on  "  Meteoric  Astronomy,"  already  noticed  in  these 
Eeports  (for  1868,  p.  418),  a  short  Appendix  (B)  at  the  end  of  the  volume 
on  "  Comets  and  Meteors  "  expresses  the  views  on  their  connexion  which 
Professor  Kirkwood  communicated,  so  long  ago  as  Jidy  1861,  to  the  '  Danville 
Quarterly  Review'  for  December  in  that  year.  "Different  views  are  enter- 
tained by  astronomers  in  regard  to  the  origin  of  comets,  some  believing  them 
to  enter  the  solar  system  ah  extra,  others  supposing  them  to  have  originated 
■within  its  limits.     The  former  is  the  hypothesis  of  Laplace,  and  is  regarded 

with  favour  by  many  eminent  astronomers Now,  according  to 

Laplace's  hypothesis,  patches  of  nebulous  matter  have  been  left  nearly  in 
equilibrium  in  the  interstellar  spaces.  As  the  si;n  in  his  progress  ap- 
proaches such  clusters,  they  must,  by  virtue  of  his  attraction,  move  towards 
the  centre  of  our  system,  the  nearer  portions  with  greater  velocity  than  the 
more  remote.  The  nebulous  fragments  thus  drawn  into  our  system  would 
constitute  comets ;  those  of  the  same  cluster  would  enter  the  solar  domain  at 
periods  not  very  distant  from  each  other.  ...  If  we  adopt  Laplace's  hy- 
pothesis of  the  origin  of  comets,  we  may  suppose  an  almost  continuous  fall  of 
primitive  nebular  matter  toward  the  centre  of  our  system — the  drops  of 
which,  penetrating  the  earth's  atmosphere,  produce  sj)oradic  meteors,  the 
larger  aggregations  forming  comets.     The  disturbing  influence  of  the  planets 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  49 

may  have  transformed  the  original  orbits  of  many  of  the  former  as  well  as  of 
the  latter  into  ellipses.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  the  motions  of  some 
luminons  meteors  (or  cometoids,  as,  perhaps,  they  might  be  called)  have  been 
decidedly  indicative  of  an  origin  beyond  the  limits  of  the  planetary  system. 
But  how  are  the  phenomena  of  periodic  meteors  to  be  accounted  for  in  ac- 
cordance with  this  theory? 

"  The  division  of  Biela's  comet  into  two  distinct  parts  suggests  several 
interesting  questions  in  cometary  physics.  The  nature  of  the  separating 
force  remains  to  be  discovered ;  '  but  it  is  impossible  to  doubt  that  it  arose 
from  the  divellent  action  of  the  sun,  whatever  may  have  been  the  mode  of 
operation.  A  signal  manifestation  of  the  influence  of  the  sun  is  sometimes 
afforded  by  the  breaking  up  of  a  comet  into  two  or  more  separate  parts,  on 
the  occasion  of  its  approach  to  the  perihelion '  *.  No  less  than  six  such  in- 
stances are  found  distinctly  recorded  in  the  Annals  of  Astronomy,  viz. : — 1. 
Ancient  bipartition  of  a  comet. — Seneca.  2.  Separation  of  a  comet  into  a 
number  of  fragments,  11  B.C. — Dion  Cassius.  3.  Three  comets  seen  simul- 
taneously pursuing  the  same  orbit,  a.d.  896. — Chinese  Records.  4.  Probable 
sejDaration  of  a  comet  into  parts,  a.b.  IQIS.—Hevelius.  5.  Indications  of 
seimration,  1661. — HeveVms.     6.  Bipartition  of  Biela's  Comet,  1845-46. 

"  In  \dew  of  these  facts  it  seems  highly  probable,  if  not  absolutely  certain, 
that  the  process  of  division  has  taken  place  in  several  instances  besides  that 
of  Biela's  Comet.  May  not  the  force,  whatever  it  is,  that  has  produced  one 
separation  again  divide  the  parts  ?  And  may  not  this  action  continue  until 
the  fragments  become  invisible  ?  According  to  the  theory  now  generally 
received,  the  periodic  phenomena  of  shooting-stars  are  produced  by  the  inter- 
section of  the  orbits  of  such  nebulous  bodies  with  the  earth's  annual  path. 
Now  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  these  meteoric  rings  are  very  elliptical, 
and  in  this  respect  wholly  dissimilar  to  the  rings  of  primitive  vapour  which, 
according  to  the  nebular  hypothesis,  were  successively  abandoned  at  the  solar 
equator ;  in  other  words,  that  the  matter  of  which  they  are  composed  moves 
in  cometary  rather  than  in  planetary  orbits.  May  not  our  periodic  meteors 
be  the  debris  of  ancient  but  now  disintegrated  comets,  whose  matter  has  be- 
come distributed  round  their  orbits  ?  " 

These  views,  announced  in  the  year  1861,  were  afterwards  completely 
established  by  the  calculations  of  Professor  Newton  and  Professor  Schia- 
pareUi  regarding  the  real  orbital  velocities  of  shooting-stars,  proving  them 
to  move,  generally,  in  parabolic,  or  cometic,  rather  than  in  planetary  orbits ; 
and  by  the  astonishing  discovery  in  the  year  1866,  by  Professor  Schiaparelli, 
of  the  almost  absolute  identity  of  the  orbit  of  Tuttle's  Comet  (III.  1862)  with 
that  of  the  August,  and  of  the  orbit  of  Temple's  Comet  (I.  1866)  with  that 
of  the  November  meteor-stream,  supposing  (as  the  researches  of  Professor 
Newton  and  Professor  Adams  amply  prove)  that  the  latter,  and  presumably 
also  the  former  of  those  meteor-clouds  revolve  in  elliptic  orbits  of  such 
considerable  length,  as  not  to  differ  much  from  the  comets  in  their  times 
of  revolution.  In  his  communication  to  the  American  Philosophical  Society, 
Professor  Kirkwood  retraces  the  recent  researches  of  Hoek,  Leverrier,  and 
SchiapareUi  respecting  the  probable  circumstances  of  the  introduction  of 
comets  and  periodical  shooting-stars  ab  extra  into  the  limits  of  the  planetary 
system.  The  disturbing  force  by  which  their  cosmical  orbits  were  converted 
into  elliptic  ones  of  short  periods  (it  is  found  in  harmony  with  the  preceding 
theory)  was  probably  the  overpowering  attraction  of  one  of  the  larger  planets 
near  to  which  the  cosmical  bodies  first  entered  the  limits  of  the  solar  system. 

*  Grant's  '  History  of  Physical  Astronomy,'  p.  302. 
1871.  I 


50 


REPORT 1871. 


In  the  following  Table  Professor  Kirkwood  compares  together  the  aphelion 
distances  of  the  several  known  comets  of  short  periods  with  the  mean  dis- 
tances of  the  several  larger  planets  from  the  sun  : — 


2   a 


Comets. 


Encke's  . . . 
1S19,  IV.... 
De  Vice's. . . 
Pigott's     "1 

(1783)/ 
1867,11.... 

1743. 1 

1766,11.  ... 

8.  :i8i9,  III... 

9.  Brorsen's  . 

10.  D'Arrest's , 

11.  Faye's 

12.  Biela's 


409 
4-81 

5'02 

5-28 

5-29 
5-32 

5 '47 
5-55 
5-64 

575 
5"93 
619, 


2. 

P-1  o 


-g 


^  a 

«.2 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 


Comets. 


Peter's  (1846,  VI.). 
Tattles  (1858,  I.)  . 


9 '45 
10-42 


Saturns's  mean 
distance  9' 54. 


1.  1867,1 

2.  November  Meteors. 


1866,1. 


i9'28 
1965 
19-92 


Westphal's  (1852,  IV.) 

Pons'  (1812)    

Gibers'  ('1815) 

|De  Vice's  (1846,1V.).. 
Brorsen's  (1847,  V.)  .. 
Halley's  


31-97 
33-41 
34'o5 
34-35 
35-07 

35-37 


Uranus's  mean 
distance  191 8. 


Neptune's  mean 
distance  30-04. 


It  is  also  evident  that  the  passage  of  the  solar  system  through  a  region  of 
space  comparatively  destitute  of  cometie  clusters  would  be  indicated  by  a 
corresponding  paucity  of  comets.  Such  variations  of  frequency  are,  indeed, 
found  not  only  in  the  records  of  comets,  but  also  of  meteoric  showers  which 
have  been  accidentally  recorded,  the  greater  number  of  the  latter  having 
been  observed  during  the  five  centuries  between  TOO  a.d.  and  1200  a.d.,  and 
again  in  those  following  a.d.  1700,  suggesting  that  dm-ing  the  former  and, 
perhaps,  again  during  the  present  period  the  solar  system  is  passing  through 
a  cosmical  or  meteoric  cloud  of  very  great  extent, — not  less,  indeed,  on  the 
received  speed  of  the  sun's  proper  motion,  than  fourteen  times  the  -width  of 
Neptune's  orbit.  Professor  Kirkwood  adds,  in  particular  reference  to  the 
August  meteor-system,  "  The  fact  that  the  Aiigust  meteors,  which  have  been 
so  often  subsequently  observed,  were  first  noticed  in  811  [see  M.  Quetelet's 
Catalogue  of  Star-showers]  renders  it  probable  that  the  cluster  was  intro- 
duced into  the  planetary  system  not  long  pre-viously  to  the  year  800.  It  may 
be  also  worthy  of  remark  that  the  elements  of  the  comet  of  770  a.d.  are  not 
very  different  from  those  of  the  August  meteors  and  of  the  third  comet  of 
1682  "  *.  With  regard  to  the  sun's  passage  through 
a  meteoric  cloud  of  the  above-considered  dimen- 
sions and  constitution  it  is  noticed  that  the  num- 
ber of  coraetary  perihelia  found  in  the  two  qua- 
drants of  longitude  towards  and  from  which  the  sun 
is  moving  is  159,  or  62  per  cent.,  and  that  of  peri- 
helia in  the  two  other  quadrants  is  98,  or  .38  per 
cent.,  shoAving  their  tendency  to  crowd  together 
about  the  direction  of  the  sun's  proper  motion  in  space.    The  large  excess  of 


260^ 


*  The  interval  bet-ween  tbe  perihelion  passage  of  770  and  that  of  1862  is  equal  to  9 
periods  of  121-36  years.  Oppolzer's  determination  of  the  period  of  1862,  III.,  is  121-5 
years.  Hind  remarks  that  the  elements  of  the  Comet  of  770  are  "  rather  uncertain,"  but 
says  "  that  the  general  character  of  the  orbit  is  decided."  It  may  be  worthy  of  remari 
that  a  great  meteoric  sbo-wer,  the  exact  date  of  which  has  not  been  preserved,  occurred  ir 
770. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUMINOUS  METEORS.  51 

the  number  of  the  cometary  perihelia  closest  to  the  sun  in  the  forward  qua- 
irants,  relatively  to  the  direction  of  his  proper  motion  in  space,  is  also  re- 
garded as  indicating  the  direction  of  the  sun's  motion  through  the  meteor- 
;loud  in  a  manner  which  the  facts  of  observation  evidently  corroborate. 

3.  On  the  Periods  of  certain  Meteoric  rings.  By  Professor  Kirkwood  (read 
;o  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  March  4,  1870).— According  to  the 
iomputed  elements  of  the  Comet  I.  1861  (by  Oppolzer),  first  shown  by  Dr. 
Edmund  Weiss  (Astron.  Kachr.  no.  1632)  to  agree  very  closely  with  those  of 
he  April  meteor-stream,  its  periodic  time  of  revolution  is  415-4  years.  On 
he  other  hand,  Professor  Kirkwood  points  out  that,  without  accepting  a  shorter 
)eriodic  time  of  revolution,  the  former  April  displays  recorded  in  ancient 
imes  do  not  agree  with  the  time  of  revolution  of  the  comet.  Adopting  a 
)eriod  of  about  28^  years  for  the  cycle  of  returns  of  the  April  shower,  the 
vhole  of  the  dates  of  its  appearance  selected  by  Professor  ll^ewton  as  agre'eing 
veil  with  those  of  its  most  recent  appearance  in  the  present  century  are  re- 
iresented  with  perfect  accuracy  by  the  following  scheme : — 

Dates  of  former  appearances.  Interval  in  years. 

'>om  B.C.    687  to  B.C.  15 672-000=24  periods  of  28-000  years  each. 

B.C.      IS  to  A.D.  582  597-000  =  21  „  28-429 

A.D.    582  to  A.D.    1093-714    (between] 

1093  and  1096)   jSii7i4=i»  „  28-429           „ 

A.D.  1093-714  to  1222-143 28-429:^1  „  28-429 

A.D.  1222-143  to  1803 680-857=24  „  28-369           „ 

The  periodical  time  of  28^  years  corresponds  to  an  ellipse  whose  major 
xis  is  18-59,  and  whose  aphelion  distance  is  very  nearly  equal  to  the  mean 
listance  of  the  planet  Uranus.  A  remark  of  Mr.  Du  Chaillu  is  here  believed 
to  be  rightly  recalled,  that  he  observed  the  April  meteors  in  the  equatorial 
parts  of  Africa  almost  as  brilliant,  and  leaving  streaks  more  enduring  than 
those  of  the  great  November  meteor-shower  (of  which  he  was  also  an  ob- 
server in  England,  in  the  year  1866).  If  the  date  of  Mr.  Du  ChaiUu's  obser- 
vation was  about  the  year  1860,  a  corroboration  of  Professor  Kirkwood'a 
cycle  of  28^  years  repeated  twice  since  the  great  display  of  those  meteors  in 
the  year  1803  would  be  thence  derived.  The  April  meteor-shower  was  also 
sufficiently  bright  in  the  year  1863  to  make  its  approach  to  an  epoch  of 
maximum  brilliancy  in  about  that  year  a  somewhat  probable  conjecture. 

Among  the  formerly  recorded  star-showers  which  appear  to  have  certainly 
been  connected  with  the  December  meteor-system.  Professor  Kirkwood  points 
out  a  notice  of  such  an  occurrence  in  the  year  a.d.  901.  Others  are  found 
to  have  taken  place  in  the  years  930,  1571,  1830,  1833,  and  1836,  with  an 
apparent  maximum  in  the  year  1833,  when  as  many  as  ten  meteors  were 
seen  simultaneously.  Finally,  pretty  abundant  displavs  of  the  shower  were 
observed  in  the  years  1861,  1862,  and  1863,  with  a  jprobable  maximum  in 
the  year  1862.     These  dates  indicate  a  period  of  about  29^  years,  thus^ 

901  to    930 I  period  of  29000  years. 

930  to  1571 22        „  29136      „ 

1571     to     1833 9  „  jg-iii  ,, 

1833  to  1862 1        „  29-000      „ 

A  third  meteoric  shower,  that  of  the  15th-21st  of  October,  presents,  again, 
a  similar  period  of  revolution.  The  recorded  dates  of  apparitions  which  cor- 
respond m  the  times  of  their  appearance  with  the  present  meteor-showers  of 
the  15th-21st  of  October  are  the  years  a.d.  288,  1436  and  1439,  1743,  and 
1798,  on  each  of  which  occasions  a  great  number  of  shooting-stars  were 

e2 


52  REPORT 1871. 

seen.     The  periodic  time  of  27|   years  is  well  indicated  by  these  dates, 
thus : — 

A.D.    288  to  1439 42  periods  of  27-405  years  each. 

1439  to  1743 II         1.  27-636         „ 

1743  to  1798 2         „  27-500         „ 

"  If  these  periods  are  correct,  it  is  a  remarkable  coincidence  that  the 
aphelion  distances  of  the  meteoric  rings  of  April  18th-20th,  October  15th- 
21st,  November  14th,  and  December  llth-13th,  as  well  as  those  of  the 
comets  1866  I.,  and  1867  I.  are  all  nearly  equal  to  the  mean  distance  of 
Uranus." 

4.  Beitriige  zur  Kenntniss  cler  Sternschnuppen,  von  Dr.  Edmund  Weiss 
(Sitzungsberichte  of  the  Imperial  Academy  of  Vienna  for  January  16,  1868) 
presents  a  short  summary  of  the  mathematical  problems  required  to  be 
solved  in  the  determination  of  the  parabolic  orbit,  and  the  actual  relative 
speed  of  the  meteors'  course  in  the  atmosphere,  from  the  known  position  of 
the  radiant-point ;  and  shows  how  approximate  calculations  of  the  velocities 
of  shooting-stars  have  led  to  discoveries,  in  proving  certain  periodical  meteor- 
currents  to  be  intimately  connected  with  comets  of  which  the  orbits  have 
recently  been  determined*. 

5,  The  Fuel  of  the  Sun,  by  W.  Mattieu  WiUiams,  F.C.S.  (8vo,  222  pp. 
Simpkin  and  Marshall). — An  attempt  to  explain  convulsions  of  the  sun's  sur- 
face by  planetary  disturbances  of  a  universal  atmosphere  collected  in  greatest 
density  about  the  larger  bodies  of  the  solar  system,  and  agitated  by  tides 
arising  from  their  several  attractions,  is  the  theory  for  the  establishment  of 
which  a  collection  of  the  greatest  interest  of  recent  observations  of  solar 
physics  has  been  brought  into  a  small  compass  by  the  author  of  the  work, 
and  is  well  directed  to  explain  the  chief  phenomena  of  solar  physics.  The 
corona  is  regarded  (Chapter  XIII.)  as  originating  in  solar  projectiles  driven 
from  its  surface  with  eruptive  violence.  In  the  following  chapter  the  source 
of  meteorites  is  conjectured  to  be  the  solar  projectiles  which  thus  pass  beyond 
the  boundaries  of  the  zodiacal  light ;  some  of  which  being  confined  to  revolve 
in  two  principal  orbits  outside  of  that  luminary,  and  in  several  intermediate 
zones  of  irregularly  and  more  thinly  scattered  projectiles,  may  be  regarded 
as  giving  rise  to  the  August  and  November,  as  well  as  to  other  minor  and 
more  or  less  regular  meteoric  displays.  Somewhat  more  important  specu- 
lations and  descriptions  of  the  meteorology  of  the  moon  and  planets,  as  well 
as  of  the  distribution  of  the  nebulae,  suggesting  the  stellar  origin  of  some  of 
those  bodies,  occupy  the  greater  portion  of  the  remainder  of  the  work. 

*  The  velocity  of  the  April  meteors,  or  Lyraids,  of  the  20th  of  April  meteoric  shower, 
relatively' to  the  earth,  is  given  in  Dr.  Weiss's  list  of  radiant-points  and  relative  velocities  of  | 
coraetary  orbits,  in  the  above  paper,  as  1-585,  that  of  the  earth  in  its  orbit  being  unity. 
Adopting  the  value  of  18-6  miles  per  second  for  the  earth's  mean  orbital  velocity,  this  gives 
the  relative  velocity  of  the  Lyraids,  or  April  shower-meteors,  29-5  miles  per  second  ;  very 
nearly  that  observed  (30  miles  per  second)  in  the  case  of  the  only  shooting-star  of  the  shower 
doubly  observed,  as  described  in  this  Eeport,  on  the  night  of  the  20th  of  April  last. 


ON  FOSSIL  CRUSTACEA.  53 

Fifth  Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  o/Henry  Woodward,  F.G.S., 
F.Z.S.,  Dr.  Duncan,  F.R.S.,  and  R.  Etheridge,  F.R.S.,  on  the 
Structure  and  Classification  of  the  Fossil  Crustacea,  drawn  up  by 
Henry  Woodward,  F.G.S.,  F.Z.S. 

Since  I  had  last  the  honour  to  present  a  Report  on  the  Structure  and  Clas- 
sification of  the  Fossil  Crustacea,  I  have  published  figures  and  descriptions  of 
the  following  species,  namely  : — 

Decapoda  Bbacittuka. 

1.  liJuichiosoma  hispinosa,  H.  Woodw.     Lower  Eocene,  Portsmouth. 

2.  echinata,  H.  W.    Lower  Eocene,  Portsmouth. 

3.  Palceocorystes  glabra,  H.  "W.    Lower  Eocene,  Portsmouth.     All  figured 
and  described  in  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  vol.  xxvii.  p,  90,  pi.  4. 

Decapoda  Maceuea. 

4.  Scyllaridia  Belli,  H.  W.     Loudon  Clay,  Sheppey.    Geol.  Mag.  1870, 
vol.  vii.  p.  493,  pi.  22.  fig.  1, 

Amphipoda. 

5.  Necrogammarus  Sahueyi,  H.  W.  Lower  Ludlow,  Leintwardine.   Figured 
and  described  Trans.  Woolhope  Club,  1870,  p.  271,  pi.  11. 

ISOPODA. 

6.  Pcdcega  Carteri,  H.  W.     Lower  Chalk,  Dover,  &c.    Geol.  Mag.  1870, 
vol.  vii.  p.  493,  pi.  22.  fig.  1. 

7.  Prcearctun(s  gigas,  H.  W.     Old  Red  Sandstone,  Rowlestone,  Hereford- 
shire.   Trans.  Woolhope  Club,  1870,  p.  266. 

Merostomata. 

8.  Eurgpterits  Brodiei,  H.  W.  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  1871,  August. 
Trans.  Woolhope  Club,  1870,  p.  276. 

Phyilopoda. 

*9.  Dlihyrocaris  tenuistriatus,  M°Coy.  Carboniferous  Limestone,  Settle, 
Yorkshire. 

10.  Dithyrocaris  Belli,  H.  W.    Devonian,  Gaspe,  Canada. 

11.  Ceratiocans  Ludensis,  H.  W.     Lower  Ludlow,  Leintwardine. 

12.  Ceratiocaris  Oretonensis,  H.  W.  Carboniferous  Limestone,  Oreton, 
Worcestershii-e. 

13.  Ceratiocaris  truncatus,  H.  W.  Carboniferous  Limestone,  Oreton,  Worces- 
tershire. 

Figured  and  described  in  the  Geol.  Mag.  1871,  vol.  viii.  p.  104,  pi.  3. 

14.  Cyclus  bilobatus,  H.  W.   Carboniferous  Limestone,  Settle,  Yorkshire. 

15.  torosus,  H.  W.     Carboniferous  Limestone,  Little  Island,  Cork. 

16.  Wrightii,  H.  W.    Carboniferous  Limestone,  Little  Island,  Cork. 

17. ■  Harhnessi,  H.  W.   Carboniferous  Limestone,  Little  Island,  Cork. 

*18.  radialis,  Phillips.     Carboniferous  Limestone,  Settle,  Yorkshire, 

Vise,  Belgium. 
*19.   Cyclus  Rankini,  H.  W.  Carboniferous  Limestone,  Carluke,  Lanarkshire. 
[*20.  "  Brongniartianus,"  De  Kon.    Carboniferous  Limestone,  York- 
shire, Belgium.] 

21.  Cyclus  Jonesiamis,  H.  W.  Carboniferous  Limestone,  Little  Island, 
Cork.  (These  latter  figured  and  described  in  the  Geol.  Mag.  1870,  vol.  vii. 
pi.  23.  figs.  1-9.) 

[Those  marked  with  an  asterisk  have  been  already  figured,  but  have  been 
redrawn  and  redescribed  in  order  to  add  to  or  correct  previous  descriptions. 


54  REPORT 1871. 

Thus,  for  example,  "  Cydus  Brongniartianus  "  proves  upon  careful  examina- 
tion to  be  only  the  hypostome  of  a  Trilobite  belonging  to  the  genus  Phillijjsia. 
Ditliyrocaris  tenuistratus  is  identical  with  Avicula  pco-adoxides  of  De  Koninck, 

&c.]' 

Since  noticing  the  occurrence  of  an  Isopod,  Palcega  Carteri,  from  the 
Kentish,  Cambridge,  and  Bedford  Chalk,  Dr.  Ferd.  Eoemer,  of  Breslau,  has 
forwarded  me  the  cast  of  a  specimen  of  the  same  crustacean  from  the  Chalk 
of  Upper  Silesia.  This,  together  with  the  example  from  the  Miocene  of 
Turin,  gives  a  very  wide  geographical  as  weU  as  chronological  range  to  this 
genus. 

A  still  more  remarkable  extension  of  the  Isopoda  in  time  is  caused  by  the 
discovery  of  the  form  which  I  have  named  Prceardurus  in  the  Devonian  of 
Herefordshire,  apparently  the  remains  of  a  gigantic  Isopod  resembling  the 
modern  Arcturus  Bcrffinsii. 

I  have  also  described  from  the  Lower  Ludlow  a  form  which  I  have  referred 
with  some  doubts  to  the  Amphipoda,  under  the  generic  name  of  Necrogam- 
marus. 

Bepresentatives  both  of  the  Isopoda  and  Amphipoda  vrill  doubtless  be 
found  in  numbers  in  our  Palaeozoic  rocks,  seeing  that  Macruran  Decapods 
are  found  as  far  back  as  the  Coal-measures*,  and  Brachyurous  forms  in  the 

Oolites  f. 

Indeed  the  suggestion  made  by  Mr.  Billings  as  to  the  Trilobita  being  fur- 
nished with  legs  (see  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  vol.  xxvi.  pi.  31.  fig.  1),  if 
established  upon  further  evidence,  so  as  to  be  applied  to  the  whole  class, 
would  carry  the  Isopodous  type  back  in  time  to  our  earliest  Cambrian  rocks. 

I  propose  to  carry  out  an  investigation  of  this  group  for  the  purpose  of 
confirming  Mr.  Billings's  and  my  own  observations,  by  the  examination  of  a 
longer  series  of  specimens  than  have  hitherto  been  dealt  with.  In  the  mean 
time  the  authenticity  of  the  conclusions  arnved  at  by  Mr.  Billings  having 
been  called  in  question  by  Drs.  Dana,  Verrill,  and  Smith  (see  the  American 
Joum.  of  Science  for  May  last,  p.  320  ;  Annals  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist,  for  May, 
p.  366),  I  have  carefully  considered  their  objections,  and  have  replied  to 
the  same  in  the  Geological  Magazine  for  July  last,  p.  289,  pi.  8 ;  and  I  may 
be  permitted  here  to  briefly  state  the  arguments  p>-o  and  con,  seeing  they  are 
of  the  greatest  importance  in  settling  the  systematic  position  of  the  Trilo- 
bita among  the  Crustacea. 

Until  the  discovery  of  the  remains  of  ambulatory  appendages  by  Mr.  Bil- 
lings in  an  Asaphus  from  the  Trenton  Limestone  (in  1870),  the  only  appen- 
dage heretofore  detected  associated  with  any  Trilobite  was  the  hypostome  or 
lip-plate. 

From  its  close  agreement  with  the  lip-plate  in  the  recent  Apus,  and  also 
from  the  fact  of  the  number  of  body-rings  exceeding  that  attained  in  any 
other  group  save  in  the  Entomostraca,  nearly  all  naturahsts  who  have  paid 
attention  to  the  Tiilobita  in  the  past  thirty  years  have  concluded  that  they 
possessed  only  soft  membranaceoiis  giU-feet,  similar  to  those  of  BrancMpus, 
Apiis,  and  other  Phyllopods. 

The  large  compound  sessile  eyes,  and  the  hard,  shelly,  many-segmented 
body,  with  its  compound  caudal  and  head-shield,  diifer  from  any  known 
PhyUopod,  but  offer  many  points  of  analogy  with  the  modem  Isopods  J  ;  and 

*  Anfkrapalamon  Grossartii,  Salter,  Coal-measures,  Glasgow, 
t  Palminachus  longipes,  H.  Woodw.,  Forest  Marble,  Wilts. 

J  It  should  always,  howerer,  be  borne  in  mind  that  as  the  Trilobita  offer,  as  a  group,  no 
fixed  number  of  body-rings  and  frequently  possess  more  than  twenty-one  segments,  they 


I 


ON  FOSSIL  CRUSTACEA.  55 

one  would  be  led  to  presuppose  the  Trilobites  possessed  of  organs  of  loco- 
motion of  a  stronger  texture  than  mere  branchial  frills. 

The  objection  raised  by  Drs.  Dana  and  VerriU  to  the  special  case  of  ap- 
pendages in  the  AsapJius  assumed  by  Mr.  Billings  to  possess  ambulatory  legs, 
is  that  the  said  appendages  were  merely  the  semicalcified  arches  in  the  inte- 
gument of  the  sternum  to  which  the  true  appendages  were  attached. 

A  comparison,  which  these  gentlemen  have  themselves  suggested,  between 
the  abdomen  of  a  Macruran  Decapod  and  the  TrUobite  in  question  is  the 
best  refutation  of  their  own  argument. 

The  sternal  arches  in  question  are  firmly  united  to  each  tergal  piece  at  the 
margin,  not  along  the  median  ventral  line.  If,  then,  the  supposed  legs  of  the 
Trilobite  correspond  to  these  semicalcified  arches  in  the  Macruran  Decapod, 
they  might  be  expected  to  lie  irregularly  along  the  median  line,  but  to  unite 
with  the  tergal  pieces  at  the  lateral  border  of  each  somite.  In  the  fossil  we 
find  just  the  contrary  is  the  case ;  for  the  organs  in  question  occupy  a  definite 
position  on  either  side  of  a  median  line  along  the  ventral  surface,  but  diverge 
widely  from  their  corresponding  tergal  pieces  at  each  lateral  border,  being 
directed  forward  and  outwards  in  a  very  similar  position  to  that  in  which  we 
should  expect  legs  {not  sternal  arches)  to  lie  beneath  the  body-rings  of  a  fos- 
sil crustacean.  The  presence,  however,  of  semicalcified  sternal  arches  pre- 
supposes the  possession  of  stronger  organs  than  mere  foliaceous  giU-feet ; 
whilst  the  broad  shield-shaped  caudal  lA&te  suggests  most  strongly  the  posi- 
tion of  the  branchiae.  In  the  case  of  the  Trenton  Asaphus  I  shall  be  satis- 
fied if  it  appears,  from  the  arguments  I  have  put  forward,  that  they  are  most 
prohahly  legs — 'feeling  assured  that  more  evidence  ought  to  be  demanded  be- 
fore deciding  on  the  systematic  position  of  so  large  a  group  as  the  Trilobita 
from  only  two  specimens*. 

With  regard  to  the  embryology  and  development  of  the  modern  King- 
Crab  (Limulus  polyphaimus),  we  must  await  the  conclusions  of  Dr.  Anton 
Dohrn  before  deciding  as  to  the  affinities  presented  by  its  larval  stages  to 
certain  of  the  Trilobita,  such  relations  being  only  in  general  external  form. 
Dr.  Packard  (Reports  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science,  August  1870)  remarks,  "  The  whole  embryo  bears  a  very  near  resem- 
blance to  certain  genera  of  Trilobites,  as  TrinucJeus,  Asaphus,  and  others ;" 
and  he  adds,  "  Previous  to  hatching  it  strikingly  resembles  Trinucleus  and 
other  TrQobites,  suggesting  that  the  two  groups,  should,  on  embryonic  and 
structural  grounds,  be  included  in  the  same  order,  especially  now  that  Mr.  E. 
Billings  has  demonstrated  that  Asaphus  possessed  eight  pairs  of  5-jointed 
legs  of  uniform  si^e." 

Such  statements  are  apt  to  mislead  unless  we  carefully  compare  the  cha- 
racters of  each  group.  And  first  let  me  express  a  caiition  against  the  too 
hasty  construction  of  a  classification  based  upon  larval  characters  alone. 

Larval  characters  are  useful  guide-posts  in  defining  great  groups,  and  also  in 
indicating  affinities  between  great  groups ;  but  the  more  we  become  acquainted 
with  larval  forms  the  greater  will  be  our  tendency  (if  we  attempt  to  base  our 
classification  on  their  study)  to  merge  groups  together  which  we  had  before 
held  as  distinct. 


have,  as  a  matter  of  course,  been  considered  as  belonging  to  a  much  lower  group  than  the 
Isopoda,  in  which  the  normal  number  of  somites  is  seven.  Wliilst  admitting  the  justice  of 
this  conclusion,  we  do  not  think  it  affords  any  good  ground  for  rejecting  the  proposition 
that  the  Isopoda  may  be  the  direct  lineal  descendants  of  the  Trilobita. 

*  One  in  Canada  and  one  in  the  British  Museum,  both  of  the  same  species. 


56 


REPORT 1871. 


To  take  a  familiar  iustance :  if  w^'compare  the  larval  stages  of  the  Com- 
mon Shore-Crab  {Carcinus  7noenas)  with.  Ptert/r/otus,  we  should  be  obliged 
(according  to  the  arguments  of  Dr.  Packard)  to  place  them  near  to  or  in  the 
same  group. 

The  eyes  in  both  are  sessile,  the  functions  of  locomotion,  prehension,  and 
mastication  are  all  performed  by  one  set  of  appendages,  which  are  attached 
to  the  mouth ;  the  abdominal  segments  are  natatory,  but  destitute  of  any 
appendages. 

Such  characters,  however,  are  common  to  the  larvae  of  many  crustaceans 
widely  separated  when  adult,  the  fact  being  that  in  the  larval  stage  we  find 
in  this  group  what  has  been  so  often  observed  by  naturahsts  in  other  groups 
of  the  animal  kingdom,  namely,  a  shadowing  forth  in  the  larval  stages  of 
the  road  along  which  its  ancestors  travelled  ere  they  arrived  from  the  remote 
past  at  the  living  present. 

If  we  place  the  characters  of  Limulus  and  Pterygotus  side  by  side,  and 
also  those  of  TrUobita  and  Isopoda,  we  shall  find  they  may  be,  in  the  present 
state  of  our  knowledge,  so  retained  in  classification. 


1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 


5. 

6. 

7. 

8, 


Pterygotus  (Fossil,  extinct). 

Eyes  sessile,  compound. 

Ocelli  distinctly  seen. 

All  the  limbs  serving  as  mouth- 
organs. 

Anterior  thoracic  segments  bear- 
ing branchiae  or  reproductive 
organs. 

Other  segments  destitute  of  any 
appendages. 

Thoracic  segments  unanchylosed. 

Abdominal  segments /reeancZ  well 
developed. 

Metastoma  large. 


1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 


6. 


Limidus  (Fossil,  and  living). 

1.  Eyes  sessile,  compound. 

2.  Two  ocelli  distinctly  seen. 

3.  All  the  limbs  serving  as  mouth- 

organs. 

4.  All  the  thoracic  segments  bear- 

ing  branchiae   or  reproductive 
organs. 

5.  Other  segments  destitute  of  any 

appendages. 

6.  Thoracic  segments  anchylosed. 

7.  Abdominal  segments  anchylosed 

and  rudimentary. 

8.  Metastoma  rudimentary. 


II. 


Trilohita  (Fossil,  extinct). 

Eyes  sessile,  compound. 

No  ocelli  visible. 

Appendages  partly  oral,  partly 
ambulatory,  arranged  in  pairs. 

Thoracic  segments  variable  in 
number,  from  8  even  to  28,  free 
and  movable  (animal  sometimes 
rolling  into  a  ball). 

Abdominal  series  coalesced  to 
form  a  broad  caudal  shield, 
bearing  the  branchiae  beneath. 

Lip-plate  tuell  developed. 


Isopoda  (Fossil,  and  living). 

Eyes  sessile,  compound. 

No  ocelli  visible. 

Appendages  partly  oral,  partly 
ambulatory,  arranged  in  pairs. 

Thoracic  segments  usually  seven, 
free  and  movable  (animal 
sometimes  rolling  into  a  ball). 


5. 


Abdominal  somites  coalesced,  and 
forming  a  broad  caudal  shield, 
bearing  the  branchiae  beneath. 
G.  Lip-plate  small. 


Should  our  further  researches  confirm  Mr.  Billings's  discovery  fully,  we  may 
propose  for  the  second  pair  of  these  groups  a  common  designation,  meantime 
we  give  the  above  as  representing  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge. 


ON  THE  CENSUS.  57 


Rej}0)'t  of  the  Committee  appointed  at  the  Meeting  of  the  British 
Association  at  Liverpool,  1870,  consisting  of  Prof.  Jevons,  R. 
Dudley  Baxter,  J.  T.  Danson,  James  Heywood,  F.R.S.,  Dr. 
W.  B.  Hodgson,  and  Prof.  Waley,  with  Edmund  Macrory  as 
their  Secretary,  "for  the  purpose  of  urging  upon  Her  Majesty's 
Government  the  expediency  of  arranging  and  tabulating  the  results 
of  the  approaching  Census  in  the  three  several  parts  of  the  United 
Kingdom  in  such  a  manner  as  to  admit  of  ready  and  effective 
comparison." 

Your  Committee    after  their    appointment  held  meetings  in  London,  and 
agreed  upon  the  following  Memorial : — 

"  TJnifoemitt  of  Plan  for  the  Census  of  the  United  Kingdom. 

"To  the  Right  Honourable  Henry  Austin  Bruce,  M.P.,  &c.  &c.,  Her  Ma- 
jesty's Princi]3al  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home  Department. 

"  Memorial  of  the  Committee  of  the  British  Association,  appointed  in  Liver- 
pool, September  1870,  for  the  purpose  of  urging  upon  Her  Majesty's 
Government  the  expediency  of  arranging  and  tabulating  the  results 
of  the  approaching  Census  in  the  three  several  parts  of  the  United 
Kingdom  in  such  a  manner  as  to  admit  of  ready  and  effectual  com- 
parison. 

"  Your  memorialists  beg  respectfully  to  represent  that  the  value  of  statistical 
information  depends  mainly  upon  the  accuracy  and  expedition  with  which 
comparisons  can  be  made  between  facts  relating  to  different  districts. 

"They  also  consider  that  the  ease  and  rapidity  with  which  researches  in  the 
census  tables  can  be  made  is  one  principal  object  to  be  held  in  view  in  de- 
termining the  form  of  their  publication.  They  therefore  desire  that  not 
only  should  the  enumeration  of  the  jjeople  be  conducted  in  all  places  in  an 
exactly  uniform  manner,  so  far  as  is  compatible  with  the  terms  of  the 
several  Census  Acts,  biit  that  there  should  be  no  divergence  in  the  modes  of 
tabulating  and  printing  the  results.  They  wish  that  the  tables  for  England, 
Scotland,  and  Ireland  should  form  as  nearly  as  possible  one  uniform  and 
consistent  whole. 

"  Your  memorialists  could  specify  a  great  many  points  in  which  there  was 
divergence  between  the  tables  for  1861,  but  they  will  mention  only  a  few 
of  the  more  important  cases. 

"  1.  The  detailed  population  tables  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland  differ 
as  regards  the  periods  of  age  specified.  The  Scotch  report  gives  twenty-one 
intervals  of  age,  the  Irish  report  generally  twenty-two,  and  the  English 
only  thirteen.  Either  one-third  of  the  printed  matter  in  the  Scotch  and 
Irish  tables  is  superfluous,  or  that  in  the  English  tables  deficient. 

"  2.  The  classification  of  occupations  is  apparently  identical  in  the  three 
reports,  but  there  is  much  real  discrepancy  between  the  Irish  and  English 
reports,  rendering  exact  comparison  difficult. 

"3.  In  the  Irish  report  there  is  no  comparison  and  classification  of  occupa- 
tions according  to  age,  classification  according  to  religions  being  substituted, 
although  such  a  classification  could  not  be  made  in  England  or  Scotland. 

"  4.  In  the  appendix  to  the  English  report  appears  a  table  (No.  56),  giving 


58  REPORT 1871. 

most  important  information  as  regards  the  numbers  of  the  population  at 
each  year  of  age.  Inconvenience  has  been  felt  from  the  want  of  similar  in- 
formation concerning  the  populations  of  Scotland  and  Ireland. 

"  5.  In  the  appendix  to  the  Irish  report  they  find  some  interesting  Tables 
(II.,  III.,  and  IV.),  to  which  there  is  nothing  exactly  corresponding  in  the 
other  reports,  so  far  as  they  have  been  able  to  discover. 

"  6.  The  tables,  even  when  containing  the  same  information,  are  often 
stated  in  different  forms  and  arrangements,  seriously  increasing  the  labour 
of  research. 

"  Your  memorialists  therefore  beg  to  suggest : — 

"  I.  That  the  principal  body  of  tables  relating  to  the  numbers,  age,  sex, 
birthplace,  civil  condition,  and  occupation  of  the  people  should  be 
drawn  up  and  printed  in  an  exactly  identical  form  for  the  three 
parts  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
"  II.  That  while  the  Commissioners  may  with  great  advantage  continue 
to  exercise  their  free  discretion  in  drawing  up  such  minor  tables 
as  appear  to  have  si)ecial  interest  for  distinct  localities,  they  should 
agree  to  prepare  in  a  uniform   manner  such  minor  or  summary 
tables  as  may  be  of  importance  as  regards  aU  the  parts  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 
"  III.  That  a  general  Index  of  Subjects  should  be  prepared  for  the  whole 
of  the  reports,  appendices,  and  tables,  so  that  an  inquirer  can  readily 
ascertain  where  the  corresponding  information  for  different  parts 
of  the  United  Kingdom  is  to  be  found,  without  making,  as  hitherto, 
three    independent    searches    through   a  mass   of   comjjlex    and 
almost  unindexed  information. 
"  It  would  appear  that  the  officers  engaged  in  superintending  the  Census  of 
1861  acted  to  a  certain  extent  in  concert  and  agreement. 

"  Your  memorialists  beg  respectfully  to  request  that  those  officers  be  in- 
structed, on  the  present  occasion,  to  confer  with  each  other  prior  to  drawing 
up  the  tables  for  1871,  with  a  view  of  preserving  perfect  uniformity  in  their 
operations,  and  avoiding  all  such  divergencies  in  the  three  reports  as  are  not 
required  by  the  Census  Acts  or  the  essential  differences  of  the  three 
Kingdoms. 

"  Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Committee,  8th  December,  1870. 

"W.  Stanlet  Jevons,  F.S.S., 

President  of  the  Statistical  Section  of  the  British  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Science,  Liverpool,  1870. 
"James  Hexwood,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 

Vice-President  of  the  Statistical  Society. 
"  Jacob  Walet,  F.S.S., 

One  of  the  Secretaries  of  the  Statistical  Society. 
"■  Edmd.  Mackoet,  M.A., 

Secretary  of  the  Committee  of  the  British  Association  for  a  Uni- 
formity of  Plan  in  the  Census  Tables  of  the  United 
Kingdom." 

The  above  memorial  was  immediately  presented  to  the  Eight  Hon.  H.  A. 
Bruce,  M.P.,  Her  Majesty's  Principal  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home  De- 
partment, and  has  been  by  him  referred  to  the  Registrars  General  for  their 
report  thereon. 


ON  ABSTRACTS  OF  CHEMICAL  PAPERS.  59 

The  returns  of  the  Census  having  only  recently  been  collected,  too  little 
time  has  as  yet  elapsed  for  the  perfect  arrangements  of  the  tables  to  be 
completed,  but  your  Committee  have  reason  to  believe  that  the  recommenda- 
tions contained  in  the  above  memorial  wUl  ultimately  be,  to  a  considerable 
extent,  adopted  by  Her  Majesty's  Government. 

Postscript. — Since  the  above  Report  was  drawn  up,  the  Committee  have 
received  a  formal  reply  from  the  Home  Office  (dated  26th  September,  1871), 
informing  them  that  the  Home  Secretary  "  has  desired  the  Registrar  General 
for  Scotland,  and  has  requested  the  Lord  Lieutenant  to  desire  the  Census 
Commissioners  in  Ireland,  to  frame  their  tables  in  conformity  with  those 
submitted  by  the  Registrar  General  for  England  and  Wales,  and  approved 
by  Mr.  Bruce,  as  far  as  circumstances  will  admit ;  and  that  with  this  view 
he  has  instructed  the  above-mentioned  officers  to  place  themselves  in  com- 
munication with  the  Registrar  General  for  England  and  Wales." 


Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  Superintending 
the  Publication  of  Abstracts  of  Chemical  Papers.  The  Committee 
consists  o/Prof.  A.  W.  Williamson,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  H.  E.  Roscoe, 
F.R.S.,  Prof.  E.  Fkankland,  F.R.S. 

The  Committee  are  glad  to  be  able  to  announce  that  regular  monthly  re- 
ports of  the  progress  of  Chemistry  have  been  published  since  April  1st,  1871, 
by  the  Chemical  Society.  These  Repoits  have  been  rendered,  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, complete  by  abstracts,  more  or  less  full,  of  all  papers  of  scientific  in- 
terest, and  of  the  more  important  papers  relating  to  applied  chemistry.  The 
abstracts  have  been  made  by  chemists,  most  of  whom  are  members  of  the 
Societj%  whose  zeal  for  the  science  has  induced  them  to  undertake  the  work 
for  the  small  honorarium  which  the  Council  has  been  able  to  offer.  A 
numerous  Committee  of  Publication  has  been  formed,  whose  Members  gra- 
tuitously undertake  the  revision  of  the  proofs  and  a  comparison  of  the  ab- 
stracts with  the  original  papers. 

The  Reports  are  edited  by  Mr.  Watts,  each  monthly  part  being  bound  up 
with  the  corresponding  number  of  the  Chemical  Society's  Journal.  Each 
volume  wiU  be  furnished  with  a  full  index,  and  will  give  a  complete  view  of 
the  progress  of  Chemistry  during  the  year. 

The  Committee  feel  that  their  thanks  are  due  to  aU  those  gentlemen  en- 
gaged in  the  work  for  having  already  so  far  succeeded  in  accomplishing  a 
task  of  such  difficulty  and  importance,  and  they  confidently  hope  that  their 
continued  exertions  wiU  still  further  perfect  the  details  of  the  scheme  so  as 
gradually  to  increase  the  usefulness  of  the  Reports. 

It  is  right  to  state  that  the  funds  of  the  Chemical  Society  available  for 
the  purpose  of  the  Reports,  although  so  opportunely  aided  by  a  grant  of 
£100  from  the  British  Association,  were  insufficient  to  defray  the  necessary 
expenses,  and  that  voluntary  contributions  to  the  amount  of  upwards  of 


60  REPORT 1871. 

^200  have  been  received  towards  the  cost  of  publication  for  the  first  year, 
up  to  April  1872. 

There  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  expectations  entertained  of  the 
usefulness  of  these  Reports  will  be  fully  realized  by  their  continuance  on  the 
present  system,  and  that  they  wiU  be  found  largely  to  conduce  to  the  pro- 
gress of  the  science  wherever  the  English  language  is  spoken. 


Report  of  the  Committee  for  discussing  Observations  of  Lunar  Objects 
suspected  of  Change.  The  Committee  consists  of  the  Rev.  T.  W. 
Webb  and  Edward  Crossley,  Seci'etary. 

The  Committee  have  much  pleasure  in  presenting  their  first  Eeport  on  the 
above  subject.  Though  much  attention  has  been  given  of  late  years  to  a 
large  number  of  lunar  objects,  your  Committee  felt  that  they  could  not 
accomplish  their  purpose  better  than  by  confining  their  Report  to  the  discus- 
sion of  a  limited  and  weU-observed  portion  of  the  lunar  surface.  No  person 
seeking  to  discover  evidence  of  geologic  change  would  be  constantly  travel- 
ling over  the  whole  surface  of  our  globe,  but  would  of  necessity  confine  his 
attention  to  a  small  area  for  a  considerable  period  of  time.  This  has  been 
the  course  adopted  on  the  moon.  Plato,  a  vast  crater,  containing  2700 
square  miles,  in  51°  N.  lat.  and  10°  E.  long.,  has  presented  a  most  interest- 
ing and  important  variety  of  features,  which  we  have  endeavoured  to  photo- 
graph, so  to  speak,  with  pen  and  pencil,  with  a  view,  if  not  at  once  to  obtain 
our  iiltimate  object,  at  least  to  lay  out  the  groundwork  for  future  observers. 

The  Report  has  been  carefully  drawn  up  by  Mr.  "W.  R.  Birt  on  behalf  of 
the  Committee.  Time  has  only  permitted  the  discussion  of  the  observations 
of  the  bright  spots  and  craterlets  seen  on  the  floor  of  Plato ;  whereas  your 
Committee  consider  that  it  is  equally  important  that  the  observations  of  the 
Humerous  streaks,  with  the  faults  and  other  peculiar  features  noticed  on  the 
floor  and  walls  of  this  fine  formation,  should  be  likevdse  discussed,  in  order 
that  something  like  a  complete  description  of  this  object  as  observed  at  the 
present  time  may  be  presented  to  the  Association  for  the  use  of  future  sele- 
nographers. 

Your  Committee  would  therefore  request  that  a  further  grant  of  £20  may 
be  placed  at  their  disposal  for  this  purpose  during  the  ensuing  year. 

Report  on  the  Discussion  of  Observations  of  SjJOts  on  the  Surface  of  the 
Lunar  Crater  Plato.     By  W.  R.  Birt. 

In  executing  the  task  confided  to  me  of  discussing  certain  observations  of 
the  spots  on  the  lunar  crater  Plato,  one  of  the  first  points  which  I  deemed 
it  important  to  ascertain  was  the  eifect  which  the  intensity  of  the  sun's 
light  as  a  function  of  his  altitude  might  produce  on  the  visibility  of  the  spots. 
The  number  of  spots  actually  observed  between  April  18G9  and  April  1871 
inclusive,  amounted  to  37,  the  greater  portion  (21)  having  been  discovered  in 
this  interval.  In  order  to  become  acquainted  with  phenomena  possibly  con- 
nected with  an  increase  of  light  on  the  floor  of  the  crater,  the  observations 
have  been  arranged  under  intervals  of  twelve  hours,  from  suni-ise  to  sunset 
on  Plato,  and  a  ledger  formed  for  each  interval,  the  number  of  which 
is  31.  Erom  these  ledgers  the  restdts  in  Table  II.  have  been  deduced, 
viz.  the  mean  number  of  spots  visible  during  each  interval,  and  the  actual 
number  of  spots  observed  during  each  interval.     For  illustrating  the  results 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS. 


61 


the  curves  in  fig.  1  have  been  projected.  The  first  curve  is  that  of  solar 
altitudes  at  the  moon,  epoch  the  equinoxes,  locality  50°  north  or  south  lati- 
tude. The  second  curve  is  that  of  the  mean  number  of  spots  visible  during 
each  interval. 

Fig.  1. 

1  3  .5  7  9  11  13         l.=i  17         19         21  23         2.5         27        29  31 


No.  1  0' 


No.  2  0' 


3         5         7         a        ii        Id        io        ii       ly       21       iij       2o       zi       zy 
Curve  No.  1.     Solar  altitudes.     Latitude  50°  at  equinoxes. 
Curve  No.  2.     Curve  of  mean  number  of  spots  visible  each  interval. 


0°  No.  1 


0"  No.  2. 


Table  I. 

Solar  Altitudes 

at  Moon. 

Latitude  50°. 

Latitude  55°. 

Inter- 
val. 

Winter. 

Equinoxes. 

Summer. 

Winter. 

Equinoxes. 

Summer. 

Inter- 
val. 

h 
0 

O     1    </ 

o 

1         H 

o 
1 

id  So 

O     (   i< 

O     1    II 

o 
1 

15 
45 

28 
6 

h 
0 

12 

12 

2 

44 

4 

3 

64  60 

5 

5     35 

2  13 

52 

3  29 

32 

4 

24 

6 

.?6 

48 

7 

48   6 

8 

59  17 

5  41 

19 

6  57 

29 

8 

13 

24 

24 

36 

10 

26 

0 

11 

38  10 

12 

£0   6 

9   6 

19 

10  22 

6 

11 

33 

48 

36 

48 

14 

10 

0 

15 

23  20 

16 

36  30 

12  24 

10 

13  42 

0 

14 

59 

30 

48 

60 

17 

46 

50 

19 

2   0 

20 

16  20 

15  35 

50 

16  55 

0 

13 

13 

40 

60 

72 

21 

14 

40 

22 

31  20 

23 

47  SO 

18  38 

40 

19  69 

0 

21 

19 

20 

72 

84 

24 

31 

0 

25 

49  30 

27 

7  50 

21  30 

30 

22  52 

30 

24 

14 

20 

84 

96 

27 

33 

30 

28 

54  20 

30 

14  £0 

23   4 

50 

25  33 

0 

26 

56 

40 

96 

108 

30 

19 

30 

31 

42  40 

33 

5  30 

26  32 

40 

27  58 

20 

29 

23 

40 

103 

120 

32 

46 

0 

34 

11  30 

35 

36  40 

28  38 

30 

SO   5 

40 

31 

32 

0 

120 

132 

34 

.50 

0 

36 

17  30 

37 

45   0 

30  24 

0 

31  .53 

0 

33 

21 

50 

132 

144 

36 

23 

20 

37 

57  50 

39 

27  20 

31  47 

10 

33  17 

40 

34 

47 

50 

144 

1.56 

37 

38 

30 

39 

9  10 

40 

40  40 

32  46 

30 

34  17 

50 

35 

49 

20 

156 

168 

38 

18 

30 

39 

50  30 

41 

22  20 

.33  20 

0 

34  52 

0 

36 

24 

0 

163 

Mcr. 

88 

27 

51 

40 

0   0 

41 

32   9 

33  27 

51 

35   0 

0 

36 

32 

9 

Mer. 

62 


REPORT 187]  . 


Table  II,  Ordinates  of  Curve  of  Spot  frequency. 


No. 

Interval. 

Altitude. 

Mean. 

Number. 

Observa- 
tions. 

h     h 

O        0 

1. 

0  to  12 

—  to  5 

10 

1 

1 

2. 

12  „  24 

—  «  5 

4-6 

15 

7 

3. 

24  „  36 

3   ;,    9 

5-9 

14 

6 

4. 

36  „  48 

7  „  13 

5-9 

14 

8 

5. 

48  „  60 

11  „  17 

6-4 

15 

9 

6. 

60  „  72 

15  „  21 

7-1 

13 

7 

7. 

73  „  84 

18  „  24 

120 

27 

7 

8. 

84  „  96 

22  „  28 

101 

27 

7 

9. 

96  „  108 

25  „  31 

11-6 

27 

9 

10. 

108  „  120 

28  „  34 

10-7 

21 

6 

11. 

120  „  132 

31  „  36 

7-5 

13 

4 

12. 

132  „  144 

33  „  38 

12-4 

33 

8 

13. 

144  „  156 

35  „  40 

7-4 

17 

5 

14. 

156  „  168 

37  „  41 

9-2 

19 

6 

15. 

168  „  Mer. 

38  „  42 

8-5 

19 

8 

16. 

Mer.  „  168 

42  „  38 

50 

9 

4 

17. 

168  „  156 

41  „  37 

9-3 

21 

9 

18. 

156  „  144 

40  „  35 

12-2 

23 

5 

19. 

144  „  132 

38  „  33 

91 

25 

8 

20. 

132  „  120 

36  „  31 

6-3 

9 

3 

21. 

120  „  108 

34  „  28 

60 

8 

3 

22. 

108  „  96 

31  „  25 

9-0 

20 

6 

23. 

96  „  84 

28  „  22 

5-2 

12 

5 

24. 

84  „  72 

24  „  18 

13-0 

23 

3 

25. 

72  „  60 

21  „  15 

11-0 

21 

4 

26. 

60  „  48 

17  „  11 

10-0 

15 

2 

27. 

48  „  36 

13  „  7 

6-3 

11 

3 

28. 

36  „  24 

9  „  3 

5-8 

13 

6 

29. 

24  „   12 

5  „  — 

8-0 

13 

2 

30. 

12  „   0 

5  „  — 

50 

7 

2 

31. 

-  „  12 

30 

3 

1 

We  may  regard  the  various  maxima  of  the  spot-curve  as  indicative :— First, 
of  a  greater  number  of  observations  during  the  intervals  which  furnish  the 
maxima.  It  is  true  the  column  of  observations  may  countenance  this  view ; 
but  it  does  not  hold  in  all  cases,  neither  are  the  greater  number  of  observa- 
tions so  pronounced  as  the  maxima  of  the  curve.  Second,  of  a  clearer  state 
of  the  earth's  atmosphere  than  usual,  enabling  us  to  see  more  spots  than 
when  it  is  ordinarily  translucent.  This  may  to  some  extent  explain  the 
occurrence  of  maxima  separated  by  several  intervals,  and  probably  those  in- 
stances where  we  have  a  larger  number  of  spots  with  a  smaller  number  of 
observations.  Third,  of  an  actual  increase  of  visibility  of  the  spots  them- 
selves at  different  and  widely  separated  epochs,  the  observations  of  such 
increased  visibility  falling  at  those  intervals  at  which  the  maxima  were  re- 
corded. The  following  are  the  epochs  at  which  the  greatest  number  of  spots 
were  observed  corresponding  with  the  maxima  of  the  curve  :— 

First  maximum.  Interval  2.  1870,  Jan.  10,  12  spots,  15  for  the  whole 
interval,  from  7  observations. 


To/ 

seepage  li3.] 

[Tl 

0  spoto  mnrkod 

«  we 

Tablk  III. 

_ 









1 

1 

No. 

Tiiicrvnl. 

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o- 

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2' 

( 
6 
7 

4* 

8 
8 

5' 

8* 

7- 

8' 

9' 

10 

11* 

12 

13 

14 

15' 

16 

17' 

18 

19 

20 

21     22' 

I 

23 

24 

25 

26  1  27 

1 

28 

29 

30- 

31' 

32 

33 



34 

3d 

36 

3uin*,jMettn9. 

Spots. 

1" 
I    3- 
,    4- 

!  5- 

!    6. 
7- 
8- 
9- 

10. 
13. 

>3- 
14- 

h          ll 

O     to        13 

(3     „      H 

^  ..     JS 
56    ..     +8 
48    ..     60 

Sums    

Visibilitj-,.. 

60  to     7> 

ll ::  It 
dl :  III 

Sums    

Tisibiiity... 

130  to  131 
13a    ..    144 

:-1J ::  '.ll 

■  68    ,.Mer. 

Bma   

Tiiibilitj.., 

Sums  before 

^Jndor"! 
..    5 
3    to    9 
7    ..  13 
11     ..  17 

■  S    ..  " 
i«    ..  "4 
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8 

I 
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7 
7 
7 

1 

i 

7 
4 
I 
6 

3 

1 

a 
7 
1 

I 

".'.: 

4 

3 
5 

a 

a 
I 

3 

4 

a 

2 

3 

a 
I 

'"; 

3 
4 

7 
4 

7 

7 
7 

1 

1 

X 

I 

I 
3 

z 

I 
I 

3 

a 
a 

1 

a 

3 

I 
a 
a 

'.'.'. 

... 

1 
a 
a 
1 

4 

t 

a 

;;; 

... 

3 
1 
a 
3 

« 

... 

1: 

7> 

7'1 
la-o 

■  1-6 

107 

•3 

a? 

17 
a? 

29 

>3 

33 

•  7 
19 
■9 

~l 

36 

100 

3' 
roo 

3' 
i-oo 

T: 

17 
■47 

4 

■03 

13 
■36 

4 

10 
•a8 

9 
■as 

■7] 

■06 

■56 

36 
100 

■i 

8 

S 
■14 

S 
■14 

8 
•  -as 

I 
■03 

4 
■11 

8 

S 

1 
3 
3 

13 

•37 

6 
-17 

'7 
■47 

9 
■»5 

4 
•11 

373 

i;::iS 

3S    "  40 
37    ..  4> 
3«    ..  4" 

Ueridian 

4 
9 

1 

3 

1 

S 

4 

~4 
1 

1 

s 

■ 

3 

5 

a 
a 

J 

1 
5 

I 

3 

a 

1 
I 

a 

3 
a 
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I 

3 

4 
3 

t 

4 
) 
s 

s 

7 

t 
1 
I 

a 

J 

4 

3 

a 

3 

t 

< 

'  3 

1 

4 
'1* 

... 

I 

1 
S 

a 
a 

1 

I 

I 

I 

' 

30 
tia 

37 

U 

7-5 
u-4 

74 

r; 

■06 

3« 

■06 

'il 

3" 
■97 

.;i 

■3' 

~l 

■ol 

8 
■*5 

-.1 

6 
■19 

'06 

8 

■»s 

■66 

-- 

■63 

4> 

»9 
■9' 

~8^ 

•o( 
9 

7 

3 
•09 

I 
■03 

■03 

'34 

4 

7 
-aa 

I 
■03 

■03     -03 

■03 

3«  1  

33 

8 

96 

7 

9. 

93 

«s 

"7 

■' 

~ 

39 

10 

IS 

'■ 

18 

58 

_.7^ 

6 

I) 

7 

8 

aa 

" 



8 

36|       si     18 

I 

t 

1 



848 



1:1" 

Mvr.to  168 
168    ..    .56 
156    ..    >44 
"44    .■    »3a 
131    ..    120 

4a  10  3I 
41     ..  37 
45    ,.  3S 
38    ..  33 
3«    .,  3. 

I 

1 

i 

7 
J 

a 

... 

4 
a 
3 

... 

1 
a 

4 

I 

1 
a 

a 

3 

a 

5 
S 

5 

2 

1 

7 

4 

4 
1 

3 
9 
S 

7 
3 

I 
a 

a 
a 

".'.: 

3 

1 

1 

""3 

1 
I 

i 

3 

a 
a 

" 

I 

... 

a 
3 
3 

a 

I 

a 

::' 

ao 
84 
61 
73 
19 

50 
9"3 

123 

2? 
23 

as 
9 

g 

2 
•07 

28 

I-oo 

■04 

27 
■96 

a6 
■93 

■7S 

9 
•32 

4 

■>4 

9 
■32 

■04 

4 
*I4 

.       fi 

18 
■64 

>7 
■61 

■;! 

4 
-.4 

S 
■18 

I 
■04 

10 

■36 

5 
-i8 

3 
■11 

9 
•32 

I 
■04 

1 
•04 

8 
■ag 

3 
■II 

3 
•II 

a 
•07 

!!! 

aS7 

29 

Visibility... 

no  to  108 
108    „     96 
96    ,.     8, 
84    ..      7» 
7"    .,      60 

Sums  

Vidbait;.. 

60  to4« 
48    ..   3« 
36   ..  =4 
H   ..   " 
la    „     0 

Sim.   

Tulbilitr... 

Sum.  after 

34    ..as 
31     ..  as 

28    ..  aa 
a4    ..  -8 
ai     ..  15 

■07 

■a  I 

2 

I 

S 
3 
4 

-. 

1 
S 
S 
3 
4 

4 

a 

4 

I 

3 

1 

a 

... 

a 
4 

a 
a 

I 

a 
3 

I 

2 

t 

1 
I 
3 

a 
I 
3 
3 

1 
I 

I 
z 
I 

a 

3 

s 

3 
3 
3 

I 

3 

3 

a 
a 
3 

I 

I 

a 

3 

3 

1 
I 

■■■; 

1 

I 
1 

"■ 

... 

18 

S4 
26 
39 
44 

6-0 
90 
S"a 
130 

II^O 

8 

23 
31 

31     a' 
■I4|  roo 

•OS 

17 
■8. 

iS 

•86 

57 

S 

■14 

4 
■19 

It 
Sa 

■OS 

9 
■43 

1        6 
■osl    '29 

9 
•43 

■09 

7 
•33 

17 
-81 

5 

■24 

S 
'^4 

9 
•43 

■05 

■OS 

2 
■09 

8 
■38 

■09 

4 

1 
■05 

181 

37 

17    ..  n 
■3    ..    7 

•'   s 

Meridian 

::: 

1 

1 

a 
3 

I 
3 

a 
I 

I 

2 
2 

a 

I 
a 

I 
I 

1 

I 

a 
1 

1 
a 
I 

a 

a 
3 

S 
2 
3 

I 
1 

I 

"■i 

::: 

1 

t 

I 
3 

1 

2 

::: 

'.'.'. 

ao 
"9 

?l 
J3 

lo'o 

H 
43 

'S 
11 

'3 

■3 

7 

;;; 

16 
I-oo 

■06 

■87 

7 
•41 

6 

■37 

4 
■as 

3 

S 
■31 

a 

■12 

I 
•06 

4 
■as 

.  4 

■?s 

•ol 

3 
■'9 

'5 

■94 

3 
•'9 

■12 

a 

■12 

-- 

I 

■q6 

-06 

-06 

S 
3' 

a 
•la 

103 

23 

s 

-«! 

3 

r  s8 

"JL 

39 

.8j     .^ 

as 

2 

'S 

4 

16 

31 

3 

27 

59 

12 

12 

' 

ai 

6 

4 

2 

I 

- 

at 

7 

6 

3 

54* 

OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  63 

Second  maximum.  Interval  7.  1870,  March  13,  17  spots,  27  for  the 
whole  interval,  from  7  observations. 

Third  maximum.  Interval  12.  1870,  May  13,  27  spots,  33  for  the  whole 
interval,  from  8  observations. 

Third  maximum.  Interval  12.  1870,  Jan.  15,  22  spots,  33  for  the  whole 
interval,  from  8  observations. 

Fouith  maximum.  Interval  19.  1869,  Dec.  20,  19  spots,  25  for  the 
whole  interval,  from  8  observations. 

Fifth  maximum.  Interval  22.  1870,  Nov.  11,  13  spots,  20  for  the  whole 
interval,  from  6  observations. 

Sixth  maximum.  Interval  24.  1870,  Sept.  14, 16  spots,  23  for  the  whole 
interval,  from  3  observations. 

When  we  take  the  mean  numbers  of  spots  seen  at  each  intcn^al,  the  curve 
is  comparatively  flat,  rising  but  little  above  the  mean  line  of  7-9  spots 
visible  at  any  interval,  and  this  is  about  the  mean  number  visible  on  any 
evening.  The  flatness  of  the  curve  is  not  accordant  with  an  increase  of 
spots  dependent  on  an  increase  of  solar  altitude  or  greater  angle  of  illu- 
mination, otherwise  the  apex  would  be  much  more  decided.  We  may,  how- 
ever, trace  from  the  number  of  spots  actually  seen  and  contributing  to 
the  maxima  of  the  spot-curve,  as  weU  as  from  the  observations  adduced 
above,  that  the  change  of  iUuminating  angle  does  exercise  an  influence  on 
the  appearance  of  spots,  inasmuch  as  on  a  few  occasions  the  largest  number 
of  spots  have  been  seen  with  higher  illuminations.  The  actual  curve,  how- 
ever, derived  from  two  years'  obsei-vations  is  not  sufficiently  decided  to  refer 
the  appearances  of  the  spots  to  this  agency. 

By  dividing  the  whole  of  the  twelve  hourly  intervals  into  six  series  or 
groups,  and  taking  spot  No.  1  as  the  standard  of  comparison,  we  have  the 
data  for  computing  Tables  III.  and  IV.  containing  the  visibilities  of  each 
spot  for  each  group  of  intervals  :  sunrise,  or  0  to  60  hours,  altitudes  0°  to  17° ; 
60  to  120  hours,  altitudes  15°  to  34°  ;  120  hours  to  meridian  passage,  alti- 
tudes 31°  to  42°;  meridian  passage  to  120  hours,  altitudes  42°  to  31°;  120  to 
60  hours,  altitudes  34°  to  15°;  and  60  to  0  hours,  or  sunset,  altitudes  17°  to  0°. 
From  the  results  in  these  Tables,  Table  V.  has  been  formed,  in  which  we 
have  a  bird's-eye  view  of  the  visibilities  during  the  luni-solar  day.  Gene- 
rally the  visibilities  are  low  during  the  first  60  hours,  i.  e.  compared  with 
spot  No.  1,  the  smaller  spots  are  but  seldom  seen  ;  and  this  is  so  far  indica- 
tive of  solar  light  in  some  way  developing  or  bringing  the  spots  into  visi- 
bility. During  the  next  60  hours  some  spots  have  risen  considerably  in 
visibUity,  while  others  have  been  seen  more  frequently  during  the  afternoon 
hours  of  the  luni-solar  day.  The  numbers  are,  however,  too  irregular  to 
allow  us  to  conclude  that  the  smaller  and  less  frequently  seen  spots  are  in- 
fluenced in  their  visibility  by  further  changes  of  illuminating  angle  beyond 
theii-  first  development ;  and  this  is  very  strikingly  manifested  by  the  curves 
which  these  numbers  furnish ;  for  example,  the  diurnal  curves  of  spots 
Nos.  5,  14,  and  16  in  fig.  2  generally  agree  in  exhibiting  greater  visibilities 
from  60  hours  to  meridian  passage,  while  spots  Nos.  9  and  11  are  more 
frequently  seen  from  120  to  60  hours  before  sunset.  These,  as  well  as  the 
peciiliarities  of  the  other  curves,  strongly  suggest  that  the  variations  of  visi- 
bility of  certain  spots  are  not  to  any  great  extent  dependent  upon  an  increase 
of  intensity  of  solar  light,  but  rather  upon  some  agency  more  particularly 
connected  with  the  spots  themselves.  It  is  important  to  remark  that  another 
series  of  observations  7nay  furnish  totally  diflferent  diurnal  curves,  should 
the  variations  in  visibility  depend  upon  local  lunar  action. 


64 


REPORT 1871. 


In  nearly  every  case  the  spots  seen  during  the  first  60  hours  of  the  luni- 
solar  day  have  increased  durmg  the  day  in  visibility,  i.  e.  they  were  seen  less 

frequently  during  this  group  of 
intervals  than  during  the  succeed- 
ing sixty  hours.  This  increase, 
however,  has  not  been  regular, 
which  it  would  have  been  from 
changes  of  illuminating  angle 
alone,  some  spots  having  been 
seen,  as  before  stated,  more  fre- 
quently during  the  second  group 
of  intervals,  while  others  have  de- 
clined in  visibility  and  not  at- 
tained their  maxima  until  the 
period  120  to  60  hours  before  sun- 
set. The  diurnal  curves  of  spots 
Nos.  14,  5,  and  16  in  the  first 
category,  and  those  of  Nos.  9  and 
11  in  the  second,  have  already 
been  refeiTed  to ;  that  of  spot  No. 
22  (fig.  3)  diff'ers  from  the  others 
by  its  showing  an  increase  of  visi- 
bihty  from  sunrise  to  120  hours 
before  sunset.  The  visibilities  of 
many  spots  are  lower  during  the 
last  60  hours  of  the  luni-solar 
day. 
The 


curves  of  visibility 
are 


durinj 


Diurnal  Curves  of  Visibility. 
Plato. 


Spots  on 


the  luni-solar  day  are  essentially 
difl^erent  from  the  curves  of  visi- 
bility as  deduced  from  the  obser- 
vations of  twenty-four  lunations, 
although  both  lead  to  the  same 
result ;  and  from  both  a  very  im- 
portant conclusion  may  be  drawn, 
viz.  that  upon  assuming  other  agen- 
cies to  be  in  operation  than  changes 
of  illuminating  angle,  such  as  present  activity,  the  epochs  at  which  such 
activity  was  manifested  varied  to  such  an  extent,  and  were  so  far  separated 
from  each  other  in  time,  as  to  coincide,  in  the  case  of  spots  Nos.  14,  5,  and  16, 
with  the  period  in  the  luni-solar  day  of  60  to  120  hours  after  sunrise,  while 
the  activity  manifested  by  spots  Nos.  9,  11,  and  22  occurred  at  a  later  period 
of  the  luni-solar  day,  120  to  60  hours  before  sunset.  So  far  as  the  varia- 
tions of  visibility  of  spots  Nos.  14,  5,  16,  9,  11,  and  22  are  concerned, 
they  do  not  appear  to  depend  exclusively  on  changes  of  illuminating  angle, 
even  if  a  certain  intensity  of  solar  light  contributes  generally  to  render  the 
spots  visible. 

While  the  four  craterlets  Nos.  1,  3,  30,  and  17  are  visible  during  the  whole 
of  the  luni-solar  day,  the  spots  on  their  sites  are  seldom  seen  until  the  sun 
attains  an  altitude  of  about  30°,  and  then  they  appear  as  "  bright  round 
disks ;"  and  this  characteristic  attaches  as  well  to  the  craterlets  as  to  other 
spots  when  the  sun  attains  this  altitude.  With  altitudes  between  30°  and 
40°  a  different  class  of  phenomena  is  manifested ;  the  sharp  and  distinct  cha- 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS. 


65 


Table  V. 

Visibility. 

No. 

h       h 

h          h 

h 

h 

h        h 

h       h 

0to60 

GO  to  120 

120  to  Mer. 

Mer.  to  120 

120  to  60 

60to0 

0. 

•04 

•14 

•00 

•07 

•14 

1. 

100 

1^00 

1^00 

1-00 

1^00 

100 

2. 

•14 

•06 

•04 

•05 

■06 

3. 

104 

1^00 

•84 

•96 

•81 

•87 

4. 

•93 

100 

•97 

•93 

•86 

•44 

6. 

•43 

•83 

•72 

•75 

•57 

•37 

6. 

•11 

•47 

•22 

•32 

•24 

•25 

7. 

•07 

■11 

■28 

•14 

•19 

•19 

8. 

•03 

•03 

,   , 

9. 

•29 

•36 

•25 

•32 

•52 

•31 

10. 

•04 

•11 

•16 

•04 

•05 

11. 

•21 

■2S 

•19 

•14 

•43 

•12 

12. 

,   , 

,   , 

•06 

•07 

•05 

•06 

13. 

•04 

•2.5 

•25 

•21 

•29 

•25 

14. 

•36 

•75 

•66 

•64 

•43 

■25 

15. 

,    , 

•06 

,   , 

•09 

•06 

16. 

•07 

■m 

•63 

•ei 

•33 

•19 

17. 

■79 

I'OO 

•91 

•96 

•81 

•94 

18. 

•19 

•06 

•14 

•24 

•19 

19. 

•07 

•22 

•22 

•18 

•12 

20. 

•04 

•14 

•09 

•04 

21. 

•14 

•03 

22. 

•04 

•22 

•28 

••36 

•43 

•i2 

23. 

•07 

•03 

•12 

•18 

•05 

24. 

•11 

•12 

•11 

•05 

25. 

•07 

•22 

•37 

•32 

•09 

, 

26. 

,   , 

,  , 

•04 

•00 

27. 

•04 

'06 

28. 

•04 

■06 

29. 

•04 

•17 

•6.3 

30. 

•29 

•47 

•34 

•29 

•38 

•31 

31. 

•04 

,   , 

•12 

•11 

•09 

•12 

32. 

•07 

•25 

•22 

•11 

•14 

33. 

,   , 

•03 

•07 

•05 

34. 

•04 

•11 

■03 

35. 

■03 

36. 

■03 

racter  of  the  craterlets  is  no  longer  observed.  Some  put  on  a  hazy  appearance, 
and  they  all  assume  the  same  aspect  as  those  spots  which  have  not  been 
observed  as  craterlets.  This  state  of  things  continues  until  the  declining 
latitudes  approach  the  limit  at  which  the  crater  form  was  lost  in  the  advan- 
cing day,  then  it  once  more  appears  accompanied  by  a  disappearance  of  most 
of  those  spots  which  came  into  visibility  as  the  sun  rose  higher.  We  have 
an  analogous  phenomenon  to  this  in  the  well-known  crater  Aristarchus. 
Shortly  after  sunrise  its  outline  is  sharp  and  distinct,  while  its  interior  is 
partly  covered  •with  a  well-marked  shadow  and  partly  glowing  in  strong 
sunlight.  As  the  sun  rises  above  its  horizon  these  characteristics  are  lost ; 
the  ridge  extending  from  it  to  Herodotus  becomes  brighter,  and  to  some  eyes, 
and  with  some  instruments,  it  is  confounded  with  the  interior,  the  whole  ap- 
pearing as  a  very  vivid  brush  of  light.  The  exact  solar  altitude  at  which  the 
1871.  r 


66 


REPORT 1871. 


cliangc  takes  place  is  as  yet  undetermined ;  but  there  can  be  no  question 
tliat  it  is  of  the  same  nature  as  that  of  the  appearance  of  the  spots  on  Plato 
greatly  intensified. 

The  result  of  the  discussion  may  be  briefly  stated  as  being  very  strongly 
suggestive  of  the  existence  of  present  lunar  activity,  the  exact  nature  of 
which  requires  further  aud  more  extensive  observations  to  determine.  In- 
timately connected  with  the  spot-changes  are  the  variations  of  appearance 
and  intensity  of  reflective  power  of  the  streaks  and  markings  on  the  floor  of 
Plato.  In  the  obsei-vers'  and  other  notes  which  form  the  Appendix  to  this 
Report  will  be  found  allusions  to  the  connexion  between  the  spots  and  streaks ; 
but  it  manifestly  requires  a  similar  discussion  of  the  streaks  and  markings  to 
arrive  at  a  definite  conclusion  on  the  subject.  Most  of  the  observers  have 
furnished  observations  of  these  interesting  phenomena,  so  that  a  discussion 
of  them  could  at  once  be  proceeded  with  if  it  should  be  the  pleasure  of  the 
Association  to  carry  on  the  inquiry.  The  principal  results  of  the  discussion 
of  the  spot-observations  relative  to  visibility,  irrespective  of  solar  altitudes, 
and  treated  in  pairs  of  lunations  from  April  1869  to  November  1870,  based 
on  1594  observations  during  20  lunations,  are  contained  in  Lunar  Map  Cir- 
cular VIII. ;  and  some  further  remarks  occur  in  a  paper  on  the  subject, 
published  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine,  March  1871.  This  discussion,  on 
an  entirely  difl'erent  principle  to  that  employed  in  the  preparation  of  the 
present  Report,  and  leading  to  a  similar  result,  tends  to  confer  on  both  a 
character  in  which  confidence  may  be  placed,  for  either  without  the  other  is 
incomplete ;  together  they  point  to  present  lunar  action  as  the  originating 
agency  producing  the  phenomena. 


Although  measurements  for  position  of  such  delicate  objects  as  the  spots 
on  Plato  are  difiicult  to  execute,  Mr.  Gledhill  has  succeeded  in  obtaining 
three  sets  of  micrometrical  measures,  on  September  13  and  December  9, 
1870,  and  on  May  1,  1871,  a  combination  of  which  has  enabled  me  to  draw 
the  outline  of  the  crater,  and  to  insert  from  these  measurements  four  streaks 
and  the  sector  as  seen  generally  by  Mr.  Gledhill.  The  streaks  are  ^,  e,  a, 
and  /3.     The  streaks  ^  and  e  are  rather  westward  of  their  places  as  given  on 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  67 

the  tinted  plate  in  the  'Student'  of  April  1870,.  p.  161.  The  spots  whose 
positions  have  been  determined  by  measures  are  Nos,  1,  4,  3,  and  17.  The 
effect  of  the  measures  is  to  bring  them  eloser  together  and  more  towards  the 
centre  of  the  crater  than  in  the  printed  plans.  On  each  occasion  that  the 
measures  were  made,  a  diameter  of  the  crater  passing  through  spots  Nos.  1 
and  4,  from  A  to  B,  was  measured,  also  one  at  right  angles  to  this  from  C 
to  D,  passing  through  N"o.  1.  All  the  remaining  measures  of  spots  and 
streaks  were  referred  to  these  diamet6;rs,  spot  No.  1  being  the  origin  of 
the  coordinates,  and  the  longest  diameter  being  considered  as  unity.  The 
ratios  of  the  means  of  the  measvu'es  were  determined  to  be  as  follows : — 

Spot  or  Streak. 

Longest  diameter  A  to  B     =    1000      No.  3 

„    17  

Spofr  No.  1 .  Sector  east  end 

To  east  border  B =      -SIO  „     west  end 

„   west  border  A =      -481  Both  on  border. 


southborder  C  ...      =      -309      Streak? -055 

north  border  D  ...      =      -309  „      e 

spot  No.  4    =      -182  „  base  on  A  B  . . 

Streak  a  W.  end  . . 


Parallel 

Parallel 

to  AB. 

to  CD. 

•060 

•126 

•179 

•130 

•409 

•168 

•181 

•247 

•055 

•317 

•158 

•123 

... 

•412 

•158 

•119 

•306 

•337 

„      a  E.  end    ... 
„      /3  on  border 

In  order  to  plot  the  spots  that  have  been  laid  down  by  alignment  and 
estimation,  it  is  necessary  to  aUgn  \vith  the  measured  spots,  and  particularly 
with  objects  on  the  border,  a  process  that  will  be  adopted  in  the  preparation 
or  a  monogram  of  Plato. 

APPENDIX. 

Obseetees'  Notes. 

These  are  arranged  in  each  interval  of  12  hours  according  to  season,  so  as 
to  give  increasing  altitudes  of  the  sun  from  ©—53  =270°.  Winter  in  the 
northern  hemisphere. 

Interval  0  to  12  hours. 

1869,  Oct.  13,  7'>  (O-  S  =76°24'-8,  Oct.  12^  21*^).— Ten  hours  after  the 
epoch  of  sunrise  at  the  equator  in  E.  long.  4°  ©'•6,  the  first  streak  of  sun- 
light was  seen  by  Mr.  Gledhill  to  faU  on  the  floor  of  Plato  through  the  gap 
in  the  west  wall  between  B.  &  M.'s  peaks  S  and  e,  the  W.  extremity  lying 
on  or  near  the  fault  from  N.W.  to  S.E.,  and  bringing  into  visibility  the  cra- 
terlet  No.  3,  which  is  seen  earliest  of  all  the  spots.  Mr.  Gledhill  gives  the 
sun's  azimuth  equal  to  87°  31',  the  altitude  being  equal  to  the  angle  formed 
by  the  height  of  the  depression  in  the  wall  between  the  peaks  above  the 
point  of  the  floor  on  which  the  sun's  rays  first  impinge. 

Interval  12  to  24  hours. 

1870,  July  6,  8''. — Twelve  hours  and  a  half  after  epoch  of  sunrise  at  the 
equator,  E.  long.  4°  ll'^o,  0-  Q ,  July  5,  19,  30  =  354°  54'^4.  Mr.  Gledhill 
again  witnessed  the  first  streak  of  sunlight  fall  on  the  floor  of  Plato,  and 
observed  spot  No.  3  just  within  it,  and  remarked  that  the  streak  lay  parallel 
with  the  longest  diameter,  and  did  not  incline  from  No.  3  as  it  did  in  January. 
[On  the  13th  of  October,  1869,  at  7",  Mr.  Gledhill  remarked  that  the  streak 
was  a  little  inclined  to  the  N.,  and  not  quite  parallel  with  the  rim.]  At  9*^ 
of  July  6,  1870,  Mr.  Gledhill  remarked  that  a  line  through  the  two  gaps  or 

f2 


68  REPORT 1871. 

breaks  in  the  S.  and  N.  borders  passed  throngh  the  western  ends  of  the 
earliest  streaks  of  light  thrown  on  the  floor.  This  line  appears  to  be  coinci- 
dent with  the  great  fanlt  crossing  Plato.  With  reference  to  this  I  have  the 
following  note  : — "  This  phenomenon,  the  western  extremities  of  the  streaks 
falling  in  a  line  with  the  breaks  in  the  N.  and  S.  borders,  was  well  observed 
in  January  1870.  An  elevation  of  the  gronnd  in  the  direction  of  this  fault 
has  been  seen.  It  would,  however,  appear  that  diiferences  in  the  lengths  of 
the  streaks  would  depend  not  on  any  unevenness  of  the  ground,  but  on  the 
relative  depths  of  the  gaps  in  the  W.  border." 

1870,  January  10,  2''  to  8''. — From  ten  to  sixteen  hours  after  epoch  of  sun- 
rise at  the  equator,  E.  long.  4°  6'-l ,  0  —  £3  ,  Jan.  9, 16'',  equal  to  l70°27'-8. 
This  was  by  far  the  finest  observation  of  sunrise  on  Plato  by  no  less  than 
seven  observers,  viz.  Messrs.  Gledhill,  Pratt,  Elger,  Neison,  Birmingham, 
Joynson,  and  liirt.  Mr.  GledhiU's  rccoi'd  is  so  full  and  so  interesting  that 
a  reproduction  of  it  will  convey  a  vivid  impression  of  the  progress  of  iUu- 
minatiou  of  a  lunar  formation  as  the  sun  rises  upon  it. 

Jan.  10,  2\  Cloudless.  Terminator  just  on  the  E.  border  of  Plato;  can 
just  see  the  outline  of  the  crater,  which  now  lies  in  deep  shadow.  On  the 
E.  side  the  lofty  steep  wall  just  jS".  of  a  triangular  formation  marked  II  E'/'^ 
glowed  intensely  in  the  solar  rays. 

'3^.  The  E.  waU  from  the  great  breaks  in  the  S.  and  N.  borders  appeared 
as  a  bright  narrow  band.  The  curved  outline  of  the  N.E.  border  was  bright, 
sharp,  and  narrow,  but  the  lower  slope  within  could  not  be  seen.  I  could 
fancy  that  the  W.  part  of  the  floor  is,  if  possible,  deeper  in  shadow  than  the 
E.  half.  [This  phenomenon  has  often  been  witnessed,  and  has  been  attri- 
buted to  the  reflection  of  the  strong  light  of  the  eastern  interior  from  the 
dark  floor.  Upon  attentively  contemplating  this  degradation  of  shadow  near 
its  eastern  boundary,  it  will  often  be  seen  that  it  is  not  simply  a  reflection 
from  the  floor,  but  apparently  the  illumination  of  a  something  above  the 
floor.— W.  E.  B.] 

gh  ^5m_  ^  bright  narrow  broken  line  was  seen  between  the  two  breaks  on 
the  £.  and  N.E.     The  outline  of  II  &^  is  not  yet  visible. 

4"  18".  At  this  moment  (12  hours  18  minutes  after  epoch)  the  first  streak 
of  light  fell  upon  the  floor.  Within  it  and  near  its  western  extremity  was 
seen  No.  3  as  two  elevated  objects,  very  near  each  other,  but  quite  distinct. 
I  could  not  detect  shadow  between  them  after  hard  gazing,  although  it  was 
easily  seen  to  the  N.E.  of  the  lower  object.  The  sti-eak  was  three  times  the 
breadth  of  the  two  objects  together  where  it  enclosed  them,  and  it  became 
broader  near  the  N.E.  border  of  Plato  ;  it  was  brightest  about  and  to  the 
west  of  No.  3,  and  inclined  a  little  downwards  at  the  E.  end.  *  *  *  The 
two  components  of  No.  3  are  of  the  same  size  apparently,  are  equally  but 
not  very  bright ;  they  lie  nearly  E.  and  W.  of  each  other,  but  the  E.  com- 
ponent is  a  very  little  to  the  N.  of  the  other. 

^h  gQm_  rpj^g  streak  widens.  I  could  not  detect  motion  in  it.  I  now  care- 
fully placed  the  wire  on  the  great  gap  in  the  west  border  ;  the  line  passed 
along  the  axis  of  the  streak.  The  west  angle  of  the  streak  is  not  sharp,  but 
rounded,  and  lies  a  little  beyond  No.  3.  The  lower  of  the  cones  of  No.  3 
touches  the  lower  edge  of  the  streak.  It  now  assumed  a  fan  shape,  being 
broadest  at  the  E.  end,  which  is  now  more  than  halfway  to  the  E.  border. 

411  4Qni_  rpj^g  streak  is  now  much  wider.  I  think  I  see  a  minute  elevation 
a  little  to  the  E.  of  No.  3  and  in  the  streak.  The  two  components  of  No.  3 
are  now  bright  and  sharp,  with  shadow  on  the  east.  Another  streak  has 
been  barely  visible  or  suspected  for  a  few  minutes;  it  lies  to  the  S.  of  the 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  69 

former  and  near  the  S.  border.  It  runs  parallel  with  the  noi-thern  streak, 
is  about  lialf  its  length,  and  has  its  western  extremity  over  a  point  a  httle 
E.  of  ]SI"o.  3.  It  is  narrow,  and  extremely  faint  and  difficult.  A  minute  or 
two  later  it  was  seen  better,  also  a  still  fainter  and  narrower  line  to  the 
north  of  it,  which  is  parallel  with  it  and  the  northern  streak.  The  most 
southern  streak  produced  to  the  E.  would  graze  the  southern  edge  of  II  E-As. 

4"  50"".  Now  the  shadows  from  the  W.  wall  take  shape.  The  south  sha- 
dow, which  extends  up  to  the  S.  border,  goes  directly  into  the  gap  at  the  S. 
edge  of  II  &'\  The  next  pointed  shadow  to  the  N.  of  this  goes  direct  to 
the  middle  of  II  E'/'2 ;  it  is  extremely  pointed  at  its  E.  end  for  more  than 
half  its  length,  and  is  suddenly  wider  at  the  W.  end.  [This  appears  to  indi- 
cate that  the  peak  which  throws  the  shadow  is  very  needle-like.]  I  cannot 
be  quite  sure  that  this  shadow  for  the  next  lO"  or  15™  really  extended  up 
to  the  E.  border.  It  became  so  faint  and  narrow  and  line-like  that  it  could 
not  be  well  seen  near  the  border.  Then,  again,  the  floor  for  some  distance 
(say  a  distance  equal  to  the  width  of  II  &-)  lay  in  rather  dark  shadow. 
The  floor  between  the  shadows  was  not  bright  up  to  the  E.  border  of  Plato  ; 
all  along  the  foot  of  the  E.  slope  a  dark  shadow  lay,  and  this  interfered  with 
an  exact  determination  of  extremities  of  shorter  shadows  from  the  W.  wall. 
The  next  shadow  to  the  north  was  a  broad  paraUel-sided  belt,  which  pro- 
ceeded to  the  E.  border  as  such.  Its  upper  or  S.  edge  extended  to  the  N. 
end  of  II  E'A2^  and  its  lower  or  N.  edge  cut  the  border  of  Plato  just  below,  or 
to  the  north  of  II  E'/'2.  A  line  through  No.  3  to  the  gap  in  the  S.E.  border 
cuts  the  W.  angles  of  the  two  southern  bright  spaces  between  the  shadows. 

5^.  No.  3  lies  on  the  lower  edge  of  the  lowest  bright  space  or  upper  edge 
of  the  lowest  shadow.  The  shadow  still  clings  to  or  is  in  contact  with  No.  3, 
and  either  extends  to  the  E.  of  it,  or  No.  3  throws  a  shadow  to  the  E.  The 
floor  along  the  E.  border  is  stiU  dusky ;  it  is  brightest  at  that  part  in  Une 
with  No.  3, 

5"  5™.  A  very  fine  narrow  shadow  is  now  seen  to  stand  off  from  the  sha- 
dow below  and  in  contact  with  No.  3 ;  it  is  this  which  touches  No.  3. 

5"  IS".  The  upper  shadow  is  now  clearly  pointed,  and  falls  short  of  the 
border.  [This  is  probably  the  shadow  of  the  peak  between  B.  &  M.'s  y  and 
^.]  I  still  see  a  minute  elevation  just  to  the  N.E.  of  No.  3.  It  is  now  just 
on  the  tip  of  the  lowest  pointed  shadow,  and  about  halfway  from  3  to  the 
N.E.  border.  [This  spot  is  No.  32 ;  it  was  discovered  in  streak  B  by  Mr 
Elger  on  December  15,  1869.— W.  E.  P.] 

5"  45™.  Floor  at  the  foot  of  the  E.  border  is  still  dark,  except  at  the  ex- 
treme N.  The  long  broad  shadow  is  now  retiring  from  the  E.  border,  and  is 
seen  faintly  bifui'cated  ;  the  lowest  or  northern  fork  is  the  longer,  but  this 
broad  shadow  stUl  seems  to  have  its  N.  and  S.  edges  parallel. 

6".  Now  the  dark  shadow  on  the  S.  border  breaks  up,  and  a  fine  pointed 
shadow  separates  from  its  northern  side,  which  if  produced  goes  quite  into 
the  gap  at  the  southern  edge  of  II  &K  The  bright  W.  angle  above  this 
shadow  goes  back  towards  the  W.  until  under  the  great  gap  in  the  S.  border. 
The  great  central  shadow  is  now  easily  seen  bifurcated ;  the  lower  peak  is 
the  longest,  and  reaches  nearly  up  to  the  east  border.  The  tip  of  the  shorter 
shadow  to  the  N.  reaches  just  to  No.  3 ;  the  next  to  the  N.  is  rather  lono-er 

0"  20™.  The  object  to  the  N.E.  of  3  (32)  is  easy,  elevated,  and  bright.  Now 
4  is  seen,  also  a  large  elevated  object  (7)  about  halfway  from  it  to  the  N. 
extremity  of  II  E'A^,  and  on  this  hne. 

6"  30™.  The  great  S.  band  of  shadow  goes  straight  into  the  gap  at  the  S. 
end  of  II  E'/'2.     The  E.  portion  of  the  floor  for  some  distance  from  the  foot 


70  REPORT— 1871. 

of  the  slope  is  still  dusky.  The  shadow  of  the  N.E.  component  of  No.  3  is 
easy,  and  lies  to  the  N^.E.  A  line  from  the  lower  edge  of  the  shadow  in  the 
great  gap  of  the  west  border  along  the  lower  edge  of  the  central  shadow 
goes  into  the  gap  at  the  N.  end  of  II  E'l'^.  This  shadow  is  now  finely  bifur- 
cated ;  the  lower  or  northern  peak  is  the  longer. 

8'\  Spot  No.  1  is  now  seen  as  a  large  striking  object.  It  seems  to  be  in 
the  path  of  the  upper  fork  of  the  central  shadow,  and  looks  like  the  shadow 
of  one  of  Jupiter's  satellites  on  the  disk.  [In  Mr.  Birmingham's  sketch  of 
May  19, 1869,  ©—  S8  =286°  37'-3,  the  upper  or  southern  fork  of  the  central 
shadow  is  longest,  while  in  the  present  series  of  observations  the  northern  is 
the  longest.  This  is  not  a  solitary  instance  of  variation  in  the  shadow  of  this 
peak.  Mr.  Birmingham  is  in  agreement  with  Mr.  GledhiU  in  referring  spot 
No.  1  to  the  upper  or  southern  fork.  In  my  paper  on  the  spots  and  shadows 
of  Plato  (Transactions  of  Sections,  p.  17,  '  Report  of  British  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Science,'  1869),  I  remark  that  Rosse  and  Birmingham 
have  drawn  No.  1  with  the  shadow  of  Z  just  receding  from  it.  ChaUis's 
shadow  of  h  terminates  by  a  straight  line ;  neither  fork  was  visible,  for  he 
carefully  measured  the  two  angular  points.  Rosse  di'ew  the  termination  of 
the  shadow  as  from  two  pinnacles  upon  the  summit,  with  No.  1  between 
them.  These  variations  are  doubtless  azimuthal ;  nevertheless  they  are  of 
great  importance,  as  we  hoi^e  presently  to  show.] 

8*^  5'".  Spot  No.  1  is  a  large,  lofty,  very  prominent  cone.  Close  to  the  N.E. 
component  of  No.  3,  and  to  the  N.E.  of  it,  is  seen  a  black  shadow  curved  to 
the  N.E.,  with  a  bright  elevated  object  close  to  the  curve.  I  see  the  two 
components  of  No.  3  as  bright  distinct  objects ;  then,  close  to  the  N.E.  foot 
of  the  N.E.  component,  comes  a  large  circular  shadow  quite  black,  embracing 
a  bright  object  to  the  N.E. 

8*^  15™.  Spot  No  4  is  already  getting  rather  difficult  and  hazy,  although  it 
lies  far  away  in  the  bright  eastern  floor.  Spot  No.  17  is  now  seen  just  ou 
the  lower  edge  of  the  uppermost  pointed  shadow.  No.  1  is  bright  aud  large, 
free  from  the  long  shadow.  Shadow  still  lies  on  the  eastern  floor  at  the  foot 
of  the  slope.  Mr.  Pratt,  the  same  evening,  Jan.  10,  noticed  a  peculiar  feature 
of  the  eastern  part  of  the  floor  corroborative  of  Mr.  Gledhill's  observation  of 
the  dip  to  the  foot  of  the  east  border.  He  says,  "  A  peculiar  feature  of  the 
eastern  part  of  the  floor  in  sunhght  observed.  Between  what  was  probably 
the  eastern  margin  of  the  sector  h  and  the  foot  of  the  interior  slope  of  the 
E.  rim  was  a  decidedly  darker  tint,  as  if  that  part  of  the  floor  was  lower 
than  the  rest,  and  perhaps  falling  towards  the  border ;  the  western  margin 
followed  very  closely  the  form  it  would  have  if  the  whole  space  between  the 
sector  b  and  the  border  were  depressed."  In  my  own  record,  Jan.  10,  4*^  48"', 
the  Crossley  equatorial  7"3-in.  aperture,  eye-piece  No.  4,  power  122,  with 
slot,  I  say : — "  The  S.  spire  of  sunlight  apparent ;  it  is  directed  towards  the 
middle  of  II  E'''^.  Neither  of  the  spires  of  light  reach  the  border,  indicating 
the  floor  to  dip  near  the  border." 

Mr.  GledhiU  summarizes  his  observations,  under  the  head  of  "  points  de- 
termined," as  follows : — 

First.  The  position,  size,  alignment,  and  order  of  development  of  tlic 
streaks  [of  sunlight,  as  distinguished  from  those  that  make  their  aj^pear- 
ance  afterwards]  which  first  fall  on  the  floor.  They  are  evidently  the  solar 
rays  passing  through  the  gaps  on  the  border. 

Second.  The  floor  on  the  E.  at  the  foot  of  the  inner  slope  lies  in  shadow 
more  or  less  deep  until  the  giant  shadows  from  the  W.  border  have  retreated 
westward  beyond  the  centre  of  the  crater. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  71 

Third.  That  spots  I^os.  1,  3,  17,  the  object  halfway  between  No.  4  and 
the  E.  border  (7),  the  object  halfway  +  between  No.  3  and  the  E.  border 
(32),  the  object  (if  any)  just  to  the  E.  of  No.  3  (31),  and  the  object  S.W.  of 
No.  1  at  a  considerable  distance  away  are  all  elevated  objects. 

[Some  time  subsequently  to  these  observations  I  received  from  Mr.  Gled- 
hill  a  drawing  of  nine  crater  cones  seen  on  Jan.  10,  1870.  They  were  Nos. 
1,  3,  30,  4,  7,  9,  11,  17,  and  32.  I  have  not  received  any  conhrmation  of 
the  object  a  considerable  distance  S.W.  of  No.  1.— W.  E.  B.] 

Fourth.  The  order  in  time  of  the  apjiearance  of  the  shadows. 

Fifth.  The  time  to  a  minute  when  light  first  falls  on  the  floor. 

[The  discussion  of  the  observations  by  intervals  shows  that  the  sun's  light 
first  falls  upon  the  floor  of  Plato  from  ten  to  thirteen  hours  after  the  sun  has 
risen  at  4°  &-1  of  E.  long,  on  the  equator  according  to  season  ;  a  simple 
computation  of  the  epoch  of  sunrise  at  this  longitude  and  ©  —  S3  will  be  a 
guide  to  ascertain  the  illumination  of  Plato  within  twenty-four  hours  of  the 
epoch.— W.  E.  B.] 

Sixth.  The  interval  between  the  appearance  of  light  on  the  floor  and  the 
distinct  perception  of  the  shadows  from  the  W.  border  is  about  twenty-five 
or  thirty  minutes. 

Seventh.  The  great  northern  streak  of  sunlight  is  seen  some  fifteen  minutes 
before  the  southern  streaks  are  detected.  This  may  be  caused  either  by  dif- 
ference in  elevation  of  the  gaps  in  the  W.  border,  or  diff'ercnce  in  level  of  the 
floor,  or  both  may  unite  to  produce  the  effect. 

AVhat  can  cause  the  duskiness  of  the  eastern  floor  except  depression  of  the  floor  ? 

1870,  Jan.  10,  9"  0°.  Mr.  Elger  saw  spot  No.  1  close  to  the  shadow  of  the 
peak  situated  on  the  S.  of  the  great  gorge  or  opening  in  the  W.  wall.  At 
9''  10"'  the  N.  peak  of  this  shadow  was  about  clearing  it ;  at  the  same  time 
spot  No.  4  could  just  be  seen.  Mr.  Elger  remarked  that  the  shading  round 
spot  No.  1  was  much  darker  than  the  central  portion  of  the  floor,  and  that 
this  dark  shading  could  be  traced  in  an  easterly  direction  to  about  one  fourth 
of  the  distance  between  the  spots  1  and  4:  "  this,"  says  Mr.  Elger,  "  would 
appear  to  indicate  a  fall  in  the  surface  of  the  floor  from  No.  1  towards 
the  E.   in  section"  (fig.   5).      Schroter,  if  I  re-  p-     g 

member  rightly,  alludes  to  some  observations  indi- 
cating similar  irregularities  in  the  floor.  Erom 
Mr.  Elger's  observation,  combined  with  one  of  Mr. 
Gledhm's  to  be  noticed  under  Feb.  9, 1870,  it  would 

appear  that  spot  No.  1  is  situated  on  the  ridge  marking  the  great  fault.    (See 
interval  24"  to  36\) 

1870,  May  8,  8"  to  lO*".  Close  of  first  interval  of  twelve  hours.  Epoch 
7d  21"  20"",  Mr.  Elger  writes,  "  On  the  evening  of  the  8th,  between  8"  and 
10",  I  had  a  fine  view  of  sunrise  ;  the  air  was  remarkably  steady  ;  shadows 
and  minute  details  seen  to  perfection." 

1870,  May  18.  Mr.  Elger  writes  : — "  Re  your  statement  as  to  the  dip  of 
the  floor.  Is  there  reliable  evidence  that  the  N.E.  and  S.E.  areas  of  the 
floor  are  lower  near  their  respective  borders  than  towards  the  spotless  central 
area  ?  In  January  last  I  saw  spot  No.  1  in  contiguity  with  the  shadow  of 
No.  2  peak  (western  wall) ;  the  surface  of  the  floor  east  of  No.  1  was  then, 
of  course,  seen  under  very  oblique  light.  Judging  from  the  shading  and 
general  aspect  of  the  surface  in  the  neighbourhood  of  No.  1,  there  appeared 
to  be  a  veri/  rapid  fall  from  spot  No.  1  to  spot  No.  4 ;  if  this  bo  so,  the 
stem  of  the  '  trident '  would  be  a  depression  in  the  surface." 

1870,  April  9.     Twenty-three  hours  after  epoch  of  sunrise  at  4°  4'-7  on 


72  REPORT 1871. 

equator,  E.  loug.,  Mr.  Elger  records  spots  Nos.  1  and  17  in  contiguity  with 
shadows  of  high  peaks  on  west  wall  [y  and  ^]  :  Nos.  1,  3,  4  very  plain  [seen 
also  by  Mr.  Pratt],  17  faint,  25  only  glimpsed,  7  suspected;  no  markings 
seen.  Mr.  Pratt  records  on  same  day  shadows  of  y,  ?,  and  e  on  floor  nearly 
similar  to  1809,  Nov.  12,  excepting  that  S  showed  a  second  point  south  of 
chief  one,  and  that  of  e  did  not  exhibit  a  cleft. 

The  importance  of  such  careful  observations  as  those  which  have  furnished 
the  data  for  this  interval  cannot  admit  of  question.  The  determination  of 
the  epoch  at  which  the  floor  first  becomes  illuminated,  as  compared  with  the 
epoch  of  an  easily  computed  phenomenon  (sunrise  at  a  given  longitude  on 
the  equator),  places  at  once  within  our  reach  the  means  of  ascertaining  when 
the  appearances  witnessed  during  the  interval  10  to  24  hours  after  sunrise, 
at  4°  E.  long,  on  the  equator,  'rtU  be  repeated*.  This  is,  however,  a  small 
result  compared  with  the  forms  and  progressions  of  the  shadows  ;  for  by  their 
aid,  especially  if  well  sketched,  and  their  lengths  carefully  measured,  or  even 
estimated  in  parts  of  those  of  the  three  measured  peaks  y,  I,  and  c,  the  dis- 
tance of  the  west  wall  from  the  terminator  being  at  the  same  time  ascer- 
tained, the  irregularities  of  the  west  wall  at  sunrise,  and  by  a  similar  process 
those  of  the  cast  wall  at  sunset,  may  be  obtained  with  tolerable  precision  by 
13.  &  M.'s  method  described  in  '  Der  Mond,'  §  65,  p.  98,  and  in  the  Keport 
of  the  Lunar  Committee  of  the  British  Association,  '  Eeport,'  1867,  p.  15. 
We  have  thus  the  power,  by  multiplying  such  observations,  of  becoming  inti- 
mately acquainted  with  the  breaks  and  gaps,  the  elevations  and  towering 
pinnacles  of  the  wall,  and  are  in  a  position  for  handing  down  to  our  suc- 
cessors details  that  may  enable  them  to  detect  changes,  if  such  should  occur, 
of  sufficient  magnitude  to  become  perceptible.  The  shadows  which  I  enu- 
merated on  Jan.  10,  1870,  were  six, — the  longest  y,  one  between  y  and  ?, 
I  with  its  two  peaks  or  saddle  form,  one  south  of  e,  and  e.  Mr.  Joynson,  of 
Liverpool,  gives  in  his  drawing  of  the  same  date  two  peaks  to  ^.  The  irre- 
gularities both  of  the  floor  and  border  have  come  out  by  these  observations 
with  marked  distinctness,  and  tend  greatly  to  settle  for  the  present  epoch 
the  main  features.  If,  however,  changes  are  in  progress,  they  may  be,  as  on 
the  earth,  extremely  slow. 

The  appearances  recorded  on  January  10,  1870,  being  so  different  to  that 
witnessed  by  Bianchini,  August  16,  1725,  the  following  translation,  by  my 
friend  Mr.  Kuott,  from  Bianchini's  work  '  Hesperi  et  Phosphori  Nova  Phe- 
nomena' (Eomae,  1728),  wUl  doubtless  be  read  with  interest: — 

"  Under  the  auspices  of  the  Cardinal  de  Polignac,  two  large  telescopes,  94 
and  150  Boman  palms  long,  by  Campini,  were  prepared  and  erected,  and  on 
the  16th  of  xlugust,  1725,  the  following  observations  of  Plato  were  made. 

"  Although  on  that  night  we  were  only  able  to  turn  the  telescope  150 
palms  long,  on  the  moon  we  detected,  in  the  lunar  spot  named  Plato,  a 
phenomenon  not  previously  observed.  The  moon  was  at  the  time  a  little 
past  its  first  quadrature  with  the  sun,  which  it  had  attained  on  the  previous 
day,  and  the  spot  Plato  fell  on  the  periphery  of  solar  illumination,  where  is 
the  boundary  of  light  and  darkness  in  the  lunar  hemisphere  exposed  to  the 
sun.  The  whole  of  the  very  elevated  margin,  which  on  all  sides  surrounds 
the  spot  like  a  deep  pit,  appeared  bathed  in  the  white  rays  of  the  sun.  The 
bottom  of  the  spot,  on  the  other  hand,  was  stUl  in  darkness,  the  solar  light 
not  yet  reaching  it ;  but  a  track  of  ruddy  light,  like  a  beam,  crossed  the 

*  Tlie  longitudes  of  the  terminator  at  60°  N.  latitude  on  the  equator,  and  at  60°  S.  lati- 
tude, G  reemi-ich,  midnight,  during  the  lunation,  are  given  monthly  in  the  '  Astronomical 
Register.' 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  73 

middle  of  the  obscure  area,  stretching  straight  across  it  from  one  extremity 
to  the  other,  with  much  the  same  appearance  as  in  winter  in  a  closed  cham- 
ber the  sun's  rays  admitted  through  a  window  are  wont  to  present,  or  as 
they  are  seen  in  the  distance  when  cast  through  openings  in  the  clouds,  or 
like  comets'  tails  at  night  in  a  clear  sky  stretched  out  at  length  in  space,  as 
we  remember  to  have  seen  in  the  one  which  in  the  years  1680  and  1681  was 
80  conspicuous  to  all  Europe.  This  appearance,  never  before  seen  by  me  in 
this  or  any  other  lunar  spot,  is  represented  in  the  figure  which  I  give  below. 


"  1,  2.  The  lunar  spot  named  Plato,  and  the  ruddy  ray  of  the  sun  thrown 
across  its  dark  floor  from  the  margin  of  the  spot  1,  white  aiid  turned  towards 
the  sun.  It  was  thus  observed  at  Rome  on  the  Palatine  Mount,  Aug.  16, 
1725,  at  1|  hour  after  sunset,  with  the  150-palm  telescope  of  J.  Campini. 

"  It  is  proposed  to  astronomers  and  physicists,  for  their  consideration  and 
judgment,  whether  this  is  to  be  taken  as  an  indication  of  an  aperture  piercing 
the  border  of  the  spot  which  is  turned  towards  the  sun,  through  which  opening 
the  rays  are  cast  and  appear  as  through  a  window ;  or  whether  it  is  rather  to  be 
thought  that  they  are  refracted  rays,  which  are  bent  from  the  top  of  the  border 
towards  the  bottom,  and  appear  of  a  ruddy  tint  as  they  are  wont  to  do  in  our 
own  atmosphere  at  sunrise  and  sunset,  and  so  give  reason  for  admitting  the  ex- 
istence of  some  denser  fluid  like  an  atmosphere  surrounding  the  lunar  globe." 

I  have  the  following  remarks  on  the  above,  dated  June  4,  1867 : — 

"  Bianchini  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  earliest  observers  who  noticed 
'  detail '  more  jiarticularly.  Hevel,  lliccioli,  Cassini,  and  others  aimed  more 
at  delineating  the  entire  surface,  which  of  course  included  much  detail  that 
is  becoming  more  and  more  valuable  every  day  ;  still  such  observations  as 
Bianchini's,  recorded  in  his  '  Hesperi  et  Phosphori,'  are  of  great  value,  espe- 
cially as  the  appearances  described  and  delineated  could  not  find  place  in  a 
more  general  work." 

Sclirciter,  in  his  '  Selenotopographische  Fragmente,'  vol.  i.  p.  334,  §§  256, 
257,  refers  to  the  observation  of  Bianchini,  and  also  to  one  of  Short's  in  1751, 
April  22.  It  would  appear  that  Bianchini's  suggestion  of  an  aperture  or  hole 
in  the  W.  rim  of  Plato  was  not  verified  by  Short,  who  seems  to  have  observed 


75)  REPORT 1871. 

the  shadows  of  the  three  peaks  y,  I,  and  e  of  13.  &  M.,  which  are  represented 
by  Schroter  in  t.  xxi.  The. shadows  of  these  and  other  peaks  on  the  W.  waU 
have  been  very  frequently  observed  of  late  years. 

I  am  not  aware  that  liianchini's  observation  has  been  verified.  The  pecu- 
liar ap2)earance  which  he  has  delineated  depends  not  only  on  libration,  but 
also  on  the  angle  which  the  terminator  makes  with  the  meridian ;  for  it  is 
clear  that  the  direction  of  the  terminator  must  form  a  tangent  to  a  line  pass- 
ing equally  through  the  depression  in  the  wall  to  produce  the  appearance 
seen  by  Biauchini ;  and  it  is  highly  probable  that  it  is  of  very  rare  occur- 
rence, as  seen  from  the  earth,  the  variation  in  the  angle  of  terminator  with 
meridian  being  as  much  as  3°. 

While  transcribing  the  above  (April  22, 1871)  I  have  considered  the  Bian- 
chini  phenomenon  more  closely.  During  the  year  1870  the  opportimities 
for  observing  sunrise  on  Plato  were  comparatively  numerous,  and  certainly 
not  the  slightest  appearance  of  Bianchini's  streak  was  detected  ;  on  the  other 
hand,  the  positions  of  the  earliest  rays  of  sunlight  on  the  floor  have  been 
determined,  with  some  degree  of  precision,  for  the  portion  of  the  luni-solar 
year  during  the  period  of  the  observations.  If  the  configiu'ation  of  the  W. 
wall  is  different  now  from  what  it  was  in  Bianchini's  time,  the  phenomenon 
may  be  explained  by  the  supposition  that  the  gap  or  pass  iS".  of  the  peak  h 
was  lower  than  at  present,  and  has  been  raised  \>y  "  landslips "  on  one  or 
both  sides,  which  are  of  extensive  occuiTence  on  the  moon  as  recognized  by 
Nasmyth  ;  the  absence  of  fui-ther  observations  by  Biauchini  on  the  same 
evening,  however,  leaves  the  matter  in  doubt. 

Short  records,  in  the  Phil.  Trans,  for  1751,  p.  175,  that  on  April  22, 
1751,  he  saw  a  streak  projected  along  the  flat  bottom  of  Plato.  Soon  after 
he  saw  another  streak  parallel  to  the  first,  but  somewhat  lower  [or  northerly], 
which  in  a  very  short  time  divided  into  two.  He  found  a  gap  in  the  wall 
opposite  the  first  streak,  and  also  one  in  the  direction  of  the  lower  one. 

Not  only  is  Bianchini's  observation  at  variance  with  modern  observations, 
but  Short's  also.  The  order  of  appearance  of  the  streaks  of  sunlight  on  the 
floor  on  Jan.  10,  1870,  is,  first,  the  broad  streak  through  the  wide  gap  ; 
second,  the  southern  streak  north  of  the  peak  y.  The  appearances  of  Short's 
streaks  were  in  the  reverse  order. 

The  following  record  of  observations  by  Schroter  on  July  30,  1789,  at 
O*"  48'",  kindly  translated  by  Mr.  Gledhill,  will  illustrate  Mr.  Elger's  obser- 
vation on  January  10,  1870 : — 

'  Selenotopographische  Fragmeute,'  §  250,  vol.  i.  p.  329.  "  A  difl^erent, 
more  beautiful,  and  more  magnificent  view  of  Plato  is  obtained  when,  with 
the  rising  sun,  the  first  traces  of  an  extremely  faint  twilight  are  seen  on  the 
grey  fioor  of  the  crater,  and  when  the  first  beams  of  light  are  thrown  over 
the  mountains  into  the  plain  below.  This  view  of  Plato,  which  lasts  only 
for  a  few  minutes  during  the  slow  monthly  rotation,  and  for  which  one  may 
wait  for  a  year  and  yet  not  see  it,  I  saw  on  the  30th  of  July,  1789,  9''  48'". 
As  in  the  8th  figure  of  t.  xxi.,  the  terminator  had  advanced  from  W.  to  E.  as 
far  as  a,  /3.  To  the  W.  of  this  the  greatest  part  of  the  border  lay  in  the 
light  of  day  [or  on  the  day  side],  and  only  the  small  portion  to  the  E.  of  a, 
/3  was  illuminated  on  the  night  side.  The  whole  inner  grey  sin-face,  on  the 
contrary,  was  still  hidden  by  the  shadows  of  the  lofty  mountains  on  the 
border,  and  on  the  S.  border  there  was  also  a  low  spot  filled  with  shadow. 
"Wliile  I  was  observing  the  shadows  of  the  inner  surface  with  power  161,  I 
became  aware  of  something  to  the  E.  of  the  middle  of  the  floor,  as  if  the  dark 
surface  were  in  a  kind  of  fermentation.     A  few  seconds  later  I  saw  here  in 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  75 

two  places  an  extremely  distinct  unveiling  or  brightening  which  closely  re- 
semhled  a  very  faint  tivilight.  Both  places  appeared  dark,  blackish,  and  con-' 
trasted  so  slightly  with  the  other  night-shadows,  that  at  first  I  was  uncertain 
whether  or  not  I  perceived  a  real  difference  in  the  obscurity.  Meanwhile, 
after  a  few  seconds  both  the  liglit-spots  became  somewhat  brighter,  changed 
their  form  continually,  until  they  soon  became  larger  and  notably  brighter, 
and  assumed  the  appearance  given  in  fig.  8  ;  and  as  no  very  marked  change 
occurred  while  the  obsei'vation  was  being  made,  I  was  by  this  time  able  to 
sketch  them  in  their  present  clearer  colour  and  increased  size  ;  but  even  yet 
they  appeared  a  dark  grey,  so  that,  according  to  my  arbitrary  scale  and  a 
very  approximate  estimation,  they  were  placed  at  only  ^°,  or  at  most  |°. 

"  Doubtless  these  present  but  always  very  dark  colours  were  half-shadows, 
and  were  found  there  because  in  these  two  places  only  a  part  of  the  rising- 
sun  was  visible  over  the  irregular  elevations  on  the  western  border;  and 
these  half-shadows  I  have  often  seen  in  the  course  of  my  observations  when 
the  terminator  passes  across  grey  surfaces.  Soon  after,  the  surface  threw  off 
the  mask  of  night,  and  in  a  few  minutes  I  could  distinguish  the  line-like 
shadows  lying  across  the  whole  floor  thrown  by  the  peaks  on  the  western 
wall.  If  one,  however,  compares  the  shape  of  these  two  somewhat  bright 
spots  on  the  map  with  the  position  and  shadows  of  the  west  border,  and  re- 
flects that  these  bright  spots,  as  I  saw  them,  were  surrounded  by  the  shadows 
of  night  on  the  east,  there  can  no  longer  be  any  doubt  (if  a  different  reflec- 
tion of  the  light  has  no  share  in  the  matter)  that  the  floor  is  not  perfectly 
flat,  but  that  these  two  places  are  somewhat  more  elevated ;  and  with  this 
sujjposition  the  observations  given  before  quite  agree." 

The  following  notes  have  been  kindly  furnished  by  Mr.  Pratt,  relative  to 
the  foregoing  description  of  sunrise  : — 

"  Jan.  10,  3^.  On  1870,  March  10, 1  have  notes  of  the  same  phenomenon, 
which  I  believe  I  forwarded  at  the  time,  recording  the  inability  I  experienced 
to  rid  myself  of  the  idea  that  I  was  witnessing  a  true  twilir/ht.  My  observa- 
tion of  it  extended  over  twenty-five  minutes,  at  the  end  of  which  time  I 
perceived  the  faintest  trace  of  the  formation  of  the  spires." 

"Jan.  10,  4"^  18"*,  spot  No.  3.  Query.  Is  the  brightest  spot  of  the  streak, 
here  mentioned  as  seen  inclined  to  the  north  of  No.  3,  and  I  presume  in  close 
proximity  to  it,  my  spot  No.  30  ?  As  far  as  I  can  understand  the  localities 
are  identical." 

"  Jan.  10,  4''  50™,  shadow  of  peak  y.  On  a  similar  occasion  I  have  ob- 
served the  thin  thread  of  the  shadow  lying  across  II  EV'S,  and  have  watched 
it  slowly  shortening  and  travelling  down  the  interior  slope  of  the  rim,  and  had 
a  good  view  of  it  lying  on  the  floor  just  in  contact  with  the  foot  of  the  slope." 

"  Jan.  10,  8*",  shadow  of  peak  h.  I  do  not  remember  to  have  ever  seen 
the  shadow  of  d  otherwise  than  with  the  northern  fork  the  longest." 

On  Bianchini's  light-streak  Mr.  Pratt  remarks  : — "  Bianchini's  ruddy  spire 
of  light,  which  he  observed  at  Rome,  1725,  Aug.  16,  and  thought  to  be  sun- 
light shining  through  an  aperture  in  the  west  wall,  would  the  want  of 
achromaticity  in  his  150-palm  telescope  account  for  the  colour  ?  Still  his 
unique  view  may  prove  valuable  some  day ;  and  it  is  stimulating  to  perse- 
verance on  our  part  to  multiply  observations  with  our  comparativelj^  luxu- 
rious instruments  to  find  such  unwieldy  telescopes  capable  of  so  much  in  the 
hands  of  a  careful  observer.  I  wonder  if  the  crater  G  on  the  west  exterior 
slope  was  recorded  so  long  since,  as  its  clean-ciit  form,  as  I  have  sometimes 
seen  it,  is  suggestive  of  recent  formation,  and  its  localitj'  such  as  to  easily 
account  for  the  fiUing-up  of  the  aperture  Bianchini  supposed." 


76  REPORT 1871. 

[The  crater  G  is  not  seen  in  Bianchini's  drawing  of  1725,  August  16,  nor 
in  that  illustrating  his  observations  of  1727,  August  23  and  September  22. — 
W.  11.  B.] 

Mr.  Pratt  remarks,  that  in  Short's  observation  of  1751,  April  22,  the  first 
streak  of  sunlight  was  on  the  upper  part  of  the  floor,  followed  soon  after  by 
a  parallel  streak  somewhat  lower.  "  It  is  important,"  says  Mr.  Pratt,  "  to 
learn  what  khid  of  telescope  Short  used  during  the  observation  ;  for  as  he 
was  chiefly  a  maker  of  the  Gregorian  form,  and  as  that  construction  does  not 
invert  the  image,  it  may  be  possible  his  term  hwei-  may  mean  southerly  in- 
stead of  northerly,  thus  being  in  accord  with  modem  observations." 

"  The  very  interesting  translation  of  Schroter's  notes  of  17b9,  July  30,  and 
his  discovery  of  something  on  the  eastern  half  of  floor,  as  if  a  kind  of  fer- 
mentation was  going  on,  and  his  discovery  a  few  seconds  later  of  an  unveil- 
ing or  brightening,  closely  resembUng  twihght,  remind  me,"  says  Mr.  Pratt, 
"  very  forcibly  of  my  own  observations  before  mentioned.  The  half-shadows 
of  Schroter  also  remind  me  of  what  1  have  very  often  seen,  as  he  describes  ; 
but  1  cannot  understand  his  explanation  of  them.  As  far  as  I  can  see,  half- 
shadows  presuppose  an  atmosphere ;  and  a  well-authenticated  course  of  ob- 
servations of  them  would  be  good  proof  of  the  latter's  presence." 

[If  by  the  term  "  half-shadow"  be  meant  the  penumbral  fringe  of  every 
true  shadow,  the  rays  of  light  emerging  from  opposite  limbs  of  the  sun, 
crossing  beyond  the  object  casting  the  shadow  and  then  diverging,  will  fully 
explain  such  a  fringe.  In  the  case  of  the  sun  rising  above  the  mountains, 
the  reverse  phenomenon  occurs,  viz.  a  gradual  darkening  fiinge  skirting  the 
illuminated  surface  arising  from  less  and  less  Hght  arriving  from  the  sun's 
disk  ;  a  true  twilight  is  occasioned  by  the  particles  of  an  atmos^jheric  medium 
being  illuminated  by  the  sun's  rays  whUe  the  luminary  is  below  the  horizon, 
and  such  I  believe  I  have  on  several  occasions  witnessed. — W.  E.  B.] 

Interval  24  to  36  hours. 

1870,  May  9.  Mr.  Gledhill  describes  spot  Xo.  1  as  easy ;  a  fine  sharp 
crater,  with  raised  walls,  much  black  shadow  within,  the  east  inner  slope 
bright :  he  also  records  3  and  1 7  as  presenting  the  same  appearance  as 
No.  1.  On  October  3,  at  about  IS""  earlier  illumination,  Mr.  Gledhill  did  not 
observe  the  crater  character  of  these  objects,  but  describes  them  as  elevated 
objects.  This  is  remarkable,  as  on  Oct.  3  the  moon's  latitude  was  1°  to  2°  S., 
whUe  on  May  9  it  was  3°  N.,  libration  carrying  Plato  further  from  the  eye, 
yet  the  crater  character  was  more  distinct.  Mr.  Elger  records  No.  17  as  seen 
by  ghmpses. 

As  regards  spots  13  and  19,  the  following  remarks  of  Mr.  Elger  are  inter- 
esting : — '•  The  northern  portion  of  the  floor,  including  streak  a,  was  noted 
as  equally  hght ;  the  streak  could  not  be  traced."  Mr.  Gledhill  writes,  a  not 
to  be  distinguished  from  the  bright  floor  all  along  the  north  border.  Mr. 
Elger  found  the  same  locahty  "  all  light  on  the  10th." 

1870',  February  9.  Mr.  Gledhill  first  saw  spot  No.  4,  its  bright  W.  Avail 
only.  He  says,  "This  object  seems  to  have  loiver  walls  than  1,  17,  or  3." 
Mr.  Gledhill  writes :  "  For  a  few  minutes  I  saw  what  appeared  to  be  a  very 
low  ridge  running  from  N.  to  S.  across  the  floor  of  Plato.  It  runs  from  the 
N.  border  to  spot  3,  then  curves  to  N^o.  1 ,  and  again  bends  back  to  the  E. 
and  reaches  No.  17,  and  thence  goes  on  to  the  S.  border."  [The  low  ridge 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Gledhill  is,  so  far  as  I  know,  new.  It  is  not  coincident 
with  the  great  fault  from  N.W.  to  S.E.  From  a  drawing  subsequently  sent 
to  me  by  Mr.  Gledhill,  it  would  indicate  a  fracture,  having  its  origin  at  spot 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  "  Tt 

No.  1,  diverging  N.E.  and  S.E.  to  spots  Nos.  3  and  17,  and  extending  from 
them  in  opposite  directions  to  the  N.  and  S.  horders.]  At  5.30  Mr.  Gledhill 
recorded  that  spot  No.  4  is  already  indistinct ;  there  is  a  dull  yellow  patch 
about  it.  No.  3  at  this  early  stage  of  illumination  Mr.  Gledhill  found  to  be 
single ;  he  looked  in  vain  for  the  other  two  adjacent  spots,  Nos.  30  and  31. 

1870,  Oct.  3.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  17,  and  30  as  elevated  ob- 
jects.    Mr.  Elger  found  no  trace  of  3. 

1870,  March  11,  Mr,  Gledhill  describes  spots  Nos,  1  and  3  as  bright,  cir- 
cular. 

Interval  36  to  48  hours. 

1870,  April  10.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spot  No.  1  as  a  large,  sharp,  cir- 
cular crater,  with  internal  shadow  on  W.  side  ;  also  Nos.  3  and  17  as  circular 
craters.     Mr.  Elger  records  Nos.  16  and  25  as  frequently  glimpsed. 

1870,  July  7.  Mr.  Whitley  observed  Nos.  1,  3,  and  17  as  craterlets,  4  a 
white  spot,  and  glimpsed  No.  11  very  faint.  On  the  same  evening  Mr.  Neison 
recorded  the  floor  as  very  dark,  the  spots  indistinct,  not  visible  continuously ; 
and  Mr.  Elger  could  just  trace  the  "  sector." 

1870,  Jan.  11,  7.20.  Mr.  Gledhill  describes  spot  No.  1  as  a  large  round 
crater,  larger  than  Linne,  quite  bright  and  circular,  a  very  fine  easy  object. 
At  7.30  the  same  evening,  he  says  "  Linne  also  is  now  seen  as  a  crater,  with 
some  shadow  within  on  the  west."  At  7.45  Mr.  Gledhill  writes :  "  Now  the 
N.E.  inner  slopes  of  craters  Nos.  1  and  3  glow  in  the  bright  sun,  whUe  the 
S.W.  inner  slopes  are  in  shadow.  It  is  the  N.E.  inner  slope  which  so  often, 
in  bad  definition,  comes  out  as  a  bright  disk  or  semidisk." 

1869,  August  16.  Mr.  Pratt  thus  >vrites :  —  "Of  these  difficult  objects 
[the  spots],  seven  were  seen  many  times  during  the  hour;  No.  1  often  well 
defined  as  a  crater,  Nos.  3  and  4  as  well-defined  craters  as  No.  1,  but  accom- 
panied with  a  nebulous  light,  perhaps  caused  by  the  companion  spots  to  each, 
which,  however,  were  never  clearly  defined  owing  to  the  minuteness  of  the 
objects  and  the  short  periods  of  definition  clear  enough.  They  both  had  a 
similar  appearance." 

1870,  September  4.  Mr,  Neison  records  No.  4  as  just  observable,  and  14 
very  faint. 

Interval  48  to  60  hours. 

1870,  May  10.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spots  Nos.  1,  3,  and  17  as  elevated 
craters  with  little  internal  shadows.  Mr.  Elger  records  No.  5  as  seen  only 
by  glimpses  much  fainter  than  17;  16  and  14  easy. 

1871,  March  1.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spot  No.  1  as  a  crater  brightest  on 
the  inner  E.  wall. 

1870,  August  6.  Mr.  Elger  noticed  the  west  portion  of  the  floor  of  an 
even  light  colour.  It  is  on  this  portion  that  the  spots  Nos.  13,  19,  and  22, 
which  have  decreased  of  late  in  visibility,  are  situated.  On  the  24th  of 
March,  1870,  Mr.  Gledhill  observed  the  reverse,  viz.  the  west  part  of  the 
floor  exhibited  the  darkest  tint.  It  was,  however,  less  in  extent  than  the 
light  portion  given  by  Mr.  Elger,  and  was  seen  under  the  opposite  illumina- 
tion.    See  intervals  108"^  to  96",  and  12"  to  0"  *. 

1870,  October  4.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  No.  1  as  an  elevated  object.  Mr. 
Elger  found  No.  14  more  easy  than  5  and  17  ;  it  was  not  seen  by  Gledhill. 
Nos.  3,  30,  and  17  were  seen  as  bright  disks  by  GledhUl. 

*  These  reversed  tints  are  quite  in  accordance  with  the  surface  of  the  floor  dipping  on 
each  side  from  the  line  of  "  fault"  crossing  Plato  from  N.W.  to  S.E. 


78  REPORT — 1871. 

Interval  GO  to  72  hours.' 

1870,  July  8.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1  and  17  as  brioht  spots  badly  seen. 
Mr.  Elgcr  records  No.  5  as  seen  only  by  glimpses,  but  brighter  than  No.  1. 

18G9,  August  17.  Mr.  Pratt  inserted  the  positions  of  the  spots  observed 
b}-  him  "  by  independent  estimation,"  also  "  their  relative  positions  with  re- 
spect to  lif/Jit  streahs  "  were  very  carefully  determined  as  follows  : — 

No. 
1.  On  the  dark  surface  near  the  junction  of  two  streaks. 

3.  In  the  middle  of  a  light  streak. 

4.  In  the  middle  of  a  light  streak  (sector)  *. 

17.  On  the  dark  surface  close  to  a  light  streak  (W.  edge  of  sector). 
13  and  19.  In  the  middle  of  a  light  streak. 
14.  Near  the  margin  of  a  light  streak. 

Interval  72  to  84  hours. 

1870,  April  11.  Mr.  Elger  records  No.  5  nearly  as  bright  as  17,  which 
he  regarded  as  fainter  than  at  last  lunation  ;  14  and  IG  were  easy,  24  and 
25  seen  by  glimpses.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  30,  and  17  as  bright 
circular  disks.  Mr.  Pratt  detected  the  six  spots  which  he  observed  with 
difficulty. 

1870,  March  13.  Mr.  Gledhill  writes  :  "  Unless  I  am  very  much  mistaken 
indeed,  34  was  an  easy  object,  i.  e.  No.  1  came  out  easUy  '  double ; '  also,  as 
the  E  end  of  the  floor  slopes  to  the  east,  spots  Nos.  G  and  7  may  be  seldom 
seen  on  this  account  (?)."  To  this  I  add :  "This  may  be  the  case  while  the  moon 
is  passing  from  perigee  to  apogee."  Mr.  Gledhill  says  further  :  "  No  3  (and 
30)  very  easy,  wide,  double ;  3  is  the  larger,  both  equally  bright :  30  is  not 
seen  nearly  so  often  as  3  ;   when  only  one  is  seen  it  is  3." 

1870,  June  9.  Mr.  Elgcr  recorded  5  as  brighter  than  17. 

1870,  February  11,  6.30.  Mr.  Gledhill  found  spots  Nos.  1  and  17  as  very 
sharp  bright  disks,  but  could  not  detect  interior  shadows  ;  he  describes  Nos. 
1,  17,  and  3  as  sparkling.  Of  No.  1,  he  says,  it  often  comes  out  double; 
last  year  I  often  saw  it  thus.  I  am  now  almost  sure  I  see  a  minute  object 
close  to  the  west  of  it  (34). 

Interval  84  to  96  hours. 

1870,  December  4.  Mr.  Elger  writes : — "  The  marking  connecting  the 
middle  and  east  arm  of  trident,  which  was,  I  believe,  first  seen  by  Mr. 
Pratt  last  spring,  I  found  a  very  easy  object,  fully  as  bright  as  the  brightest 
portions  of  the  '  trident ; '  it  follows  the  curvature  of  the  south  border,  and 
crossing  the  last  arm  of  the  trident,  terminates  about  halfway  between  the 
latter  and  the  west  limit  of  the  '  sector.'  During  the  May  and  June  luna- 
tions, I  had  faint  glimpses  of  it ;  but  it  was  then  a  very  much  more  difficult 
object  than  it  is  now." 

The  apparition  of  this  streak  appears  in  some  way  to  be  connected  with 
spot  No.  5,  the  variations  in  -v-isibility  of  which  are  considerable.  As,  from 
the  discussion  of  visibility,  the  connexion  of  these  variations  with  illumi- 
nating, visual  or  atmospheric  (terrestrial),  changes  appears  to  be  untenable, 
it  maybe  suggested  that,  if  the  first  maximum,  Aug.-Sept.  1869,  resulted 
from  increased  activity,  ejecta  may  have  been  thrown  out  and  jiroduced  the 
faint  streak  which  was  seen  on  the  west  of  No.  5  by  ttuo  observers.  At  or 
about  the  second  epoch  of  increased  activity,  a  larger  quantity  of  ejecta 

:    *  Mr.  Gledhill  has  frequently  observed  spot  No.  4  at  the  angle  formed  by  the  eon- 
verging  sides  of  the  "  sector." 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAK  OBJECTS.  79 

may  have  boon  thrown  out,  producing  a  brighter  streak,  extending  eastward 
as  well  as  westward.  The  most  interesting  circumstance  connected  mth 
this  streak  is  its  conformity  in  direction  to  that  of  the  south  border,  as  if 
some  peciiliarity  of  the  surfece  existed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  No.  5,  of  a 
depressed  character,  which  received  the  outflow  or  outthrow  of  the  ejecta. 
Another  noteworthy  circumstance  is,  that  this  streak  was  not  recorded 
caiiier  than  May  13,  1870. 

1870,  September  6.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  17,  and  30  as  bright 
disks,  also  that  definition  was  good,  and  that  the  streaks  and  spots  seemed  to 
stand  out  in  rehef. 

18G9,  November  15.  Mr.  Gledhill  writes  : — "The  spots  Nos.  1, 17,  and  3  do 
not  appear  as  a  mere  white  s^jof  on  the  floor  of  Plato  would  do.  There  is  a 
sharpness  and  clearness  of  contour  and  a  brightness  (uniform)  of  surface 
which  could  only  belong  to  a  crater  or  peak.  I  have  often  been  struck  with 
this.  This  remark  appHes  to  them  whenever  they  are  well  seen.  I  can 
only  liken  them  to  the  small  round  disks  of  bright  stars  seen  in  the  transit- 
instrument.  Spot  No.  4  never  looks  like  Nos.  1,  17,  or  3."  To  this  I  append 
the  following  query  : — Do  the  clearness  and  sharpness  of  the  contour  of  spots 
Nos.  1,  17,  and  3  result  from  seeing  the  shadowless  interiors  of  the  craterlets? 
If  so,  on  what  agency  does  the  appearance  of  the  mere  white  spots  depend  ? 
Do  Nos.  1,17,  and  3  vary  in  this  respect  with  good  states  of  our  atmosphere  ? 
Mr.  Pratt  records  a  spot  new  to  him  on  the  N.W.  of  3,  about  half  as  far  from 
3  as  is  4  on  the  opposite  side,  and  aligning  with  3  and  4  ;  he  speaks  of  it  as 
exceedingly  small.  I  have  numbered  it  29.  He  also  observed  spot  No.  8, 
which  he  describes  as  fainter  than  29,  and  situated  about  one  third  the  dis- 
tance from  3  towards  4.  On  this  evening  Mr.  Pratt  very  carefully  scru- 
tinized No.  3  and  its  immediate  neighbourhood ;  the  following  are  his  notes 
transmitted  to  rac  : — "  First.  The  second  spot,  which  I  have  always  ob- 
served with  3  (and  which  I  learn  from  Mr.  Birt  I  have  always  placed  in  the 
same  relative  position  as  has  Mr.  Dawes,  who  discovered  it,  and  of  whose 
alignment  I  was  before  quite  unaware),  is  exceedingly  close  to  3  on  the 
N.E.  I  estimate  the  distance  at  2",  and  its  position  with  respect  to  1  was 
very  carefully  judged  to  be  145"  to  150°,  reckoning  from  S.  round  by  E., 
which  I  afterwards  found  by  comparison  to  be  about  the  angle  represented 
in  my  former  sketches.  Second.  A  third  spot,  S.E.  of  3,  and  twice  as  far 
from  it  as  Mr.  Dawes's,  was  observed.  Its  relative  size  was  judged  to  be 
one  fourth,  while  that  of  the  second  spot  was  one  third  of  3.  The  direction 
was  from  3  towards  4."  [This  spot  I  take  to  be  8.— W.  E.  B.].  "Another 
lieculiarity  in  3.  was,  that  it  was  just  included  by  the  light  streak,  but  still 
(piite  on  its  edge,  as  was  also  its  smallest  companion.  I  now  determined 
very  carefully  the  colour  of  the  immediate  localities  of  cdJ  spots  visible.  After 
independently  noting  it  for  each  spot,  I  found  on  summing  up  that  the 
whole  were  upon  the  light  streaks,  with  the  exception  of  No.  1,  around  and 
towards  which  the  light  streak  was  softly  shaded  off." 

1870,  July  9.  Mr.  Whitley  glimpsed  spot  No.  17  with  difllculty. 

Interval  9G  to  108  liours. 

1870,  April  12.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  and  30  as  bright  circular 
disks,  1 7  as  a  bright  disk,  also  6,  but  seen  only  once  or  twice.  Mr.  Pratt  records 
No.  1  as  very  dense  and  bright,  3  and  4  as  hazy,  and  16  and  22  difficult. 

1870,  May  12.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  and  17  as  fine  bright  disks, 
No.  4  a  spot,  but  seldom  seen.  Marking  a,  Mr.  Gledhill  records  as  the 
brightest,  and  Mr.  Elger  mentions  the  part  east  of  No.  16  as  veiy  bright 


80  REPORT— 1871. 

and  well  defined ;  this,  as  well  as  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Elger  on  May  9,  may 
tend  to  throw  some  light  on  the  decreased  visibility  of  Nos.  13  and  19  (see 
Interval  24  to  36  hours).  On  this  evening  Mr.  Whitley  observed  and  described 
the  markings,  giving  a  sketch  of  the  same.  Mr.  Elger's  sketch  of  the  north 
part  of  Plato  and  Mr.  Whitley's  are  not  in  accordance.  The  time  at  which  Mr. 
Whitley  made  his  observations  is  not  mentioned;  Mr.  Elger's  8.45  to  11. 

1870,  March  14.  Mr.  Elger  writes  :  "The  markings  were  not  well  seen; 
the  eastern  arm  of  the  '  trident'  was  the  brightest,  and  could  be  traced  from 
the  south  rim  to  Jfo.  1,  passing  to  the  west  of  No.  5  :  the  marking  y  was 
very  plain,  the  rest  of  the  markings  were  faint  and  difficult  to  make  out."  In 
contrast  with  this  indistinctness  on  Plato,  Mr.  Elger  says, "  [In  spite  of  the  hazi- 
ness of  the  sky,  the  markings  and  minute  details  of  the  Mare  Tnibnuni  were  seen 
with  unusual  distinctness]."  In  the  'English  Mechanic,'  No.  312,  March  17, 
1871,  p.  602,  article  "Mars,"  by  E.R.A.S.,  the  author  speaks  of  the  indi- 
stinctness and  partial  dimming  on  the  surface  of  the  planet,  accompanied  by 
the  presence  of  dark  lines  in  its  spectrum,  coincident  with  those  referable 
by  Father  Secchi  to  the  vapour  of  water.  The  indistinctness  and  dimming 
of  detail  are  alike  distinguishable  on  Mars  and  the  Moon  ;  and  in  addition  we 
have  on  the  Moon  a  number  of  spots  becoming  vividly  bright  with  a  high 
sun.  From  Dr.  Huggins's  observations,  the  spectral  lines  of  the  vapour  of 
water  are  absent  in  the  lunar  spectrum. 

1870,  June  10.  Mr.  Elger  recorded  No.  17  decidedly  brighter  than  No.  5  and 
equal  to  No.  3;  14  only  glimpsed  once  or  twice ;  16  and  25  frequently  seen. 

1869,  December  15.  This  evening  Mr.  Elger  discovered  spot  No.  32.  He 
described  it  as  N.E.  of  spot  No.  3,  nearly  aligning  with  17  and  4,  and  situ- 
ated on  a  brush  of  light  (GledhiU's  streak  /3),  extending  from  No.  3  to  the 
N.E.  rim  of  Plato. 

1871,  March  3.  Mr.  Pratt  observed  16  spots,  viz.  1,  3,  4,  5,  14,  17,  21, 
20,  23,  29,  0,  18,  13,  19,  7,  6,  arranged  according  to  relative  brightness. 
Of  these  Mr.  Pratt  speaks  of  Nos.  20  and  21  as  being  far  above  their  usual 
brightness.  Situated  as  they  are  near  the  north  border,  the  Moon  going 
north  in  latitude,  they  were  not  in  the  most  favourable  position  for  observa- 
tion ;  their  great  brightness  is  therefore  remarkable,  and  connected  with  this 
is  an  increase  of  brightness  in  the  streak  a.  The  new  streak  between  Nos.  5 
and  17  Mr.  Pratt  saw  with  ease,  joining  the  east  arm  of  the  "trident" with 
the  "  sector"  from  closely  south  of  17  to  opposite  5. 

1870,  October  6.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  17,  and  30  as  fine  bright 
disks ;  Nos.  5  and  6  equal.  Mr.  Elger  observed  Nos.  14  and  16,  not  seen  by 
Mr.  Gledhill ;  14  was  equal  to  5. 

Interval  108  to  120  hours, 

1870,  September  7.  Mr.  GledhiU  records  Nos.  1  and  3  as  fine  sparkling 
disks,  and  4  as  a  hazy  spot.  Mr.  Neison  records  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  and  5  pretty 
distinctly  visible;  17  brilliant  but  not  well  defined;  14  and  16  faint  and 
very  faint  respectively. 

1869,  November  16.  Mr.  GledhUl  says,  "  I  never  saw  the  floor  so  bright. 
The  spots  1,  17,  9,  3,  and  30  appeared  just  like  small  stars  in  the  transit- 
instrument  on  a  windy  night."  At  10,  11,  and  12  hours  Mr.  Gledhill 
remarked  that  spots  Nos.  3,  1,  9,  and  17  formed  a  sparkling  curve,  and  were 
fine  easy  objects,  seen  at  a  glance  at  any  moment ;  he  says  they  were  very 
striking.  On  the  contrary,  he  speaks  of  spots  23,  16,  19,  13,  and  14  as  very 
difficult  objects ;  none  were  ever  easy  objects.  Of  9  and  11  he  says,  "  I 
never  saw  them  so  easily  and  well  as  to-night."     The  following  notes  are 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS. 


81 


important : — "  Nos.  1,  3,  and  especially  17  (which  sni-passes  all  in  sharpness, 
and  perhaps  in  brightness  sometimes)  are  fine  easy  objects,  "vvith  moderate 
altitudes.  Now  Linno  never  a2)pears  like  these  except  when  near  the  even- 
ing terminator.  As  to  y  Posidonius  1  never  see  it  sharp  and  crater-Hke 
(white  and  bright)  when  the  sun  is  up.  I  could  not  see  it  at  all  the  other 
day  when  the  morning  terminator  was  a  degree  or  two  from  it."  Of  ivhite 
spots  Mr.  Gledhill  remarks :  "  I  called  some  spots  mere  white  spots,  because  1 
have  never  seen  them  otherwise ;  by-aud-by  1  may  catch  them  near  the 
terminator,  and  have  reason  to  change  the  term.  I  fancy  that  when  the 
terminator  is  a  morning  one  the  effect  on  objects  diflfers  from  that  given  by 


the  evening  terminator.'' 


Interval  120  to  132  hours. 


1871,  March  4.  Mr.  K'eison  saw  spot  No.  14  very  indistinct,  and  barely 
brighter  than  a  longitudinal  steak  running  in  a  direction  from  No.  13  to  past 
No.  14,  which  was  then  situated  upon  it.  It  appeared  to  have  its  origin  eX 
the  point  of  convergence  of  Gledhill's  d  and  L  On  the  same  evening,  Mr. 
Gledhill  recorded  d  but  not  c.  On  March  4,  Mr.  Neison  saw  No.  16  (once 
only)  as  a  pecuhar  light-marked  spot  on  a  patch  of  broken  light  trending 
westward.  Mr.  Neison  also  recorded  parts  of  the  N.W.  and  S.E.  portions 
of  the  floor  indistinct  from  broken  light  and  light  streaks. 

1870,  June  11.  Mr.  Elger  recorded  spots  Nos.  5  and  16  as  seen  only  by 
glimpses. 

Intei-val  132  to  144  hours. 

1870,  April  14.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  17,  9,  11,  and  30  as 
bright  round  disks.  Mr.  Elger  writes,  under  date  of  April  26,  1870,  relative 
to  his  observations  of  April  14,  as  follows  : — "  That  the  visibility  of  the  spots 
is  connected  with  the  position  and  brightness  of  the  markings  (as  you  sug- 
gest) is,  I  think,  most  probable  :  it  is  clear  that  the  spots  at  present  known  are 
mainly  confined  to  the  districts  occupied  by  the  markings,  and  that  the  floor 


Eic 


of  Plata  is  divided  by  the  latter 
into  three  nearly  equal  areas.  A, 
B,  C,  as  on  sketch.  Areas  A  and  C 
are  covered  with  markings,  but 
area  B  is  devoid  of  them.  If 
we  compare  the  number  of  spots 
in  area  B  with  the  number  of 
spots  in  areas  A  and  C,  we  shall 
find  that  there  are  only  two  spots 
(23  and  11)  in  area  B,  while  in 
area  A  there  are  ten,  and  in  area 
C  no  less  than  twenty-three.  It 
is  true  that  small  portions  of  the 
areas  A  and  C  ai'e  without 
markings ;  but  the  spots  within  those  areas  are,  without  an  exception,  situ- 
ated either  tqmi  the  light  streaks  or  close  to  their  borders.  These  facts 
seem  to  me  very  suggestive,  and  point  to  an  intimate  relation  between  the 
spots  and  markings.  As  observations  accumulate,  your  present  behef  in  a 
connexion  between  the  phenomena  will,  I  think,  be  placed  beyond  doubt." 
In  connexion  with  the  above,  the  following  quotation  from  a  letter  by  Mr. 
Pratt,  dated  1870,  April  22,  is  interesting: — "Very  curious  the  difficulty 
there  is  in  observing  such  delicate  detail ;  possibly  instruments  and  eyes  will 
show  differently,  independently  of  the  mental  bias  and  accumulation  of  pre- 
1871.  o 


83  REPORT 1S71. 

yious  impressions ;  and  I  rather  fear  that  telescopes  much  larger  than  my 
own  cannot  help  us  out  of  the  difficulty." 

The  difficulty  to  which  Mr.  Pratt  alludes  is  particularly  felt  with  regard 
to  that  indispensable  method  of  determining  positions  "  measirrement."  Mr. 
GledhUl  has  executed  some  measures  of  the  positions  of  the  principal  spots 
and  the  extremities  of  the  light  markings,  and  Mr.  Pratt  has  aligned  several 
of  the  spots  with  objects  on  the  border  ;  but  so  exceedingly  delicate  are  the 
details,  and  so  seldom  is  the  state  of  the  atmosphere  siifficiently  translucent 
and  free  from  agitation,  that  to  obtain  an  approximate  plan  of  the  spots  and 
markings  from  measurement  is  necessarily  a  work  of  time.  Pending  this, 
in  the  above  sketch  both  spots  and  markings  have  been  inserted,  partly  on 
alignment  and  partly  bj'  estimation.  The  two  light  regions  are  well  sprink- 
led with  spots,  as  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Elger ;  and  it  is  not  a  Kttle  interesting 
to  notice  that  the  nearly  spotless  area  coincides  with  the  region  between- 
the  "trident"  and  the  "  sector,"  with  its  prolongation  to  "  Webb's  Elbow" 
near  the  X.W.  border.  In  the  absence  of  more  accurate  detail,  which  is  likely 
to  be  obtained  from  Mr.  GledhiU's  measurements,  the  sketch  (fig.  7)  will  serve 
as  a  guide  for  ascertaining  if  the  spots  and  markings  preserve  their  relative 
positions  ;  and  in  this  connexion  the  remarkable  change  of  locality,  if  it  be  so, 
of  spot  Xo.  5  may  be  mentioned,  Mr.  Elger  having  seen  and  recorded  on  three 
occasions  (1870,  March  14,  May  13,  and  October  10)  its  position  on  the  eastern 
edge  of  the  eastern  arm  of  the  "  trident."  It  is  possible  there  may  be  two 
neighbouring  spots  in  this  locality  which  have  not  yet  been  seen  together.  The 
importance  of  recording  with  eveiy  obsei'vation  of  spot  Xo.  5  its  position  with 
regard  to  the  eastern  ann  of  the  "trident"  is  obvious.  The  light  streak 
supposed  to  be  connected  with  No.  5  is  too  far  south,  or  the  sjjot  is  too  far  north,' 
on  the  sketch. 

1870,  May  13.   Vide  "  Indications  of  intermittent  visibility"  (p.  88). 

1870,  January  15.  Mr.  Gledhill  observed  as  many  as  22  spots,  the  second 
greater  number  seen  on  any  one  occasion.  Vide  "  Indications  of  inter- 
mittent visibility."  Spots  Xos.  1,  3,  and  17  are  described  as  very  easy,  large, 
bright,  sharp  objects  ;  Xo.  4  as  jumping  into  view  and  not  steadily  seen. 
Xo.  34  was  discovered  this  evening ;  it  has  not  been  observed  since 
March  13,  1870,  when  it  was  recorded  as  an  easy  object. 

1869,  August  20,  21,  and  23.  Mr.  Gledhill  gives  thi-ee  spots  close  to  the 
X.W.  border,  which  he  has  marked  13,  19,  and  16.  No.  16  being  too  far 
east  for  that  spot,  I  have  regarded  it  as  20 ;  if,  however,  Mr.  Gledhill  really 
saw  16,  its  degree  of  visibility  would  be  shghtly  increased.  On  August  23 
Mr.  Pratt  gives  16  in  its  proper  position,  and  he  observed  the  same  number  of 
spots  as  Mr.  GledhiU  ;  but  Mr.  Gledhill  saw  No.  12  and  31,  which  Mr.  Pratt 
did  not  see,  Mr.  Pratt  recording  Nos.  7  and  30,  not  seen  by  Mr.  Gledhill. 

1870,  September  8.  Mr.  Neison  records  spot  No.  4  as  a  flat  indistinct 
spot;  17  sharp  but  bright,  darkening  on  one  side,  and  showing  traces  of  a 
crater-formation. 

Interval  144  to  156  hours. 

1870,  August  10.  Mr.  Neison  records  spot  No.  3  as  apparently  oval ;  the 
longer  axis  of  the  ellipse  is  in  the  direction  of  No.  31 . 

1870,  October  8.  Mr.  Elger  mentions  No.  14  as  very  easy,  16  easy,  and 
17  seen  only  occasionally. 

Interval  156  to  168  hours. 
1870,  May  14.    Mr.  Elger  recorded  No.  16  easy;  5,  14,  and  17  faint;  25 
and  32  seen  by  glimpses.     Mr.  GledhiU  records  1,  17,  3,  and  6  as  bright 
disks.  4  not  well  seen,  and  5  as  a  bright  spot. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  ^^ 

1870,  September  9.  Mr.  Elger  recorded  No.  5  faint,  17  especiially  faint^ 
14  and  22  glimpsed,  and  14  difficult. 

Interval  168  hours  to  ileridiau  Passage. 
1870,  June  13.  Mr.  Gledhill  has  this  remark:  "For  some  time  I  have 
thought  that  when  power  115  was  used,  spot  No.  4  was  almost  at  any  time 
to  be  seen,  or  at  any  rate  a  condensation  of  the  '  sector'  at  its  apex  was 
seen.  On  ajiplyiug  240,  however,  the  appearance  vanishes,  and  no  con- 
densation or  spot  is  seen,  or  perhaps  only  sometimes  and  at  intervals." 

Interval  Meridian  Passage  to  168  hours. 

1870,  July  13.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  No.  1  as  very  bright. 

1870,  September  10.  Mr.  Elger  records  Nos.  2-5  and  16  as  easy,  No.  14 
as  seen  by  glimpses. 

Interval  168  to  156  hours. 

1870,  August  12.  Mr.  Neison  records  "a  spot  seen  on  the  border  of  No. 
3,  very  small  and  hardly  visible  except  at  intervals,  but  pretty  bright  on 
edge  only  of  the  light  marking."  Mr.  Neison  suspected  it  to  be  No.  31, 
which  it  undoubtedly  is  according  to  the  position  which  he  has  accorded  to 
it  on  the  diagram.  Mr.  Neison  was  the  only  observer  who  detected  No.  31 
during  this  lunation,  on  the  10th  and  11th  of  August,  as  an  elongation  of 
No.  3.  Mr.  Elger,  Mr.  Gledhill,  and  ili-.  Pratt  appear  to  have  missed  it.  Query, 
was  the  groixp  Nos.  3,  30,  and  31  in  greater  activity  about  this  time  ? 
Mr.  Neison  has  this  note,  "  3.  Faint  indications  of  its  being  a  crater  very 
distinct."  Mr.  Pratt  records:  "During  the  long  period  since  I  last  saw 
the  light  streaks  I  have  had  little  opportunity  to  study  former  sketches,  and  so 
was  free  in  a  measure  of  the  bias  of  them.  Yet  on  sketching  those  seen, 
the  forms,  positions,  and  directions  coincide  with  former  drawings,  notably 
the  trident  a,  /S,  rj,  I."  Mr.  Pratt  also  notices  a  remarkable  increase  in 
brightness  of  spot  No.  22,  so  as  to  attract  especial  attention.  Neither 
Messrs.  Elger,  Neison,  Ormesher,  nor  Gledhill  noticed  this  spot,  although 
they  were  observing  on  the  same  evening  as  Mr.  Pratt,  who  further  re- 
marks "  that  in  moments  of  best  definition  the  area  comprised  between 
Nos.  19,  1,  and  4  was  not  nearly  so  well  displayed  as  the  rest  of  the  floor, 
giving  a  strong  impression  of  an  obscuring  medium  located  there."  [This 
observation  of  the  streak  1,  the  existence  of  which  has  been  questioned,  is 
perfectly  independent  of  any  suspicion  of  its  non-existence,  as  it  occurred 
some  months  before  the  question  was  raised.] 

1870,  October  10.  Mr.  Elger  found  spot  No.  5  on  the  E.  edge  of  the  E. 
arm  of  the  "trident;"  its  position,  as  given  by  Mr.  Pratt,  is  on  the  W. 
edge  of  the  E.  arm.  He  also  found  that  Nos.  5  and  14  were  far  inferior 
to  17.  Spot  No.  25  was  easy.  Mr.  Elger  did  not  see  spots  Nos.  9,  11,  18, 
23,  nor  30  recorded  by  Mr.  Gledhill,  nor  did  Mr.  Gledhill  see  No.  14.  For  a 
special  note  on  the  position  of  spot  No.  5,  which  Mr.  Elger  also  saw  on  the 
E.  edge  of  the  "  trident"  on  May  13,  1870,  see  Interval  132  to  144  hours. 

1870.  On  the  12th  of  August,  and  on  September  7,  11,  and  12,  Mr. 
Neison  made  a  series  of  observations  with  apertures  varying  from  4  to  Sc- 
inches, with  differences  of  5  of  an  inch. 

Inches  4        4|         4^         4|         5         5;^ 

Spots     4         4  5  5  6         7 

The  spots  seen  were  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  and  17  with  4  and  4|  inch  apertures,  the 
game  and  No.  6  with  4|  and  4f ;  with  5  inches  aperture  spot  No.  14  was 
detected  and  marked  as  faint,  and  with  5|  inches  No.  16  was  discerned: 

g2 


84  REPORT 1871. 

the  last  two,  Nos.  14  and  16,  were  in  all  cases  marked  as  "  faint,"  some- 
times extremely  so. 

These  seven  spots  are  precisely  those  which  have  the  highest  degrees  of 
visibility  for  18  lunations,  as  under  : — 

Spots 1  3  4         17        5  14       16 

YisibiHty     ..   1-000     -897     -887     -830     -510     -433     -294 

From  these  observations,  it  appears  that  spots  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  and  17  may 
be  detected  with  instruments  between  4  and  41  inches  of  aperture,  that  spot 
No.  5  requires  an  extra  half  inch,  or  4|  to  5,  and  that  5  and  5|  will  bring 
out  spots  No.  14  (5  inches)  and  16  (5|  inches). 

Aperture,  of  course,  is  an  important  element  of  visibility;  and  as  these 
spots  are  seen  with  apertures  under  six  inches,  as  the  observations  increase, 
and  the  normal  degrees  of  visibility  become  well  determined,  variations  in 
the  visibility  of  these  spots  may  be  detected  with  instruments  of  6  inches 
aperture,  provided  the  observations  extend  over  a  sufficiently  long  period. 

Elements  of  Visibilify. 

Lunar. — Brightness  and  size  of  spots. 
Terrestrial. — Clearness  and  steadiness  of  atmosphere. 
Instrumental. — Goodness  of  figure  of  object-glass  or  mirror,  and  extent 
of  aperture. 

Physiological. — Keenness  of  eyesight. 

Interval  156  to  144  hours. 

1870,  July  14.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  No.  1  as  a  fine,  large,  bright  spot, 
No.  17  as  a  small  bright  spot,  Nos.  3  and  30  as  bright  spots,  and  No.  5  a 
bright  spot,  seen  now  and  then.  Mr.  lugall  records  No.  1  as  very  plain 
and  sharp.  No.  4  as  steadily  seen,  and  Nos.  3,  31,  30  a  misty  spot,  piobably 
consisting  of  these  three. 

1869,  August  23.  Mr.  Pratt  records  that  "spots  Nos.  1,  3,  4,  17,  6,  and  14 
were  very  bright  compared  with  their  usual  appearance,  and  aU  easily  seen. 
No.  4  was  not  well  defined;  there  was  a  persistent  oval  light  round  it  (N.W. 
and  S.E),  and  I  several  times  believed  it  to  be  double,  but  could  not  be  positive 
it  was  so.  So  remarkably  clear  was  the  vision  that  several  times  as  many  as 
four  or  Jive  spots  were  held  in  view  at  once,  without  looking  directly  for 
them,  and  two  or  three  times  as  many  as  six  were  so  seen,  viz.  Nos.  1,  3, 
4,  17,  5,  and  14 ;  again,  Nos,  1,  3,  4,  17,  6,  and  5.  Nos.  4,  7,  6,  17  were 
a  group  seen  together,  and  Nos.  5,  14,  22,  and  1  were  a  similar  one ;  yet 
still  so  exceedingly  delicate  are  the  fainter  spots  and  the  fainter  traces  of 
light  on  the  floor  that  it  needs  a  most  concentrated  attention  to  see  cither. 
In  looking  for  the  faint  spots  the  faint  traces  of  light  will  escape  notice ; 
again,  when  looking  for  the  latter,  the  former  are  most  likely  not  to  be 
seen.  This  exceeding  delicacy  too  interposes  a  serious  difficidty  in  cdigning 
them  with  objects  on  or  near  the  border :  the  eye  cannot  hold  so  wide  a 
view  and  at  the  same  time  retain  a  sufficiently  correct  impression  of  objects 
at  once  so  faint  and  small.  These  remarks  do  not  apply  to  the  easier  spots 
and  light  streaks.  Once,  for  a  few  minutes,  a  narrow,  dark,  straight  line, 
like  a  pencil-mark,  was  visible  from  m  towards  liamlleta  [i.  e.  from  N.W. 
to  S.E.],  probably  the  crack  Mr.  Birt  has  discovered.  It  was  not  seen 
again  this  evening." 

1870,  September  11.  Mr.  Nelson  records  No.  1  as  very  distinct,  No.  3  as 
distinct  and  brilliant,  Nos.  5  and  14  as  faint,  5  as  rather  so. 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  85 

Interval  144  to  132  hours. 

1871,  March  8.  Mr.  Ormesher  records  a  spot  near  the  S.W.  border, 
■which  he  queries  "  14,  a  long  way  off  "  from  its  position.  Is  it  a  spot  not 
before  recorded  ? 

1870,  August  13.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spots  Nos.  3  and  17  as  fine  bright 
disks.  No.  1  as  a  fine,  largo,  bright  disk,  and  No.  4  as  a  nebulous  object. 
Mr.  Pratt  remarks  that  "  on  this  evening,  as  ivell  as  in  1870,  August  12, 
the  tint  of  the  dark  portions  of  the  floor  was  much  intensified  close  to  the 
rim.  It  was  the  case  all  round,  but  especially  so  between  6  and  ^,  between 
e  and  ^,  and  between  /3  and  rj." 

1869,  December  20.  Mr.  Pratt  places  a  spot  nearly  due  north  of  No.  1 
on  the  diagram  of  this  evening,  wliich  he  queries  as  23.  I  query  it  as  un- 
certain. Spots  Nos.  1,  0,  23,  and  16  very  nearly  align.  The  line  passing 
through  Nos.  1,  0,  and  23  passes  slightly  west  of  No.  16.  Mr.  Pratt's  spot 
is  very  decidedly  east  of  this  line.  [1871,  March  31.  The  spot  registered 
by  Mr.  Pratt  on  Dec.  20,  1869,  not  having  been  reobserved,  it  is  probable 
that  it  may  have  been,  as  Mr.  Pratt  queried,  No.  23.  I  have  now  entered 
it  as  such.— W.  R.  B.J 

Interval  132  to  120  hours. 

1870,  September  12.  Mr.  Neison  records  of  No.  22,  "  a  spot  very  faint, 
and  difficult  to  make  out  in  the  midst  of  a  patch  of  light." 

Interval  108  to  96  hours. 

1870,  July  16.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spot  No.  1  as  "a  fine,  large,  bright  disk; 
looks  like  an  elevation ;"  also  Nos.  3  and  17  as  bright  disks.  I  have  made 
the  following  note  on  the  Form  : — "  9  and  0.  These  do  not  appear  in  their 
precise  localities,  especially  0.  It  may  be  that  the  spot  thus  marked  by 
Mr.  Gledhill  is  a  new  one." 

1870,  December  12.  Mr.  Pratt  writes  :  "  A  faint  crepusciilar  kind  of 
shade  has  crept  over  the  western  part  of  the  floor,  and  is  deepest  near  the 
western  border ;  but  the  gradation  is  very  delicate,  12  hours  to  12  hours  40 
minutes."  [1870,  March  24.  Mr.  Gledhill  noticed  a  darker  tint  at  the  west 
part  of  the  floor,  and  furnished  a  tinted  sketch :  see  remarks  under  this 
date  (p.  87) ;  also  Mr.  Elger's  observations  of  the  same  portion  of  the  floor 
being  light,  under  date  1870,  August  6,  interval  48  to  60  hours.] 

1870,  November  11.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spots  Nos.  1,  3,  30,  and  17  as 
brk/ht  S2)ots.  On  the  13  of  September  (same  interval)  he  recorded  them  as 
"bright  or  fine  craters;"  with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Nelson's  record  on 
August  12  of  No.  3  as  a  suspected  crater  (interval  168  to  156  hours),  this  in- 
terval (108  to  96  hours)  is  the  earliest  in  the  declining  day  that  the  four  have 
been  seen  as  craters.     The  terminator  is  recorded  as  west  of  Fracastorius. 

1870,  September  13.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  spots  Nos.  1,  17,  and  30  as 
bright  or  fine  craters,  and  says  of  17,  "  fine  crater  as  1  and  3; "  but  of  3 
he  says,  "  fine  disk."     I  have  marked  3  as  a  crater. 

Interval  96  to  84  hours. 
1870,   August  15.    Mr.  Pratt  records  that  the  darker  margins  of  the 
sbiided  parts  of  the  floor  are  still  visible  as  on  the  12th  and  13th  August, 
but  not  in  such  striking  contrast. 

1870,  October  13.  Mr.  Pratt  records  spot  No.  1  as  brilliant,  the  others 
dimmer  than  usual. 

Interval  84  to  72  hours. 
1869,  August  26.   Mr.  Pratt  remarked  a  decided  difference  in  definition 


ga  REPORT  — 1871. 

in  different  parts  of  the  floor,  even  in  so  contracted  an  area,  the  whole 
northern  half  being  less  well  defined,  the  south-east  part  the  best  so  by 
far.  Traces  of  the  line  from  m  to  Eambleta  were  caught,  and  the  floor 
appeared  unlevel,  the  central  and  south  parts  appearing  highest,  and  the 
south-west  part  next  so.     This,  Mr.  Pratt  says,  requires  confirmation. 

1870,  September  14.  Mr.  GledhiU  records  No.  3  as  a  fine  wide  double  spot 
(i.e.  3  and  30).  Mr.  Ncison  (same  day)  remarks  as  follows  of  Nos.  1, 
3,  and  17,  seen  by  Mr.  Gledhill  as  craters :  No.  1  not  very  distinct ;  No.  3 
sharp  and  shaded,  not  very  bright ;  No.  17  very  distinct. 

Interval  72  to  60  hours. 

1870,  August  16.  Mr.  Pratt  observed  3  spots  only  this  evening.  On 
October  14  (same  interval)  16  were  observed,  9  by  Mr.  Gledhill  and  7  by 
Mr.  Pratt,  in  addition.  They  both  record  the  definition  of  the  border  as 
"good;"  Mr.  Pratt  says,  "with  interruptions."  On  August  16,  Mr.  Pratt 
records  the  definition  of  the  border  as  "bad."  The  following  remark  of  Mr. 
Pratt  is  interesting  in  connexion  with  this  paucity  of  spots  : — "  The  darker 
parts  or  shaded  portions  of  the  floor  were  just  perceptible  with  attention. 
'  Tint  of  floor'  medium,  much  paler  than  on  the  13th  inst." 

Interval  48  to  36  hours. 

1870,  August  17.  Mr.  Gledhill  records  No.  1  as  a  fine,  large,  open  crater, 
3  and  30  as  craters,  17  as  a  small  crater,  and  4  as  a  bright  but  not  de- 
finite spot. 

Interval  36  to  24  hours. 

1870,  March  23.  Mr.  Gledhill  writes :  "  The  shadow  of  the  elevated  ob- 
ject on  the  east  border  (the  rock  !!,),  close  to  the  N.  of  "W.  II  YJ''^,  was  on 
the  floor,  and  the  adjacent  floor  to  the  N.W.  was  very  bright,  much  brighter 
than  a  or  the  '  sector,'  and  it  extended  one  third  of  the  distance  from  the 
border  to  spot  No.  4,  as  in  sketch."  Mr.  Gledhill  could  not  determine  its 
form,  but  considered  that  it  was  the  streak  tj  intensified. 

1870,  July  19.  Mr.  Gledhill  observed  the  four  craters  1,  17,  3,  30  only; 
he  described  No.  1  as  a  large  circular  crater  with  raised  walls,  but  not 
much  brighter  than  the  floor. 

1869,  August  28.  Mr.  Pratt  writes :  "  The  level  of  the  floor  was  con- 
spicuously divided  by  the  line  from  m  to  c,  the  ground  sloping  east  and 
'west  of  this  lino,  the  eastern  part  being  brighter  than  the  part  on  its  west, 
while  the  locality  of  spot  No.  4  was  judged  to  be  the  highest  of  the  whole 
floor."  In  connexion  with  this  remark  of  Mr.  Pratt  it  may  be  well  to 
"notice  that,  combined  with  Mr.  Elger's  observations  on  1870,  Jan.  10,  of 
■a  depression  in  the  floor  east  of  No.  1  (see  Interval  12  to  24  hours),  the  two 
suggest  that  this  depression  does  not  extend  so  far  as  No.  4.  Again,  com- 
paring this  observation  of  the  western  part  of  the  floor  being  darker  than 
the  eastern,  which  is  in  accordance  with  Mr.  GledhiU's  on  March  24,  1870 
(see  Interval  12  to  0  hours),  it  would  appear  that  Mr.  Elger's  observa- 
tion of  the  bright  western  area  on  1870,  May  9  and  10  and  August  6,  was 
an  intensified  brightness  of  the  ordinary  brilliancy  of  the  floor,  sloping  to  the 
west.  The  Intervals  24  to  36  and  48  to  60  hours,  the  season  spring,  with 
the  sun's  altitude  about  14°,  seem  to  indicate  that  the  increased  brightness 
was  quite  independent  of  illuminating  angle. 

Speaking  of  the  ajiparent  changes  observed,  not  only  on  Plato,  but  over 
a  -wider  range,  between  August  16  and  28,  1869,  Mr.  Pratt  says :  "  Thus, 
among  apparent  changes  of  a  particular  characterj  and  restricted  to  certain 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  87 

small  localities,  there  does  appear  to  have  been  a  wider  and  more  gene- 
ral disturbance  in  the  brightness  and  definition  of  objects,  all  which  dis- 
turbance appears  to  be  confined  to  the  loiu-lying  lands  of  that  part  of  the 
moon  observed.  Not  that  changes  were  not  visible  in  high  regions ;  but 
those  are  more  easily  referred  to  changes  of  illuminating  and  visual  angle, 
while  the  disturbances  above  mentioned  are  not  so  easily  accounted  for, 
especially  those  changes  in  the  visibUity  of  the  light-streaks  on  the  floor 
and  the  striking  differences  of  brightness  of  the  spots." 

1809,  October  26.  In  connexion  with  Mr.  Gledhill's  return  of  this  date 
I  remark,  "  'Crater  Eow'  being  so  well  seen,  and  the  border  of  Plato  so  sharp 
and  distinct,  it  is  remarkable  that  spots  Nos.  5,  6,  7,  13,  14,  and  16  should 
not  have  been  well  and  easily  seen,  although  it  appears  they  were  seen,  also 
that  spot  No.  3  should  have  been  seen  single,  and  that  only  sometimes,  when  ifc 
was  seen  double  the  previous  night." 

1870,  November  14.  Mr.  Gledhill  observed  Nos.  1,  3,  30,  and  17  as 
craters,  and  says,  "  they  look  like  bright  elevated  rings." 

Interval  24  to  12  hours. 
1870,  March  23.  See  ante.  Interval  36  to  24  hours. 

1869,  September  27.  Mr.  Gledhill  recorded  a  broad  band  of  brightness 
parallel  to  the  north  border,  enclosing  spots  Nos.  13,  19,  and  16 ;  he  does 
not  say  they  were  seen  as  well  as  the  bright  baud.  I  have,  however,  re- 
corded them  as  having  been  seen. 

Interval  12  to  0  hours  or  sunset. 

1870,  November  15.  The  four  craterlets  Nos.  1,  3,  30,  and  17  are  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  Gledhill  as  elevated  crater-cones. 

1870,  March  24.  Mr.  GledhiU  writes :—"  Terminator  on  N.E.  end  of 
Apennines  ;  the  eastern  shadows  lie  on  the  floor.  A  line  drawn  along 
the  west  edge  of  the  '  sector,'  and  produced  to  the  north  border,  separates 
the  bright  east  part  of  the  floor  from  the  darker  west  part ;  the  inner  slope 
of  the  west  wall  glows  in  sunlight,  while  the  floor  near  it  is  the  darkest 
portion  of  the  crater  [Plato]."     See  ]}.  95,  line  9. 

Additional  Notes. 
Differences  of  Visibility  of  neighbouring  Objects. 

1869,  August  26,  11  hours  30  minutes.  Definition  frequently  exceed- 
ingly good  but  disturbed,  with  much  boiling  at  times.  Mr.  Pratt  has  fur- 
nished the  following  record  : — 

"  There  was  a  marked  difference  between  the  M.  Imbnum,  the  M. 
Serenitatis,  and  the  M.  Frigoris,  in  respect  of  the  visibility  of  minute  objects 
on  their  surfaces.  The  Mare  Imbrium  was  literally  covered  with  small  white 
sjwts  and  streaks.  The  three  streaks  from  Aristillus  to  the  south  border  of 
Plato  were  again  traced.  Archimedes  had  roughly  four  light  streaks  E.  and 
W.,  and  about  nine  or  ten  easily  discerned  white  spots.  Beer  and  Mddler 
and  neighbourhood  looked  invitingly  for  a  close  study. 

"  The  Mare  Serenitatis  was  of  a  dull  grey,  with  few  white  spots  and 
comparatively  few  features  visible.  Gf  those  visible  all  were  very  indistinct, 
EXCEPT  THE  MORE  ELEVATED  ONES ;  thus,  of  the  Small  objects  rouud  Linne, 
most  were  invisible,  a  few  indistinct,  even  I  E«i,  I  E^^,  I  Ev^  [the  three  small 
craters  N.W.  of  Linne]  were  almost  obscured.  Linne  itself  a  cloudy  white 
spot,  with  knot  of  light  in  centre,  but  not  nearly  so  bright  as  when  seen 
on  the  23rd  inst.  Posidonius  y  was  brighter  and  half  the  size  of  Linne. 
Vessel  was  tolerably  clear.     About  half  the  number  of  white  spots  S.E.  of 


88  REPORT — 1871. 

Bessel  were  very  indistinctly  seen,  the  renifiinder  invisible.  Posidonius, 
just  -within  the  terminator,  "was  fairly  defined.  SuJpicius  Gallus  and  one 
or  two  near  it  on  the  pleateau  were  clear ;  so  that  the  moke  an  object  was 
RAISED  above  the  general  level  of  the  Mare  the  clearer  was  its  deiinition, 
while  those  on  the  level  of  it  were  more  or  less  obscured. 

"  The  3Iare  Frigoris  was  very  hazy  indeed ;  even  close  to  the  foot  of  the 
north  slope  of  Pluto  objects  could  not  be  defined,  while  those  raised  a  little 
above  the  Mare  were  remarkably  well  defined  indeed.  The  whole  northern 
slope  of  Plato  appeared  everywhere  rugged  and  iineven." 

Indications  of  intermittent  Visibility  and  of  possible  volcanic  Activity. 

On  the  evening  of  the  13th  of  May,  1870,  no  less  than  tiventy-seven  spots 
were  seen  on  the  floor  of  Plato,  26  by  Mr.  Pratt,  and  an  extra  one  by  Mr. 
Elger.  This  extraordinary  display  occurred  between  132  and  144  hours 
after  the  terminator  had  passed  4°  E.  long.  It  is,  however,  not  a  little 
remarkable  that,  on  the  same  evening,  Mr.  Gledhil!,  at  Halifax,  observed 
four  spots  only.  The  great  number  seen  by  Mr.  Pratt,  as  compared  with 
the  small  niimber  seen  by  Mr.  GledhiU,  is  doubtless  due  to  a  fine  state  of 
the  earth's  atmosphere  at  Brighton. 

With  regard  to  the  streaks  seen  by  Mr.  Pratt  on  the  same  evening  he 
remarks — "  I  could  not  see  the  small  streaks  on  the  western  part  of  the  floor, 
and  sometimes  even  my  old  'trident'. and  the  streak  c  were  so  indistinct  as  to 
be  difficult.  What  was  the  cause  ?  Surely  not  the  earth's  atmosphere ; 
for  at  the  same  time  spots  could  be  seen.  Perhaps  we  shall  discover  that 
spots  are  raised  at  a  higher  level  than  light  streaks,  and  thus  visible  when 
streaks  are  obscured." 

This  remark  of  Mr.  Pratt's  is  important :  certainly  the  state  of  the  earth's 
atmosphere  could  not  have  affected  the  two  classes  of  objects  in  different 
ways.  If  the  intensity  of  the  spots  depended  upon  the  purity  of  our  atmo- 
sphere, one  would  think  that  the  brightness  of  the  streaks  would  also  have 
been  increased  ;  but  in  Mr.  Pratt's  experience  it  was  not  so.  Mr.  Elger 
speaks  of  some  as  bright  and  others  faint.  Mr.  Gledhill,  with  a  bad  atmo- 
sphere, speaks  of  them  as  bright ;  but  he  saw  only  four  spots.  Are  the  spots 
really  brighter  than  the  streaks  ?    But,  then,  why  do  both  vary  in  brightness  ? 

Mr.  Pratt  having  perused  [carefully]  the  MS.  has  furnished  me  with  the 
following  remarks : — 

"  May  it  not  be  well  to  mention  that,  on  the  occasion  referred  to,  1870, 
May  13,  I  observed  fifteen  st reals,  one  of  which  was  a  new  one.  [This 
was  the  streak  from  spot  jS^o.  5  towards  No.  14.]  This  number  was  much 
above  the  average,  the  cm-ious  fact  being  that  although  so  many  were  per- 
ceptible with  attention,  yet  the  increase  in  their  brightness  was  in  a  lower 
ratio  than  that  of  the  spots.  There  are  two  possibilities  which  may  aflfect  the 
discrepancy[diflerence]betw'een  the  notes  of  Mr.  Gledhill  and  myself  in  relation 
to  thestreaks: — Eirst,  the  times  at  which  ive  observed,  may  have  been  different.  As 
for  myself,  I  tested  the  chance  of  working  with  any  thing  like  satisfaction  once 
at  least  every  half  hour  during  the  whole  of  the  evening,  and  before  I  tried  for 
the  last  time,  at  1 1  hours,  had  been  unable  to  perceive  either  one  spot  or  streak. 
Secondly,  jjriority  of  observation  bestowed  on  objects  of  one  class  may  detract 
from  the  estimated  brilliancy  of  the  other  class.  In  my  own  case,  immediately 
I  went  to  the  telescope,  at  11  hours,  I  saw  several  spots  conspicuously,  and  in 
consequence  searched  for  spots  alone  for  nearly  an  hour.  A  search  for  so  long  a 
time  for  one  class  possibly  may,  in  a  slight  measure,  reduce  the  sensibility  of 
the  eye  for  objects  of  the  other  class,  whether  spots  or  streaks." 

The  following  extracts  from  Mr.  Pratt's  letter,  dated  1870,  May  19,  are 


OBSERVATIONS  OP  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  89 

interesting : — "  Some  spots  having  at  different  times  been  observed  as  cra- 
terlets,  their  character  as  volcanic  is  settled  in  my  own  mind.  Whether 
all  spots  are  analogous  I  should  be  glad  to  know ;  but  on  the  supposition  of 
such  similarity  existing,  the  suggestion  naturally  arises  whether  the  light 
streaks  be  not  scoriae  or  lava,  or  a  mixture  of  both,  resulting  from  the  action 
of  the  craterlets  with  which  they  seem  to  be  connected." 

A  comparison  of  the  curves  for  the  20  lunations,  April  1869  to  November 
1870,  is  suggestive  of  the  craterlets  being  a  distinct  class  of  objects.  The 
phenomena  characterizing  the  cratelets,  as  indicated  by  the  curves,  differ 
very  materially  from  the  phenomena  manifested  by  the  spots ;  for  example, 
in  the  correspondence  of  the  maxima  at  the  time  of  the  supposed  outbreak 
of  Aug.-Sept.  1869,  we  have  an  increase  of  visibility  in  spots,  the  behaviour 
of  the  craterlets  being  altogether  different.  Certain  neighbouring  spots,  to 
which  allusion  has  been  made,  declined  greatly  in  visibility,  and  were  very 
seldom  seen  during  a  period  in  which  the  craterlets  were  almost  always 
visible ;  and  in  connexion  with  this  it  may  be  remembered  that  craterlets 
are  characterized  by  high  degrees  of  visibility,  while  of  many  spots  which 
have  large  ranges  the  normal  degrees  of  visibility  are  low. 

That  a  connexion  exists  between  the  streaks  and  spots  is,  as  Mr.  Pratt 
remarks,  "self-evident ;"  and  Mr.  Elger  has  shown  that  most  of  the  spots 
occur  on  the  streaks.  Now  as  both  spots  and  streaks  vary  in  brilliancy  and 
visibility,  may  not  the  steaks  consist,  as  Mr.  Pratt  suggests,  of  ejecta  from 
the  volcanic  orifices  of  the  craterlets?  The  increased  brightness  of  the 
streaks  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  border  has  been  frequently  noticed,  as 
well  as  the  unevenness  of  the  floor.  It  may  be  possible  that  newly  ejected 
matter  (especially  if  it  be  of  the  character  of  "broken  glass,"  suggested,  I 
believe,  by  Dr.  Huggins  as  explanatory  of  the  appearance  of  Linne)  may 
reflect  light  more  strongly,  and  thus  contribute  to  the  brighter  appearance 
of  the  streaks  about  the  time  at  which  the  craterlets  manifest  increased 
activity,  and  this  may  become  so  great  as  even  to  conceal  the  craterlets 
themselves.  On  the  other  hand,  although  we  are  perfectly  ignorant  of  any 
meteorological  or  chemical  action  occurring  at  the  surface  of  the  moon,  it 
may  be  permissible  to  suggest  that,  if  such  action  be  possible,  the  reflective 
power  of  the  ejecta  may  become  impaired,  and  the  streaks  in  consequence 
rendered  less  bright. 

It  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  conceive  that  volcanic  action  can  be  in  existence 
on  the  moon's  surface  without  "vapour"  of  some  kind  escaping  from  the 
orifices.  If  this  be  the  case,  condensation  must  follow,  and  the  orifice  may  be 
covered  by  the  condensed  vapour,  the  upper  surface  of  which  may  strongly 
reflect  the  light  and  produce  the  appearance  of  a  spot  when  not  in  a  state  of 
actual  eruption  ;  and  this  spot  may  be  seen  on  a  surface  covered  with  ejecta, 
the  reflective  power  of  which  has  been  impaired  since  it  left  the  orifice. 

One  of  the  brightest  portions  of  the  floor  of  Plato  is  the  S.E.,  which  is 
characterized  by  the  "sector"  or  "fan."  On  the  10th  of  January,  1870, 
!l[r.  Gledhill  observed  as  many  as  nine  crater-cones  on  the  eastern  part  of 
the  floor,  viz.  Nos.  1,  9,  11,  17,  4,  3,  30,  7,  and  32.  It  is  easily  con- 
ceivable that  ejecta  from  some  of  these  may  be  the  perennial  source  of  the 
reflective  power  of  the  "  sector." 

"  It  is,  as  far  as  I  can  see,"  says  Mr.  Pratt,  "  not  at  all  proven  that  it  is 
impossible  that  they,  the  spots,  may  not  be  small  acting  volcanos  at  this 
present  moment ;  and  you  will  please  credit  me  with  having  noted  that,  on 
the  13th  of  May,  although  the  spots  were  very  greatly  in  excess  of  their 
usual  brightness,  the  relative  brilliancy  of  the  light  streaks  was  not  nearly 


90  .  REPORT  — 1871. 

in  the  8ame  proportion,  indeed  not  so  high  as  on  some  nights  when  fewer 
spots  have  heen  visible.  The  supposition  of  Schroter  of  an  exceedingly  low 
atmosphere,  confined  to  the  lower  regions,  seems  to  me  especially  consonant 
with  the  above  observations,  for  the  following  among  other  reasons  : — 

"  A  thin  atmosphere,  the  only  possible  detection  of  which  is  confined  to  the 
lower  parts  of  the  floor  [that  is  within  the  mountainous  enclosure  of  Plato], 
may  obscure  the  streaks  partially  [to  effect  this  there  must  be  condensed 
material  of  some  kind]  without  affecting  the  spots,  which,  if  craterlets,  are 
raised  more  or  less  above  the  level  of  the  streaks  [the  low  fogs,  the  upper  sur- 
faces of  which  are  at  a  less  elevation  than  ordinary  buildings  are  high,  may  be 
cited  as  examples]  ;  for  such  an  atmosphere  would  probably  be  rendered  more 
dense  by  and  during  the  supposed  activity  in  the  spots,  which  on  that  night 
were  unusually  bright  and,  according  to  the  hypothesis,  in  action.  [It  must 
not  be  forgotten  that  on  comparing  the  observations  of  Mr.  Pratt  with  those 
of  Mr.  Gledhill,  the  presumption  is  that  the  iinusual  number  and  brilliancy 
of  the  spots  was  simply  the  effect  of  a  finer  atmosphere  at  Brighton  as 
compared  with  that  at  Halifax.  The  phenomenon  which  is  at  variance  with 
this  is  the  less  brihiancy  of  the  streaks  as  recorded  by  Mr.  Pratt ;  still  we 
have  the  bright  streaks  of  Mr.  Gledhill  supporting  the  hypothesis  of  the  effects 
of  the  earth's  atmosphere.]  Hence  after  a  subsidence  of  the  brightness  of  the 
spots  and  the  restoration  of  the  normal  state  of  the  atmosphere,  we  might 
expect  to  see  the  streaks  come  out  more  distinctly." 

It  wiU  be  remarked  that,  in  my  suggestions  above,  the  increased  bright- 
ness of  the  streaks  is  supposed  to  depend  upon  the  craterlets  actually 
ejecting  material,  while  the  increased  brightness  of  the  spots  depends  upon 
the  escape  of  vapour.  I  have  not  quoted  Mr.  Pratt's  remarks  for  the 
purpose  of  controverting  them ;  they  appear  to  me  to  be  exceedingly 
valuable,  and  in  the  present  state  of  selenological  inquiry  it  is  important 
to  canvass  every  view  that  may  be  put  forward.  It  is  quite  consonant  with 
both  our  views  that  increased  activity  in  a  spot  may,  and  doubtless  does, 
manifest  itself  by  increased  brilliancy ;  and  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the  forma- 
tion of  a  spot  in  the  way  suggested  over  a  volcanic  orifice  otherwise  invisible 
may  precede  an  actual  eruption,  contributing  to  an  increased  brilliancy  of 
the  streaks  if  they  really  result  from  volcanic  ejecta. 

On  the  agencies  capable  of  affecting  the  visibility  of  objects  on  the  moon 
Mr.  Pratt  remarks  : — "  To  my  own  mind  the  only  likely  agencies  that  can 
exist  in  the  moon  capable  of  affecting  the  visibility  of  objects  are  the  every- 
where-denied lunar  atmosphere  and  real  volcanic  activity ;  as  far  as  I  can 
learn,  the  observations  of  some  favour  the  one  agency,  while  other  observations 
do  the  same  for  the  other,  at  the  same  time  that  different  observei-s 
alternately  deny  the  possible  existence  of  either.  Surely  they  are  very 
closely  related.  If  volcanic  activity  be  established,  can  it  exist  without 
an  atmosijhere  ?  AVhile  if  a  low  atmosphere  be  established,  would  not  the 
stronger  objection  to  present  volcanic  activity  be  removed?  The  hope  that 
persistent  and  minute  observation  of  a  suitable  region  might  produce  a 
result  sufficient  either  to  weaken  or  strengthen  the  supposition  has  been  at 
once  the  impetus  and  bond  which  has  induced  me  to  give  a  large  share  of 
attention  to  Plato.  "We  may  not  have  attained  such  a  result  even  yet ;  but 
possibly  continued  application  may  be  rewarded.  I  hope  so.  The  close 
study  of  typical  species  is  generally  the  best  method  of  acquiring  a  good 
knowledge  of  genera." 

Mr.  Pratt  further  adds: — "  The  reverse  of  what  I  have  here  stated  I  have 
several  times  observed,  viz.  that  the  light  streaks  on  those  occasions  were 


OBSERVATIONS  Or  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  91 

much  hrigTiter  relativehj  to  their  best  state  thaa  were  the  spots,   of  •which 
generally  at  those  times  lew  have  been  discernible." 

1870,  May  13.  Mr.  Pratt  has  not  only  specified  the  order  of  brightness  as 
follows :  — 


Spots  No. : 

Visibility : 

1. 
1-000 

4. 

-892 

3. 

•897 

5. 
•510 

17. 

•830 

14. 
•433 

22. 

•175 

6. 

•222 

13. 

•156 

16. 
-294 

Spots  No. : 
Visibility : 

20. 
•046 

2.3. 
■046 

18. 
•072 

19. 
■150 

29. 
•036 

0. 
•046 

24. 

•057 

21. 
•026 

9. 

•222 

10. 
•062 

Spots  No. : 
Visibility : 

2. 
-046 

25. 
•144 

30. 
•139 

31. 
•031 

12. 

•031 

7. 
•113 

which  we  can  compare  with  the  degree  of  visibility  for  the  18  lunations  as 
given  immediately  under  the  number  of  each  spot  (trom  this  comparison  we 
see  that  the  brightness  ou  May  13  was  not  strictly  accordant  with  the 
visibility),  but  he  has  described  the  character  of  visibility  by  the  words  easy, 
conspicuous,  &c.,  thus  forming  with  the  spots  7iot  seen  eight  classes  of  objectSj 
au  analysis  of  which  may  be  interesting. 

Class     I.  contains  one  spot  only,  Jfo.  1,  deg.  of -ds.  =  1-000. 

Pratt.  Exceedingly  bright  and  dense. 

Elgcr.  Unusually  bright. 

Gledhill.  Bright  spot. 
Class   II.  contains  one  spot  only,  No.  4,  deg.  of  vis.  =     •892. 

Pratt.  Bright  but  hazy. 

Elger.  No  remark. 

Gledhill.  S^Dot. 
Class  III.  contains  one  sjjot  only,  No.  3,  deg.  of  vis.  =     •897. 

Pratt.  Distinct ;  he  inserts  5  between  3  and  17. 

Elger.  3  and  17  nearly  equal. 

Gledhill.  Bright  spot. 


Class  IV.  contains 

four  spots,  viz.  Nos.  17, 

5   14  22 

No. 

Pratt. 

Elger. 

Gledhill. 

Vis. 

17. 

Con.spicuous. 

Nearly  equal  to  3. 
'  Yery  faint  on  east  1 

Bright  spot. 

•830 

5. 

5> 

-  border  of  eastern  - 
arm  of  "  trident." 

Not  seen. 

•510 

14. 

» 

Seen  by  glimpses. 

)? 

•433 

22. 

3) 

Not  seen. 

)» 

•175 

Mr.  Pratt  observed  the  three  components  of  the  group  3,  30,  31  :  he 
described  30  and  31  as  steadily  seen  ;  they  occur  in  Class  VI.  Mr.  Pratt 
accorded  to  spot  No.  22  a  high  degree  of  brightness  on  this  evening,  and 
described  it  as  "  conspicuous  :  "  neither  Mr.  Elger  nor  Mr.  Gledhill  detected 
it ;  this  doubtless  depended  upon  the  state  of  our  own  atmosphere.  It  may, 
however,  be  remarked  that  the  spot  was  less  visible  on  May  13,  1870,  as 
compared  with  its  visibility  in  August  1869,  when  it  was  seen  by  every 
observer. 

The  position  of  spot  No.  5,  as  observed  by  Mr.  Pratt  on  August  26,  1869, 
was  on  the  ivest  border  of  the  eastern  arm  of  the  "  trident."  The  spot  No  5, 
discovered  by  Challis,  and  possessing  a  normal  visibility  of  -510,  has  been  so 
frequently  observed  as  almost  to  warrant  its  stability  of  position ;  and  should 
its  relative  position,  as  regards  the  eastern  arm  of  the  trident,  be  found  to 
vary,  it  will  afford  evidence  of  a  probable  variation  in  the  position  of  the 
arm.  Schroter's  drawings  of  the  Mare  Crisium  indicate  similar  movements 
of  the  streaks  from  Proclus  over  the  Mare, 


92 


REPORT — 

1871 

• 

ass  V. 

contains 

eight  spots,  viz 

.  Nos. 

16,  6, 13, 

19, 

18,20, 

No. 

Pratt. 

Elger, 

Glcdhill. 

Yis. 

16. 

Easy. 

Easy. 

Not  seen. 

•294 

6. 

Not  seen. 

•222 

13. 

•156 

19. 

•150 

18. 

•072 

20. 

•046 

23. 

•046 

29. 

•036 

Of  tlie  spots  in  this  class,  and  which  Mr.  Pratt  describes  as  easy,  one 
only.  No.  16,  was  seen  by  Mr.  Elger.  This  spot  has  a  higher  degree  of 
visibility  than  22  in  Class  IV.,  "  conspicnous ; "  and  this  is  perhaps  another 
indication  that  the  \-isibility  of  No.  22  on  May  13  did  not  wholly  depend 
upon  the  state  of  the  earth's  atmosphere. 

The  normal  degrees  of  visibility  in  this  class  range  from  ^294  to  -036, 
furnishing  a  strong  indication  that  they  were  seen  in  consequence  of  a  fine 
state  of  the  earth's  atmosphere. 

Class  VI.  contains  five  spots,  viz.  Nos.  9,  30,  24,  31,  21. 

Vis. 
•222 
•139 
•057 
•031 
•026 

The  same  remark  may  be  applied  to  this  class  as  to  Class  V.,  viz.  that  the 
spots  were  seen  in  consequence  of  a  fine  state  of  the  earth's  atmosphere. 
The  two  spots  Nos.  9  and  30,  with  comparative  high  degrees  of  visibility, 
are  xeij  frequently  seen  by  Mr.  Glcdhill,  and  doubtless  were  not  seen  by 
him  in  consequence  of  the  bad  state  of  the  atmosphere  at  Halifax. 

Class  VII.  contains  six  spots,  viz.  Nos.  25,  7,  10,  2,  0,  12. 


No. 

Pratt. 

Elger.                          Gledhill. 

9. 

Minute. 

Not  seen.                Not  seen. 

30. 

SteadUy. 

99                                                                99 

24. 

99 

Seen  3  or  4  times.       ,, 

31. 

99 

Not  seen.                      ,, 

21. 

99 

99                                                               99 

No. 

Pratt. 

Elger. 

Gledhill. 

Vis. 

25. 

Frequently  glimpsed. 

Not  seen. 

•144 

7. 

,    , 

Not  seen. 

•113 

10. 

,    , 

99 

•062 

2. 

Hazy. 

99 

•046 

0. 

,    , 

99 

•046 

12. 

,    . 

99 

•031 

Spot  No. 

25,  vis. 

•144,  is  frequently  seen 

ty 

Mr.  Elger. 

In  addition  to  the  above,  Mr.  Elger  frequently  glimpsed  No.  32.  The 
WHOLE  of  the  above  sj^ots,  as  well  as  the  strcciJcs  recorded  by  Mr.  Pratt,  were 
observed  three  separate  times  at  intervals  of  about  twenty  minutes.  The 
majority  was  seen  much  oftcner. 

The  following  spots  were  not  seen  on  the  evening  of  May  13 : — 
Spot:    11.       34.         8.       15.       33.       27.       26.       28.       35. 
Vis.:    ^144     ^026     -015     ^015     -010     -010     ^005     ^005     •OOo 

"With  the  exception  of  spot  No.  11,  which  is  frequently  seen  by  Mr. 
Gledhill,  these  spots  were  doubtless  concealed  by  or,  rather,  required  a  still 
finer  state  of  the  atmosphere  to  bring  them  out.  It  is  difficult  to  say  why 
^r.  Pratt  did  not  detect  spot  No.  11  when  he  saw  thirteen  sjiots  with  lower 
degrees  of  visibility.     It  is  one  of  those  spots  to  which  special  attention 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  93 

should  be  directed.  Of  the  remainder,  three  have  been  observed  orn^e  only 
by  Mr.  Gledhill,  viz.  Wos.  26,  28,  and  3-5  ;  two  have  been  observed  twice, 
viz.  Nos.  27  and  33 ;  two  thrice,  both  old  spots,  viz.  8  (Gruithuisen)  and  15 
(Dawes);  and  one,  1^0.34,  six  times  between  January  15  and  March  13, 1870*. 
In  his  letter  dated  1870,  May  19,  Mr.  Pratt  says  that  "  spot  No.  8  could 
not  be  recovered  even  with  the  most  minute  attention."  Of  spot  No.  1  he 
says,  "  it  was  brighter  than  I  have  seen  it  before,  quite  round  and  dense, 
much  hke  the  image  of  a  star  on  a  good  night  surrounded  by  the  very  least 
trace  of  a  ring  of  light.  [Neither]  internal  nor  external  shadows  could  be 
seen,  although  I  constantly  expected  a  slight  glimpse." 

Spot  No.  22. 

In  reference  to  this  spot  Mr.  Pratt  writes,  under  date  1870  August  2Q,  as 
follows  : — 

"  Spot  No.  22,  according  to  my  observations,  has  manifested  a  remarkable 
increase  of  brightness,  and  those  parts  of  the  shaded  portions  of  the  floor  of 
Plato  which  are  nearest  to  the  rim  have  come  out  more  conspicuously  darker 
than  the  rest  than  I  remember  to  have  previously  noted.  The  tint  of  the 
floor,  too,  has  progressively  paled.  These  three  phenomena  [the  increased 
brightness  of  spot  22,  the  intensification  of  the  darker  parts  of  the  floor  near 
the  rim,  and  the  progressive  paling  of  the  floor]  may  possibly  be  connected 
by  a  common  cause ;  for  certainly  in  this  lunation  there  is  somewhat  of  a 
coincidence  amongst  them ;  for  instance,  spot  22  is  intensely  bright  at  the 
time  the  marginal  portions  of  the  shaded  parts  are  most  conspicuously  dark, 
and  these  two,  again,  coincide  with  the  time  when  the  general  tint  of  the 
floor  is  at  its  darkest.  Again,  after  August  12  and  13,  spot  22  decreased  in 
relative  intensity,  although  I  am  not  ready  to  hazard  the  assertion  that  it 
had  on  August  16  positively  declined  to  its  \isual  intensity,  as  it  was  not 
seen.  [It  was  on  this  evening  that  Mr.  Pratt  observed  three  spots  only.] 
Two  similar  instances,  I  believe,  I  have  noted  before,  when  22  manifested  a 
singular  brightness  at  sunrise.  But  the  connexion  between  the  visibility  of 
the  deeper-tinted  margin  and  the  general  deepening  of  colour  is  perhaps  more 
close  still,  as  both  certainly  paled  after  August  13.  The  perplexity  seems  to 
be  that  the  variation  in  intensity  of  the  margin  is  relative  in  respect  of  the 
general  colour  ;  and  if  difiorences  of  angles  of  illumination  and  vision  do  affect 
the  general  tint,  it  might  be  supposed  that  they  would  in  the  same  manner 
afi'ect  the  margin  and  so  produce  no  relative  variation  of  intensity." 

In  connexion  with  the  relative  intensity  of  which  Mr.  Pratt  speaks,  the 
state  of  the  border  is  somewhat  important.  August  12  and  13,  when  the 
marginal  portions  of  the  floor  were  intensified  in  colour,  Mr.  Pratt  recorded 
of  the  border  : — "  Definition  fair  at  times,  with  much  tremor,  wind  N.E." 
This  was  on  the  12th.     On  the  13th  the  record  is :   "  Border,  definition  bad, 

*  The  history  of  spot  No.  34  is  curious  ;  the  following  are  the  only  records  which  exist 
of  it.  The  observations  were  all  made  by  Mr.  Gledhill  with  the  Halifax  9  J-inch  equatorial 
in  the  Observatory  of  Edward  Crossley,  Esq. 

1870,  January  15,  10  to  13  hours.  "  I  am  continually  thinking  I  see  an  object  close  to 
No.  1  and  to  the  west  of  it." 

February  11,  6.45.  "  No.  1  often  comes  out  double  ;  last  year  I  often  saw  it  thus.  I  am 
now  almost  quite  sure  I  see  a  minute  object  close  to  the  west  of  it." 

February  12,  6.0.     "  Saw  9,  11,  30,  and  object  close  west  of  No.  1." 

March  12,  6  to  8  hours.     No.  34  mentioned  as  having  been  seen. 

March  13,  G  to  12  hours.  "Unless  I  am  very  much  mistaken  indeed  34  is  an  easy 
object,  i.  e.  No.  1  comes  out  easily  double." 

There  are  no  records  after  this  date.  Instruments  less  than  9-inches  aperture  are  not 
likely  to  redetect  it. 


94  REPORT 1871. 

much  boiling,  wind  N.E."  On  the  12th,  definition  fair,  the  floor  was  recorded 
as  "  very  dark."  On  the  13th  it  was  dark,  but  not  so  much  so  as  on  the 
12th.  On  the  16th,  as  well  as  on  the  15th,  the  definition  of  the  border  was 
"  bad."  These  records  clearly  throw  a  doubt  upon  the  supposition  of  the 
"  paling "  having  resulted  from  some  lunar  action,  inasmiich  as  when,  the 
deeper  tint  was  observed  the  definition  was  "good,"  the  "tremor"  and 
"  boiling  "  having  a  tendency  to  confuse  the  portions  of  the  floor.  On  the 
other  hand,  spots  have  been  much  more  numerous  with  bad  definition  than 
3  as  observed  by  Mr.  Pratt  on  the  l(3th  ;  and  this  would  lead  to  the  supposition 
that  the  (qrparent  extinction  of  the  spots  with  a  pale  floor  was  in  some 
way  differently  connected  than  by  a  deteriorated  state  of  the  earth's  atmo- 
sphere. I  have  often  observed  that  the  passage  of  a  thin  cloud  over  the 
moon  has  greatly  contributed  to  intensify  the  tints  of  the  darker  portions  of 
the  surface ;  but  in  this  case  the  intensification  has  been  general  and  not 
partial,  as  it  would  be  if  dependent  upon  local  lunar  action. 

Mr.  Pratt  records  a  case  of  parfial  obscuration  which  was  well  seen  oil 
August  13.  "  It  appeared,"  says  Mr.  Pratt,  "  on  this  wise.  A  general  view 
of  the  floor  showed  it  much  speckled  and  streaked  in  other  pai'ts  ;  but  over 
the  area  specified  [Mr.  Pratt  has  not  mentioned  the  particidar  part  of  the 
floor ;  but  from  what  follows  I  apprehend  it  must  be  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
No.  3]  there  seemed  an  absence  of  markings ;  close  attention,  however, 
enabled  some  to  be  seen,  but  not  nearly  so  richly  as  the  remainder  of  the 
floor,  and  we  know  well  enough  that  that  particular  area  is  not  wanting  in 
markings.  The  evening's  view  has  just  occurred  to  memory  when  I  first 
discovered  that  spot  3  was  a  triple  one,  and  had  a  remarkalile  view  of  its 
neighbourhood  [Qy.  "Was  this  on  May  13  ?],  therefore  exactly  the  reverse 
being  the  case.  August  13  seems  as  conclusive  a  proof  as  one  observer  is 
likely  to  obtain  in  a  year's  work." 

Of  four  observers  on  the  same  evening,  two  record  No.  3,  and  the  other 
two  appear  not  to  have  seen  it.  Taking  them  in  chronological  order,  Neison, 
9.5  to  9.15,  records  it  as  distinct ;  Pratt,  10.30  to  12.30,  did  not  observe 
it;  Ormesher,  11.0  to  11.30,  does  not  show  it  in  his  drawing;  Gledhill, 
14'',  records  it  as  a  bright  disk  :  he  also  records  30.  As  these  observations 
are  not  contemporaneous,  with  the  exception  of  Ormcsher's,  having  been 
made  while  Pratt  was  observing,  it  appears,  from  its  absence  in  both  their 
records,  that  from  10.30  to  12.30  it  was  really  not  visible  ;  and  this  tends  to 
support  Mr.  Pratt's  idea  that  for  the  time  it  was  hidden  by  something  like 
an  obscuring  medium.  "What  this  could  have  been  it  is  difficult  to  surmise. 
The  remark,  however,  of  Neison  that  30  Avas  not  to  be  seen  between  9.5 
and  9.15  is  interesting  in  connexion  with  Gledhill  recording  both  spots  at  a 
later  epoch,  14'',  and  also  detecting  five  not  seen  by  Pratt,  viz.  3,  30,  9,  11, 
18.  Neison  suspected  he  saw  14,  not  recorded  by  Gledhill  nor  Pratt,  but 
seen  by  Ormesher.  Pratt  saw  22,  not  seen  by  either  of  the  others.  The 
case  of  14  is  a  little  perplexing ;  it  might,  however,  have  been  missed  by 
Pratt  on  account  of  the  bad  definition.  "With  regard  to  the  greater  number 
of  spots  seen  by  GledhiU,  two  circumstances  may  have  contributed  to  this 
result,  the  larger  aperture  of  Mr.  Crossley's  instrument  and  the  epoch  at 
which  Mr.  Gledhill  observed.  It  may  possibly  be  found  that  the  greater 
number  of  spots  recorded  after  the  sun's  meridian  passage  at  Plato  depend 
upon  the.  steadiness  and  purity  of  the  air  mostly  experienced  after  midnight. 

Suiisei  and  Sunrise  on  Plato, 
Extracts  from  Mr.  Pratt's  notebook,  1870,  Oct.  17,  11''  to  \2\     Definl- 


OBSERVATIONS  OF  LUNAR  OBJECTS.  95 

tion  fair,  -with  boiling.  *  *  Plato  is  a  grand  and  striking  sight.  Tint  of 
floor  medium.  More  than  half  the  floor  in  shadow.  Terminator  just  in- 
cluding the  W.  rim.  The  rim  of  the  crater  on  the  N.  exterior  slope  finely 
seen.  In  three  parts  the  rim  appeared  hrolcen  down  to  Uvd  of  floor — close 
to  m,  opposite  to  c,  and  nearly  so  at  W.  II  E"/'^  [the  hreaks  at  m  and  op- 
posite c  are  in  the  line  of  the  well-known  fault  crossing  Plato  from  N.W. 
to  S.E.].  ^  was  throwing  a  long  spire  of  shadow  the  full  length  of  the 
floor  at  11"  40°'.  That  part  of  the  floor  contiguous  to  the  W.  and  S.W. 
rim  was  deeply  shaded,  with  streaks  of  shade  running  towards  the  centre  of 
the  floor.  Between  the  break  near  c  and  the  shadow  of  '(  a  straight  shading 
as  of  a  narrow  valley  was  weU  seen.  [These  shadings  appear  to  be  roughly 
coincident  with  the  dark  spaces  on  the  floor  as  seen  under  high  illumination, 
the  straight  shading  being,  as  Mr.  Pratt  suggests,  between  the  "sector"  and 
the  E.  arm  of  the  "  trident."  Is  there  really  a  valley  here  running  inta 
the  central  depression  between  1  and  4,  seen  by  Mr.  Elger  in  January,  1870, 
and  observed  much  earlier  by  Schrbter?]  Between  these  shadings  and  the 
shadow  of  the  E.  rim  were  three  roundish  lighter  regions,  the  higher  parts  of 
the  floor  giving  the  appearance  of  a  strongly  marked  convexity." 

"  A  strong  suspicion  arises  that  the  apparently  higher  portions  of  the 
floor  are  the  light  streaJcs  usually  seen,  and  the  highest  parts  are  spots  1,  17 
and  5."  Mr.  Pratt  further  suggests  that  the  light  streaks  are  coincident 
with  formations  analogous  to  "  spurs "'  from  the  chief  centres  of  the  residual 
activity  on  the  floor. 

It  is  not  a  little  remarkable  that  on  the  occasion  of  such  a  very  favoiirable 
oblique  illumination  the  craterlets  1  and  17  should  not  have  been  detected 
by  Mr.  Pratt ;  both  have  raised  rims  of  the  nature  of  true  volcanic  cones, 
and  1  has  been  seen,  and  I  believe  17  also,  with  interior  shadows  and  bright 
interiors  facing  the  sun.  Mr.  Pratt  does  not  appear  to  have  seen  even  the 
remotest  semblance  of  a  shadow.  The  spots properlg  so  called  do  not  appear 
generally  iintil  the  sun  has  attained  an  altitude  of  20°.  If  craterlets  are 
recorded  as  spots  earlier,  it  is  probably  in  consequence  of  bad  definition 
confusing  the  crater-form  appearance.  Is  it  possible  that  on  the  two 
occasions  mentioned  by  Mr.  Pratt,  Oct.  17  and  Nov.  1,  the  craterlets  1,  17, 
3,  and  4  were  by  some  means  concecded?  As  regards  Nov.  1,  the  observation 
of  the  crater-cones  as  the  shadows  gradually  recede  from  E.  to  W.  is  very 
frequent ;  indeed  the  surface  of  Plato  as  it  just  emerges  out  of  night  ajjpears 
to  be  in  a  very  different  state  to  what  it  is  about  mid-day  ;  objects  are  much 
sharper,  and  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  of  any  agency  so  affecting  such  visible 
objects  as  to  render  them  invisible  at  a  time  when  they  are  generally  most 
conspicuous.  So  far  as  contemporaneous  observations  are  capable  of  throwing 
light  on  this  phenomenon,  three  spots  only  were  recorded  on  the  same  even- 
ing ;  No.  1  by  Mr.  Elger,  who  noticed  it  from  9''  to  9**  S",  near  the  shadow 
of  the  summit  of  the  middle  peak  of  the  W.  wall,  three  hours  later  than 
Mr.  Pratt's  observation.  Mr.  Gledhill  at  6"*,  same  as  Mr.  Pratt,  says,  "  Moon 
so  low  and  air  so  thick  that  very  little  light  from  moon  can  reach  us  ;"  he 
says  also,  "  I  sec  3  as  double  elevated  cones  [i.e.  3  and  30].  No  other  objects 
can  be  seen."  Mr.  Neison,  5.10  to  8.15  [probably  8.10  to  8.15]  succeeded 
in  seeing  3  only,  which  he  records  as  very  faint.  He  does  not  give  the  state 
of  the  atmosphere  as  to  definition  ;  but  from  his  remarking  that  "  a  deep  cleft 
in  west  edge  of  wall  was  very  distinctly  seen,"  I  should  suppose  that  it  was 
pretty  good.  Taking  the  four  sets  of  observations  it  would  appear  that  at 
sunrise  on  Plato  Nov.  1,  1870,  some  ageney  was  in  operation  capable  of 
concealing  the  craterlets ;  and  combining  these  observations  with  those  of 


96  REPORT 1871. 

Oct.  X7,  it  would  also  appear  that  the  same  agency  was  in  operation  at  the 
time  of  the  previous  sunset. 

1870,  Nov.  1,  6''  to  6*"  40™.  "A  grand  view  again.  Definition  fair  at 
times.  The  margin  of  the  eastern  end  of  the  floor  very  distinctly  shaded, 
showing  that  end  to  he  convex  as  well  as  the  western.  This  shading  did  not 
conform  to  the  general  form  of  rim,  but  ran  inwards  (as  shown  in  the 
sketch) ;  and  three  places  on  the  floor  were  much  brighter  than  the  rest, 
which  was  free  from  shading  (their  localities  I  have  no  doubt  are  those  of 
spots  3,  4,  and  17),  while  the  next  bright  parts  of  the  floor  are  suggestive 
of  the  light  streaks;  and  the  shading  or  lower  part  coinciding  with  the 
narrowing  of  the  streak  between  4  and  3  as  seen  under  higher  illumination 
in  a  measure  supports  the  impression." 

The  dip  of  the  floor  towards  the  border,  as  mentioned  by  Mr.  Pratt,  is 
now  well  established  by  numerous  observations,  also  the  comparatively 
greater  elevation  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  fault  crossing  Plato  from 
N.W.  to  S.E.  These  characteristics  will  probably  afford  some  clue  towards 
framing  a  theory  of  the  formation  of  the  plain  and  rampart.  Starting  with 
the  now  acknowledged  principle  that  the  moon  manifests  on  a  large  scale  the 
operation  of  volcanic  forces,  we  may  first  inquire  as  to  their  modus  operandi 
in  the  forms  we  observe.  So  far  as  we  know,  volcanos  and  earthquakes  are 
closely  connected,  and  there  is  great  reason  to  believe  that  both  are  the 
results  of  expansion  occasioned  by  the  intumescence  of  material  beneath  the 

Pig.  8. 


crust  or  surface.  It  was,  I  believe,  Scropc  who  first  called  attention  to  the 
effect  of  the  expansion  of  an  iutumescent  mass  elevating  the  superincumbent 
material ;  and  Hopkins,  twenty-two  years  later,  clearly  showed  that  when 
the  surface  was  elevated  to  the  point  at  which  the  tension  and  cohesion  just 
balanced  each  other,  the  slightest  increase  of  tension  ruptured  the  surface 
and  produced  fissures,  which  might  be  considerably  augmented  by  earthquake- 
waves  accompanied  by  the  sudden  subsidence  of  the  tract  between  two 
principal  lines  of  fissures.  In  applying  this  reasoning  to  the  explanation  of 
the  formation  of  "  Plato,"  the  remarks  of  Scrope  are  so  much  to_  the  point 
that  a  transcription  of  them  is  essential  to  the  due  apprehension  of  the 
forces  concerned. 

In  chapter  x.  of  his  '  Considerations  of  Yolcanos,'  p.  205  (1825),  Scrope, 
speaking  of  M.  de  Buch's  opinion  that  the  intumescence  and  rise  of  the 
basalt  elevated  the  superincumbent  strata,  says :  "  1  differ  from  him,  inas- 
much as  I  conceive  the  intumescence  and  rise  of  the  basalt  to  be  not 
the  cause  but  the  result  of  the  elevation  of  the  overlying  strata. 

"A  general  fact,  noticed  by  M.  de  Buch  himself,  proves  this  most 
thoroughly,  viz.  that  wherever  the  basalt  appears,  the  strata  are  invariably 
found  dipping  toivards  it,  which  is  wholly  inexplicable  under  the  idea  that 
the  basalt  elevated  them.  ...  If,  however,  we  suppose  the  expansion  of 
the  subterranean  bed  of  crystalHne  rock  to  have  taken  place  at  a  great  depth, 
elevating  the  overlying  strata  irregularly  along  the  line  of  various  fissures, 


THERMAL  CONDUCTIVITY  OF  METALS.  97 

as  for  example  at  A  and  B  (fig.  8),  it  is  clear  such  fissures  will  open  outwardly ; 
but  in  the  interval  of  two  such  fissures,  as  at  C,  another  must  be  found  opening, 
on  the  contrary,  downivards,  that  is,  towards  the  confined  and  heated  lava, 
which  in  consequence  must  intumesce  and  fill  the  space  afforded  to  it,  and 
perhaps  force  its  way  through  some  minor  cleft  upon  the  external  surface  of 
the  elevated  rocks." 

Plato  we  know  to  be  a  large  cavity  in  an  elevated  region,  between  the 
Mare  Imbrium  and  the  Mare  Frigoris,  connected  with  the  mountain-studded 
region  of  the  Alps  on  the  west,  and  descending  with  a  precipitous  slope 
towards  the  east.  The  whole  of  the  surface  around  Plato  is  exceedingly 
rugged,  containing  at  least  the  remains  of  three  craters  of  more  ancient  date. 
It  is  the  floor  of  Plato  only  that  presents  any  appearance  of  a  recent  character ; 
and  even  this  when  Aaewed  by  very  obhque  light  is  far  from  being  level. 
The  sketch  (fig.  8)  to  which  reference  has  already  been  made  is  intended  to  con- 
vey some  idea  of  the  successive  steps  by  which  it  is  probable  that  Plato  has 
arrived  at  its  present  form.  It  is  roughly  drawn  to  scale,  which  is  somewhat 
too  small,  and,  consequently,  the  height  of  the  rim  rather  exaggerated ;  the 
extent  being  316,800  English  feet,  the  height,  under  4000  feet  (i.  e.  of  the 
rim  exclusive  of  the  four  pinnacles),  will  be  nearly  -j^jth  part.  The  letters 
A  and  B  are  placed  over  the  supposed  foci  of  expansion,  the  arrows  indi- 
cating the  direction  of  the  elevating  movements,  the  dotted  line  showing  the 
extreme  height  to  which  the  surface  could  be  raised  without  fracture.  Over 
A  and  B,  and  above  C,  are  placed  the  three  main  fissures  resulting  from  the  in- 
creased tension  and  the  general  breaking  up  of  the  elevated  mass,  and  which 
might  have  been  accompanied  with  an  almost  immediate  subsidence,  as  sug- 
gested by  Hopkins,  Eeport  Brit.  Assoc.  1847,  p.  64,  in  the  following  passage  : — 
"  If  the  intumescence  of  the  subjacent  fluid,  and  consequently  its  supporting 
power,  were  immediately  afterwards  diminished  by  the  escape  of  elastic 
vapours,  there  would  be  an  immediate  subsidence."  Such  a  subsidence,  or 
rather  a  succession  of  subsidences,  would  fuUy  account  for  the  formation  of 
the  floors  of  most  craters  ;  and  the  upwelling  of  lava  from  numerous  small 
orifices  would  tend  to  produce  such  a  floor  as  we  observe  on  Plato.  The 
section  presents  all  the  characteristics  of  the  walled  plain  under  considera- 
tion, the  dip  towards  the  border  being  strongly  indicative  of  the  main  line  of 
fissiire  opening  outwardly  at  the  foot  of  the  rampart.  It  may  be  well  to 
mention  that  no  new  principle  is  introduced  in  this  explanation,  which  is 
based  upon  the  views  of  two  leading  geologists,  after  comparing  them  with 
phenomena  that  have  been  assiduously  and  repeatedly  observed. 


Second  Provisional  Report  on  the  Thermal  Conductivity  of  Metals. 

By  Prof.  Tait. 

Since  the  date  of  the  former  Report  the  Committee  have  obtained  a  splendid 
set  of  Kew  standard  thermometers.  "With  these,  complete  sets  of  observa- 
tions, at  very  diiferent  temperatures,  have  been  made  on  iron,  two  specimens 
of  copper,  lead,  german  silver,  and  gas-coke.  As  great  difficulty  was  found 
in  keeping  the  source  of  heat  at  a  constant  high  temperature  in  the  statical 
experiments,  they  were  repeated  from  day  to  day  tiU  satisfactory  results 
were  obtained.  But  a  simple  and  ingenious  device  of  Dr.  Crum  Brown  (con- 
sisting in  making  the  descending  counterpoise  of  a  small  gas-holder  nip  an 
india-rubber  tube)  supplied  so  very  great  an  improvement  in  steadiness  of 
temperature  that  it  was  considered  advisable  to  repeat  all  the  statical  expe- 
1871.  H 


98  REPORT 1871. 

riments  with  thia  modification.  This  has  accordingly  been  done,  during  the 
present  summer,  but  it  has  not  yet  been  possible  to  perform  the  large  amount 
of  calculation  necessarj-  to  obtain  final  results.  It  may  be  stated,  however, 
that  the  results  as  a  whole  will  not  differ  very  considerably  from  those  for- 
merly obtained,  so  far,  at  least,  as  can  be  judged  from  a  comparison  of  the 
graphic  representations  of  the  experiments. 


Report  on  the  Rainfall  of  the  British  Isles,  by  a  Committee,  consisting 
of  C.  Brooke,  F.R.S.  [Chairman),  J.  Glaisher,  F.R.S.,  Prof. 
Phillips,  F.R.S.,  J.  F.  Batemax,  C.E.,  F.R.S.,  R.  W.  Mylne, 
C.E.,  F.R.S. ,  T.  Hawksley,  C.E.,  Prof.  J.  C.  Adams,  F.R.S. ,  C. 
ToMLixsox,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  Sylvester,  F.R.S.,  Dr.  Pole,  F.R.S., 
Rogers  Field,  C.E.,  and  G.  J.  Symoxs,  Secretary. 

YorB  Committee  have  much  pleasure  in  reporting  that  the  organization 
under  their  supervision  is  believed  to  be  in  a  generally  efficient  state.  With 
a  stafi"  of  observers,  numbering  nearly  two  thousand,  spread  over  the  whole 
extent  of  the  British  Isles,  there  can,  however,  be  no  question  that,  to  ensure 
perfect  efficiency  and  uniformity  of  observation,  a  systematic  inspection  of 
stations  is  absolutely  necessary.  In  a  paper  read  before  the  Society  of  Arts 
in  185S,  M!r.  BaUey  Denton  appears  to  have  considered  that  there  should  be 
one  inspector  to  about  each  200  stations  ;  at  that  rate  we  ought  to  have  ten. 
The  ;Meteorological  Committee  of  the  Royal  Society  have  made  it  a  rule  to 
have  all  their  stations  inspected  each  year.  On  the  most  moderate  com- 
putation it  is  indisputable  that  at  least  one  inspector  of  stations  is  required 
for  our  large  body  of  observers,  the  whole  of  whose  time  should  be  devoted 
to  travelling. 

Ever  since  their  appointment  yoiir  Committee  have  felt  and  acted  upon 
this  conviction ;  but  want  of  funds  has  prevented  them  from  employing  a 
regular  iuspector,  and  obliged  them  to  rely  solely  upon  the  unpaid  services  of 
their  Secretary.  Even  under  these  adverse  conditions  considerable  progress 
has  been  made  with  the  work,  and  upwards  of  400  gauges  had  been  visited 
and  examined  previous  to  the  Liverpool  Meeting.  At  that  Meeting,  how- 
ever, the  Association  only  granted  half  the  sum  for  which  we  asked,  and  we 
have  consequently  (most  reluctantly)  been  obliged  to  stop  this  important 
and  useful  work. 

As  an  interim  meastire,  and  with  a  view  to  ascertaining  ia  what  districts 
inspection  is  most  requisite,  it  has  been  suggested  that  a  schedule  of  ques- 
tions as  to  the  positions  of  their  rain-gauges  should  be  sent  to  every  observer. 
The  Committee  unanimously  approved  of  the  suggestion,  and  annex  a  copy  of 
the  Circular  and  Schedule  they  are  about  to  issue. 

British  Association  Rainfall  Committee, 

62  Camden  Square,  London,  ^N.W. 

Sis, — The  above  Committee  feel  that  it  is  most  important  that  precise  in- 
formation as  to  the  position  of  aU  the  rain-gauges  in.  the  British  Isles  should 
be  promptly  obtained.  They  are  aware  that  under  present  circumstances  it 
is  impossible  that  each  gauge  should  be  personally  inspected,  and  have  there- 
fore instructed  me  to  ask  you  to  fill  up  the  accompanying  form,  which  I 
shall  be  obliged  by  your  returning  as  soon  as  possible. 

As  an  indication  of  the  kind  of  information  which  the  Committee  desire 
to  collect,  I  have  filled  up  one  form  for  my  own  gauge  ;  but  there  are  of 
course  many  subjects  not  touched  upon  in  the  specimen  which  will  be  ac- 


ON   THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES.  99 

ceptable  in  others,  such  as  distance  from  the  sea  and  from  lofty  hills,  as 
well  as  their  direction,  <kc. 

The  Committee  wiU  also  be  glad  of  any  suggestions  as  to  the  conduct  of 
rainfall  work,  and  of  information  resjjecting  any  stations  or  old  observations 
not  included  in  the  list  published  by  them  in  1866,  and  of  which  I  shall  be 
happy  to  send  you  a  copy  if  you  have  not  already  received  one. 

Yours  veiy  truly, 

G.  J.  Stmoks,  Secretary, 

[Illustration  of  mode  of  filling  up  return.] 

POSITION  AND  PARTICULARS  OF  THE  RAIN-GAUGE 

At    [Camden  Square,  London,] 
In  the  County  of     [Middlesex.] 


Distance. 

Height. 

. .     17  ft.     . 

6  ft.] 

. .     92  ft.     . 

.     40  ft.^ 

. .     15  ft.     . 

5  ft. 

. .     12  ft.     . 

5  ft.^ 

. .     16  ft.     . 

5ft.^ 

. .     24  ft.     . 

7ft.^ 

.  .       6  ft.     . 

3ft.^ 

. .     12  ft.     . 

5  ft; 

].  rises  30  ft. 

in  1  mile.] 

Year  in  which  observations  were  first  made     [1858.] 

Hour  of  observation     [9  a.m.]     If  entered  against  the  day  of  observation,  or 

the  one  preceding     [Preceding]. 
Position     [In  garden,  120  ft.  by  24  ft.] 
Surrounding  objects,  their  distances  and  heights : 

N.      [WaU 

N.E.  [House 

E.       [WaU 

S.E.   [Wall 

S.       [WaU 

S.W.  [Summer  House 

W.     [Raspberry-bushes 

N.W.[WaU 

Inclination  of  ground    [Quite  level,  but  in 

Height  of  Ground  above  sea-level  [111]  ft.  as  determined  by  [Levelling  from 
Ordnance  Bench-mark]. 

Height  of  top  of  gauge  above  ground  [0]  ft.  [6]  in. 

Pattern  of  gauge.  (If  similar  to  any  on  plate,  quote  the  number  ;  if  not, 
give  sketch.)  [Sinular  to  No.  X.,  but  the  bent  tube  is  made  straight, 
and  a  jar  inserted  for  the  purpose  of  ensuring  more  accurate  mea- 
surement.] 

Have  the  same  gauge  and  measuring-glass  been  used  throughout  ?     [No.] 

Has  the  gauge  always  been  in  the  same  position  ?     [No.] 

[  the  previous  position     [300  yards  further  west.] 

If  not,  state  briefly  ■<  the  reason  for  the  alteration     [Growth  of  trees.] 
[  the  supposed  effect     [None  perceptible.] 

Remarks. 
[Measuring- glass  broken  in  1861,  and  a  new  tested  one  obtained,  the 
rainfaU  of  each  day  until  its  arrival  being  bottled  separately,  and  mea- 
sured by  the  new  glass.]  Signed,        [G.  J.  SYMONS.] 

Another  branch  of  investigation  which  has  been  arrested  by  the  same 
cause  is  the  relative  amount  of  rain  falling  in  different  months,  or,  as  we  have 
usually  termed  it,  the  "  monthly  percentage  of  mean  annual  rainfaU."  Several 
articles  upon  the  subject  have  appeared  in  our  previous  Reports ;  and  last 
year  we  pointed  out  that  the  observations  for  the  decade  1860-69  offered 
data  of  completeness  unparalleled,  either  in  this  or  any  other  country,  tho 

h2 


100 


REPORT 1871. 


result  of  wbicb  we  had  hoped  to  have  submitted  to  the  present  Meeting. 
Excepting  in  our  own  Reports,  we  are  not  aware  that  the  seasonal  distribu- 
tion of  rain  in  this  country  has  received  any  attention,  while  on  the  Con- 
tinent it  has  at  all  times  been  looked  upon  as  almost  equally  important  with 
the  gross  amount. 

Although  several  short  and  interrupted  sets  of  observations  have  been 
made  in  Northern  Derbyshire,  the  rainfall  of  that  hilly  district  has  not 
hitherto  been  examined  with  the  thoroughness  which  its  importance  deserves. 
"VVe  have  in  previous  Eeports  urged  the  desii'ability  of  several  additional 
stations  being  established ;  and  as  no  one  else  undertook  the  work  our  Secre- 
tary did  so,  and  by  the  assistance  of  the  observer  at  Buxton,  and  Mr. 
Hazlewood,  of  Castleton,  was  enabled  to  commence  several  sets  of  rain- 
gauge  observations  in  the  district.  Some  others  are  still  required,  which,  if 
our  funds  permit,  we  intend  to  add. 

Pit-gauges. — In  our  last  Eeport  we  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that  a  gauge 
of  which  the  orifice  was  horizontal,  level  with  the  ground,  but  in  a  small  pit 
or  excavation,  had  at  Calne  collected  about  5  per  cent,  more  than  one  of  which 
the  receiving  surface  was  one  foot  above  the  ground ;  whence  it  followed 
that  as  a  great  many  rain-gauges  (the  majority  in  fact)  are  placed  with  their 
apertures  a  foot  above  the  surface,  the  records  of  all  these  gauges  were 
below  what  they  would  have  been  if  placed  in  pits  as  just  described.  "We 
gave  some  reasons  which  appeared  to  us  to  prevent  the  general  use  of  pit- 
gauges,  and  added  the  following  concluding  remark  on  page  176  : — 

"  This  result  appears  so  startling  that  further  experiments  will  be  con- 
ducted on  the  subject." 

The  funds  at  our  disposal  have  not  allowed  us  to  do  so  ;  but  fortunately  the 
Eev.  F.  W.  Stow,  M.A.,  has  tried  one  pair  of  gauges  mounted  in  this  manner 
at  Hawsker,  on  the  Yorkshire  coast,  a  few  miles  south  of  Whitby.  The 
following  are  the  results  during  1870 : — 

Table  I. — Experiments  with  Pit-gauges. 


Hawsker,  1870. 

Brit.Assoc.Eeport,  1869-70. 

Months. 

5-in.  gauge 
at  1  foot. 

5-in.  gauge 
in  pit. 

Eatio. 

Calne,  1866-7, 
mean  ratio. 

Difference. 

January    . 
February . 
March  .  .  . 

1-610 
1-995 
1-052 
0-370 

2-650 
0-920 
1-887 
0-845 
5-000 
3-043 
5-230 

1-770 
2-300 
1-293 
0-390 

2-705 
0-977 
1-908 
0-934 
5-053 
3-234 
6-420 

110 
115 
123 
105 

102 
106 
101 
110 
101 
106 
123 

113 
109 
107 
105 

102 
103 
103 
103 
102 
106 
108 

-  3 

+   6 

+  16 
0 

""o 

+  3 

-  2 
+  7 

-  1 
0 

+  15 

April    .  .  . 

May 

June     .  .  . 

July 

August     . 
September 
October    . 
November 
December 

Totals 

24-602 

26-984 

.... 



Means  ,  .  , 

109-3 

105-5 

+  3-8 

ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES.  101 

Of  course  it  was  not  to  be  expected  that  the  resxilts  of  a  single  year  should 
agree  exactly  with  the  mean  of  two  other  years,  still  less  when  the  size  of 
gauge  used  was  different,  and  the  locality  so  opposite  as  the  inland  district 
of  Calne  and  the  rock-bound  Yorkshire  coast.  We  therefore  look  upon  it  as 
satisfactory  that  in  only  four  months  out  of  eleven  do  the  ratios  at  Calne  and 
Hawsker  differ  more  than  3  per  cent.  In  April,  June,  and  IS^ovemher  they 
are  identical.  The  Calne  results  are  thus  strongly  confirmed ;  and  it  may  be 
considered  as  certain  that  pit-gauges  always  exceed  those  at  one  foot, 
although  the  precise  amount  of  excess  remains  to  be  determined. 

In  our  last  Eeport  we  expressed  the  hope  that  we  should  this  year  be  able 
to  state  the  residt  of  the  discussion  of  all  the  rainfall  registers  which  were 
absolutely  continuous  from  January  1,  1860,  to  December  31,  18G9.  We 
have  the  pleasure  of  doing  so  in  two  respects,  viz.  (1)  with  reference  to  their 
bearing  on  the  question  of  the  existence  or  otherwise  of  secular  variation  of 
rainfall  in  the  British  Isles,  and  (2)  as  data  indicative  of  the  distribution  of 
rain  over  the  country. 

The  secular  variation  of  rainfall,  or  the  relative  dryness  and  wetness  of 
different  years  and  groups  of  years,  is  one  of  the  most  important  and  difficult 
branches  of  rainfall  work.  It  has  been  treated  in  our  Reports  for  1865,  and 
very  fully  in  that  lor  1866.  In  the  latter  we  gave  the  calculations  in  detail, 
from  which  the  values  shown  on  the  accompanying  diagram  were  obtained. 
Referring  to  that  Report  for  full  explanation,  we  have  onljr  now  t-o  mention 
that  the  subsequent  years  1866  to  1869  have  been  computed  in  the  same 
manner  and  added  to  the  diagram  (fig.  1).  We  may  also  remark  that  various 
observations  collected  since  its  publication  have  confirmed  the  general  accuracy 
of  the  curve  quite  as  much  as  could  have  been  anticipated.  On  the  present 
occasion  we  do  not  intend  to  discuss  the  relative  rainfall  of  different  years,  but 
the  relation  of  the  fall  during  the  ten  years  1860-69  to  previous  decades. 
For  this  purpose  we  have  grouped  the  yearly  values  in  decennial  periods, 
similar  to  those  adopted  in  our  1867  Report,  whence  we  obtain  the  following 
result : — 

Table  II. — Ratio  of  Rainfall  in  each  ten  years  since  1730  to  the  Mean  of 

sixty  Years,  1810-69. 


Period. 

Ratio. 

Period. 

Ratio. 

1730-39 

89-9 

1800-09 

SS-2 

1740-49 

70-6 

1810-19 

98-6 

1750-59 

85-5 

1820-29 

103-2 

1760-69 

91-1 

1830-39 

101-4 

1770-79 

103-5 

1840-49 

102-6 

1780-89 

93-5 

1850-59 

95-2 

1790-99 

96-5 

1860-69 

101-5 

Having  previously  pointed  out  the  peculiarities  of  the  earlier  portion  of 
the  curve,  it  is  only  necessary  on  the  present  occasion  to  caU  attention  to  the 
last  forty  years,  whence  it  will  be  seen  that,  according  to  this  mode  of  inves- 
tigation (which  is  principally  based  on  Enghsh  returns),  three  out  of  the  four 
decades  had  a  rainfall  nearly  identical,  and  the  other  (1850-59)  considerably 
below  them,  the  deficiency  being  nearly  7  per  cent. 

This  result  is  based  on  a  combination  of  records,  as  fully  explained  in  our 
1866  Report.  We  proceed  to  examine  how  far  it  is  corroborated  by  individual 
stations,  but  are  at  once  confronted  by  the  paucity  of  stations  of  which  per- 
fectly continuous  records  for  even  half  a  century  exist.  We  therefore  con- 
fine ourselves  to   the  forty  years,  from  1830  to  1869,  for  which  period  we 


102 


REPORT ISrl. 


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Bi 

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■ 

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as 

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o 

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— 

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. 

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■— ■, 

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-^ 

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V 

^ 

^ 

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, 

i 

i 

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■ 

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^ 

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ro 

ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES. 


103 


have  twelve  perfect  records  at  widely  separated  stations.  The  mean  fall  in 
each  decade  and  in  the  whole  period,  and  the  ratio  of  each  decade  to  the 
whole  period  at  each  station,  is  given  ia  Table  III. 


Kg.  2. 

o\ 

6\ 

6\ 

C^s 

6\ 

On      OS      CT\ 

6\ 

o\ 

o\ 

6\ 

«> 

oo 

1^ 

o 

o 

o 

1-1 

O       O        O 

oo      cr\     O 

O 
oo 

00 

o 

CO 

oo 

oo 

o 

oo 

From  careful  examination  of  Table  III.,  it  appears  that  the  amount  of 
rain  which  fell  in  the  ten  years  1830-39  was  very  similar  to  that  which 
fell  in  the  ten  following  years,  the  difference  being  a  decrease,  but  scarcely 
one  per  cent.  The  investigation  in  our  1866  Report  shows  an  increase  of 
1-2  per  cent. ;  and  examination  of  returns  ceasing  in  1850,  and  therefore  not 
quoted  in  either  Report,  show  several  cases  of  absolute  identity. 

With  one  investigation  leading  to  a  decrease  of  1  per  cent.,  another  to  an 
increase  of  the  same  amount,  and  a  third  to  identity,  we  are  led  to  the  con- 
clusion that  the  two  decades  may  be  considered  to  show  similar  results. 
This  is  a  much  more  important  fact  than  it  at  first  appears  ;  and  for   this 

Table  III. — Comparison  of  the  Rainfall  in  each  Decade  since  1829  with 
the  Mean  Rainfall  of  forty  years,  ending  with  1869. 


Station. 

Mean  Rainfall  in  each  10  years. 

Mean 

1830-39. 

1840-49. 

1850-59. 

1860-69. 

Rainfall, 
1830-69. 

Epping     

Exeter  Institution 

Tavistock     

Halifax   

Kendal    

Point  of  Ayre .... 
Rhinns  of  Islay  .  . 

Isle  of  May 

Buchanness 

Kinnairdhead  .... 
Island  Glass    .... 
Start  Point 

in. 

25-84 

28-92 

52-81 

34-51 

56-22 

28-26 

34-07 

21-96 

26-40 

19-66 

33-23 

27-39 

in. 

26-99 

29-35 

54-27 

31-88 

51-18 

28-20 

33-79 

20-94 

26-84 

22-01 

34-98 

25-05 

in. 

2318 

26-91 

49-18 

30-71 

44-91 

29-01 

30-58 

15-21 

23-40 

22-05 

31-92 

23-77 

in. 

24-13 

31-76 

53-17 

33-31 

53-32 

30-61 

33-43 

20-48 

25-59 

24-17 

31-13 

31-37 

in. 

25-04 

29-24 

52-30 

32-60 

51-41 

29-02 

32-97 

19-65 

25-56 

21-97 

32-81 

26-89 

Means     

32-44 

3212 

29-24 

32-71 

31-63 

Ratio  of  Means  .  . 

102-6 

101-6 

92-5 

103-4 

104 


REPORT — 1871. 


Table  III.  (continued). 


SUition. 

Ratio  of  Rainfall  in  each  10  years'  to  40 
years'  Mean. 

18.30-39. 

1840-49. 

1850-59. 

1860-69. 

Epping     

Exeter  Institution 

Tavistock     

Halifax    

Kendal     

Point  of  Ayre .... 
Hhinus  of  Islay  .  . 
Isle  of  May     .... 

Buchanuess 

Kinnairdhcad .... 
Island  Glass    .... 
Start  Point 

103 

99 

101 

106 

109 

97 

103 

112 

103 

90 

101 

102 

108 
100 
104 

98 
100 

97 
102 
107 
105 
100 
107 

93 

93 
92 
94 
94 

87 
100 
93 
78 
92 
100 
97 
88 

96 
109        j 
101       1 
102 
104 
106 
102 
103 
100 
110 

95 
117 

Mean  Eatios .... 

102-2 

101-8 

92-3 

103-7 

reason  :  while  there  are  only  about  a  dozen  registers  complete  for  the  four 
decades,  there  are  thirty-eight  which  are  complete  for  the  last  three  decades. 
'Now  that  we  have  found  the  relation  between  the  first  two  decades,  the  re- 
turns for  the  thirty  years  are  rendered  almost  as  instructive  as  those  for 
forty  years. 


Fig.  3. 


1866  Report. 


1871  Report. 
All  stations. 


90 


We  have  therefore  compiled  Table  IV.,  which  differs  from  Table  III.  only 
in  its  being  for  thirty  years  instead  of  forty,  and  in  giving  observations  from 
thirty-eight  stations  instead  of  twelve. 


J 


ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES. 


105 


Table  IV. — Comparison  of  the  Rainfall  in  each.  Decade  since  1839  with  the  mean 
Eainfall  of  thirty  years  ending  1869. 


County. 


II. 

Sussex  

III. 

IV. 
V. 

»J 
)} 

»» 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

» 

»» 

X. 

f) 

XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 

XV. 

« 
>» 

XVI. 

x\^I. 

»» 

XIX. 

>) 

XXI. 
XXIII. 

Herts    

Essex    

Norfolk     

Wilts    

Devon  

" 

Worcester     . . . 
Nottingham... 
Lancashire  ... 
Yorkshire    . . . 

II 

II             ■  •  • 

II 

Durham    

Westmoreland 
Isle  of  Man  . . . 

Wigtown  

Haddington... 
Edinburgh   ... 
Bute 

Arsvll  

Fife  

Perth    

Kincardine  ... 
Aberdeen 

JI         

Ross 

Sutherland   ... 

Caithness 

Orkney 

Shetland  

Dublin 

Antrim 

Station. 


Chichester  Infirmary  .. 
,,         (Chilgrove).. 

Hemel  Hempstead  

Eppmg 

Diss  (Dickleburgh) 

Salisbury  (Baverstock) 
Tavistock  (West  St.)  .. 

Exeter  Institution    

lIoniton(Broadhembury) 

Tenbury  (Orleton) 

Welbeck  

Bolton  (The  Folds).... 

Redmires 

HaUfax  (Well  Head)  .. 

Settle    

York 

Bishopwearmouth  

Kendal 

Point  of  Ayre 

Mull  of  Galloway,  L.H 

Haddington 

Inveresk  

PladdaL.H 

Mull  of  Cantire,  L.H. 
Rhinns  of  Islay,  L.H. 

Isle  of  May,  L.H 

Deanston 

Girdleness,  L.H 

Buchanness,  L.H 

Kinnairdhead,  L.H.    .. 

Island  Glass,  L.H._ 

Barrahead,  L.H. 

Cape  Wrath,  L.H 

Dunnethead,  L.H 

Start  Point,  L.H 

Sumburghhead,  L.H.  . . 

Black  Rock  

Belfast  Linen  Hall 


Mean  Rainfall  in  each 
10  years. 


1840-49.  1850-.59.  1860-69. 


in. 
29-10 

33'4i 
25-86 
26-99 
25-05 
31  09 
S4"2'7 
^9'35 
35'i4 
28-41 
25-44 
4646 

407  s 
31-88 

43 '41 
25-42 
19-94 
51-18 
28-20 
20-67 
23-77 
25-81 
40-02 
4576 

3379 
20-94 

3574 
2314 
26-84 
22-01 
34-98 
31-60 
38-86 
27-39 
25-05 

i5'43 
23-20 
29-44 


m. 
26-67 
32-23 
26-43 
23-18 
22-31 
2869 
49-18 
26-91 
32-75 
2882 
2329 
44-01 
37-86 
30-71 

35-51 
22-02 
16-91 
44-91 
29-01 
22-52 

24-35 
24-72 

35'23 
41-19 

30-58 
15-21 
39-21 
19-71 
23-40 
22-05 
31-92 
32-67 
36-94 
22-09 
23-77 
25-22 
21-78 
3001 


29-03 
33-22 
26-39 
24-13 

22-22 
30-25 

53'>7 

31-76 

34-56 
30-90 

24-64 

48-98 

39-68 
33-31 

41-35 

24-48 
20-25 

53-32 

30-61 
27  66 
25-63 
2902 

40-14 
44-17 

3  3  "43 
20-48 

43-99 
22-72 
25-59 
24-17 
31-13 
31-73 
39"37 
25-40 

31-37 
26-45 
27-10 
36-77 


Mean 
Rain- 
fall. 


18i0-69. 


28-27 
32-95 
26-23 

24-77 
2319 

30-01 
52-21 

29-34 

34-15 
29-38 
24-46 
46-48 

39'43 
31-97 
40-09 
23-97 

19-03 
4980 
29-27 
23-62 
24-58 
2652 
38-46 

43-71 
32-60 
18-88 

39-65 
21-86 
25-28 
22-74 
32-68 
32-00 

38-39 
24-96 
26-73 
25-70 
24-03 
32-07 


Ratio  of  Rainfall  in 

each  decade  to  '60 

years  Mean. 


1840-49.  1850-59.  1860-69. 


103 
iqi 

99 

109 
108 
104 
104 
100 
103 

97 

104 

100 

103 

100 

108 

106 

105 

103 

96 

88 

97 

97 

104 

105 
104 

III 

90 
106 
106 

97 
107 

99 
101 

110 
94 

99 
96 
92 


Abstract  of  Table  IV. 


94 

98 

101 

94 
96 
96 

94 
92 
96 
98 
95 
95 
96 
96 
89 

92 
89 

90 

99 
95 
99 
93 
92 
94 
94 
81 

99 
90 

93 
97 
98 
102 
96 
88 
89 
98 
91 
94 


England  and  Wales,  19  stations 

iScotland,  17  stations 

'Ireland,  2  stations    

Mean  of  the  above 

,  Mean  of  38  stations    


33-23 
29-52 
26-32 


2969 
31-21 


30-60 
2769 
25-90 


28-06 
29-05 


33-28 

30-73 
31-93 


31-98 
32-07 


32-37 
29-31 
28-05 


29-91 
30-78 


102-8 

100-9 

94-0 


99-2 
1QI-5 


94-7 
94-0 
92-5 


93-7 
94-3 


From  the  above  Table  the  remarkable  similarity  of  the  results  obtained 
by  the  two  dissimilar  modes  of  investigation  is  rendered  so  obvious  that  it 


106 


REPORT 1871. 


is  unnecessary  to  dwell  further  upon  it.  We  now  proceed  to  the  second 
part  of  our  investigation,  namely,  to  consider  the  distribution  of  the  rain- 
fall of  the  last  decade,  during  which  we  have  nearly  four  hundred  perfect 
sets  of  observations.  As  each  set  of  observations  comprises  more  than  a 
thousand  entries,  and  the  following  Table  contains  the  result  of  nearly  half  a 
million  observations,  it  is  probable  that  it  contains  some  slight  percentage  of 
error,  but  we  have  no  suspicdon  of  the  existence  of  any  which  appreciably 
affect  the  results. 

The  head-lines  of  the  following  Table  sufficiently  explain  its  contents. 


Table  Y. — Mean  Rainfall  at  325  Stations  during  the  ten  years  1860-69. 


County. 


Station. 


Height  of  Rain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


Above  sea. 


Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 


Division  I. 
Middlesex    .  .  . 

Division  II. 

Surrey  

>)      

jj      

J)      

>>      

Kent     

>>        

>)        

J)        

Sussex 

> 

>>      

J)      

J!  

•7  

>>  

>>  

J>  

Hampshire  .  .  . 

>»  •  •  • 

>j  .  .  . 

„  .  .  , 

„  . .  . 

Berkshire  .  .  . 

»  . .  . 

Division  III. 
Herts 


Camden  Town 

Weybridge  Heath    

Croydon  (Tanfield  Lodge) 
„        (Waldi-onhurst).  . 

Wimbledon 

Kew  Observatory    

Hythe  (Horton  Park) .... 

Tunbridge    

Maidstone  (Linton  Park) 

,,  (Hunton  Court) 
West  Thorney  [Emsworth] 
Chichester  Museum     .... 

„         (Shopwyke)     .  . 

„         (West  Dean)  .  . 

(Chilgrove) 

Arundel  ('Dale  Park)  .... 
Hastings  (High  Wickham) 
Maresfield  Rectory 

„         (Forest  Lodge) 
Isle  of  Wight  (Osborne) 
Fareham  (North  Brook).  . 

Peter sfield  (Liss)     

Selbome  (The  Wakes)    . . 

Aldershot     

Reading  (Englefield)  .... 
Long  Wittenham    

Bayfordbury    

St.  Albans  (Gorhambury) 


ft.    in. 


0     6 


0  6 

0  8 
35  0 

3  0 

1  3 
1  4 
1  0 
0  6 
0  6 
0  8 

0  6 

1  2 

1  6 

0  6 
3  5 

2  0 

1  3 
1  2 
0  8 
0  2 


0     4 
2     9 


feet. 


100 


150 
155 
237 
160 

19 
350 

71 
296 

80 

10? 

50 

61 
250 
284 
316 
212 
250 
259 
172 

26? 


0 

7 

.... 

4 

0 

400 

3 

0 

325 

1 

0 

190 

1 

0 

170 

250 


inches. 


25-681 


25-051 
26-333 
24-388 
23-476 
23-282 
32-677 
28-258 
27-559 
25-998 
26-875 
29-026 
29-194 
37-082 
33-224 
33-732 
26-373 
32-199 
31-479 
30-725 
33-906 
38-033 
34-427 
27-036 
25-726 
27-379 


25011 

27-849 


ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES. 


107 


Table  V.  (continued). 


Countv. 


Division  III. 

{continued). 

Herts 


Bucks 
Oxford 


Northampton 


Station. 


HemelHempstead(NashMills) 


Tring  (Cowroast) 

Hitchin    

Royston    

High  Wycomb     

RadcliiFe  Observatory . . 
Banbury  (High  Street) 

Althorp  House     

Wellingborough 

Hunts I  Kimbolton  (Haraerton) 


Bedford    '  Cardington 


Cambridge  .  . 
>>  ■  • 

Division  IV. 
Essex 


Suffolk 


Norfolk 
>> 


.   Ely  (Stretham)    

. '  Wisbeach  (Harecroft  House) 


Epping     

Witham  (Dorward  Hall)     .  . 

Dunmow 

Braintree  (Booking)    

Saffron  Walden  (Ashdon)   .  . 

Hadleigh  (Aldham)     

Bury  St.  Ed.  (Abbeygate)  .  . 

„     (Westley)   .  .  ." 

„     (Barton  Hall)     

„     (Culford)    

Diss  (Dickleburgh) 

Downham  Market  (Outwell) 
„  ,,    (Fincham)    .  . 

Norwich  Institution    

„         (Cossey)   

,,  (Honingham  Hall) 

Fakenham  (Egmere) 

Holkham 


Division  V. 
Wiltshire .  .  .  . 


Hunstanton 


Baverstock 

Salisbury  Plain  (Chiltern  Ho.) 
Swindon  (Penhill) 


Height  of  Rain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


ft. 

3 

4 
1 
0 
0 
0 
7 
3 
0 
5 
0 
3 
36 
4 
0 


6 
1 
0 
3 
1 
2 

35 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
4 

30 
1 
0 
4 
0 
4 
3 


0 
2 
4 
6 
9 
8 
0 
4 
3 
4 
0 
6 
0 
9 
8 


0 
6 
0 
6 
0 
6 
0 
0 
0 
2 
6 
0 
0 
0 
0 
6 
8 
0 
0 
8 


3  0 

4  0 
0  10 


Above  sea. 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


feet. 

250 
395 
238 
266 
225 
207 
350 
310 

170 
106 
109 
142 

11 


360 

20? 
234 
200 

300 

240? 
216? 
145? 

84? 
120 

16 
100 

53 

"ss 

150 
39 
43 
60 


300 
380? 


inches. 

26-388 
27-594 
23-922 
23-569 
25-705 
26-129 
26-222 
23-349 
24-092 
23-132 
22-487 
21-760 
18170 
20-609 
24-037 


24-132 
20-466 
22-750 
23-984 
23-056 
25-469 
23-962 
23-522 
23-680 
24-835 
22-223 
22-637 
23-139 
22-169 
24-035 
23-975 
25-097 
23-875 
23-232 
19-559 


30-247 
29-279 
28-592 


108 


REPORT— 1871. 


Table  V.  (continued). 


Height  of  Kain-gauge. 

Mean 

County. 

Station. 

Above 
ground. 

Above  sea. 

Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 

Division  T 

r 

ft. 

in. 

feet. 

inches. 

(conti} 

med^^ 

. 

Dorset . 

,  .  .   Bridport 

0 

8 

60 

32-248 

Devon  . 

.  .  .   Plymouth  (Saltram)   

0 

3 

96 

44-813 

„         (Ham)    

3 

0 

94 

42-888 

.  . .   Plympton  StMary(Ridgeway) 

0 

6 

116 

48-646 

.  .  .  Tavistock  (Library)     

20 

0 

283 

43-356 

(West  Street) 

4 

6 

286 

53-170 

.  . .  Bovey  Tracey 

0 

6 

92 

43-126 

.  .  .  Coryton  Lew  Down     

6 

0 

445 

45-941 

.  .  .  Exeter  Institution 

13 

7 

155 

31-757    1 

.  .  .   CuUompton  (Clyst  Hydon) .  . 

1 

0 

200 

32-694    : 

...           ,,            (Bradninch) 

1 

6 

234 

38-060 

.  .  .  Houiton  (Broadhemburj)  .  . 

1 

6 

400 

34-562 

.  .  .  South  Molton  (Castle  Hill) .  . 

3 

5 

200 

47-118 

.  .  .   Barnstaple 

0 

6 

43 

39-905 

)7            ■    ■  •  - 

Cornwall  .  . 

.  .  .  Helstone 

5 

3 

0 

0 
0 
6 

116 

94 

160 

37-872 
41-507 
41-229 

.  .  .   Penzance 

.  . .   Redruth  (Tehidy  Park) 

5)                •    • 

.  .  .  Truro  (Royal  Institution)  .  . 

40 

0 

56 

42-877 

...      ,,       (Penarth) 

1 

0 

190 

42-556 

5?                •    • 

.  .  .  Bodmin  (Castle  Street)  .... 

2 

6 

338 

47-708 

)J                •   • 

(Warleggan) 

2 

6 

550 

54-557 

9f                •    ' 

.  . .   Wadebridge(TreharrockHo.) 

2 

9 

303 

39-301 

Somerset  . . 

.  . .   Langport  (Long  Sutton) .... 

0 

10 

50 

28-574 

?>       ■  • 

.  .  .  E.  Harptree  (Sherborne  Res.) 

1 

0 

338 

42-097 

Division  "V 

^I. 

Gloucester 

.  .  .  Bristol  (Small  Street) 

25 

0 

40 

30-549 

)) 

(Phil.  Inst.)    

56 

0 

•  •    •    • 

32-955 

)> 

Clifton  (South  Parade) 

0 

6 

192 

34-085 

)) 

. .  .  .  Gloucester  (Quedgeley)  .  .  .  . 

0 

10 

50 

27-421 

9? 

.  .  .  .  Cirencester  (Further  Barton) 

1 

2 

420 

32-612 

Hereford  . . 

.  .  .  .  Ross  (Archenfield) 

1 

0 

250? 

28-211 

5>                  •    • 

. .  . .      ,,     (Rocklands)    

1 

10 

150 

33-591 

"          .      -    ' 

.  .  . .   Leominster  (West  Lodge)  .  . 

1 

0 

250 

27-105 

Shropshire 

.  .  .  .   Burford  [Tenbury] 

0 

11 

100? 

26-744 

5> 

.  .  .  .  Ludlow  (Knowbury) 

0 

4 

1000? 

28-530 

» 

Shiifnal  (Haughtou  Hall)  .  . 

3 

5 

355 

24-870 

.  .  . .  Shrewsbury 

4 

4 

192 

19-499 

?5 

?1 

K  ii*  W  If  ^^^1*1.  J 

.  .  .  .   Oswestry  (Hengoed) 

6 

0 

470 

35-647 

Worcester 
J) 

.  .  .  .   Northwick  Park 

1 
1 

6 
0 

'l37 

28-017 
28-039 

.  .  .  .  W^orcester  (Lark  Hill)    .  .  .  . 

»> 

. .  .  .  Tenbury  (Orleton) 

0 

9 

200? 

30-900 

Warwick  .  . 

.  .  .  .  Birmingham  (Edgbaston)   .  . 

1 

3 

510 

30-562    ! 

ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH   ISLES. 


109 


Table  V.  (continued). 


County. 


Division  VII. 
Leicestershire  . 


Lincoln 


Nottingham 


Derby 


DrvisioN  VIII. 
Cheshire 


» 

» 


Lancashire 


Station. 


Height  of  Eain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


Wigston 

Thornton  Reservoir     .  .  .  . 

Waltham  Rectory   

Belvoir  Castle 

Grantham   

Lincoln    

Market  Rasen 

Gainsborough 

Stockwith    

Brigg 

Grimsby 

Barnetby 

Brigg  (Appleby  Vic.)  . .  . . 

New  Holland 

Southwell    

Welbeck  Abbey 

Worksop 

Retford    

Derby 

Chesterfield 

Kilnarsh  (Norwood)    .  .  .  . 

Combs  Moss     

„      Reservoir     

Chapel-en-le-Frith      .  .  .  , 
Woodhead    

Bosley  Minns , 

„      Reservoir     

Macclesfield 

„         (Park  Green) 
Bollington  (Spond's  Hill) 

Whaley    

Marple  Aqueduct    

„       Top  Lock    

Godley  Reservoir     

Mottram  (Matley's  Field) 

Newton    , 

Arnfield  Reservoir , 

Rhodes  Wood  Reservoir .  , 
Woodhead  „ 

Denton  „ 

Gorton  ,, 


ft.  in. 

0  6 

2  8 

1  0 
1  0 
0  6 

3  6 


3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


6 
6 
6 
6 


15  0 

3  6 

0  9 

3  6 


0 
0 
6 


1 
4 
3 
3  6 
6  0 
3     6 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


6 
6 
6 
1 
6 
6 


3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3  6 
3     6 

3     6 
3     6 

i    0 

0  10 


AboTe  sea. 


feet. 

220 

420 

560 

237 

179 

26 

100 

76 

21 

16 

42 

51 

60 

18 

200? 

80 
127 
52 
180 
248 
238 
1669 
710 
965 
878 


1210 
590 
539 
450 

1279 
602 
321 
543 
500 
399 
396 
575 
520 
680 
324 
263 


Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches. 

25-165 
25-611 
24-319 
24-476 
22-407 
20-870 
23-429 
21-659 
21-347 
24-118 
21-391 
22-163 
24-097 
22-665 
20-844 
24-636 
22-469 
22-743 
26-807 
26-930 
24-591 
49-620 
50-008 
41-947 
52-188 


32-849 
32-043 
34-536 
36-746 
37-464 
43-894 
34-810 
35-254 
33-979 
37-732 
31-633 
37-232 
46-323 
51-828 
32-974 
33-712 


no 


REPORT 18rl. 


Table  V.  {continued). 


County, 


DiTisioN  VIII 
(^continued) 

Lancashire 


» 
» 

» 
l> 
>9 
J» 
>» 
»> 

» 

» 
» 


Division  IX. 
Yorkshire,  W.  R. 


>» 
>» 

>9 
» 

M 
It 
» 


E.  R, 

N.  R, 


Station, 


Manchester  (Old  Trafford) , 
„  (Ardwick)  .  .  , 
„         (Piccadilly)  .  .  , 

Fairfield 

Oldham  (Waterhouses)  .  ,  , 

„        (Gas-works) 

„  (Strines  Dale)  .  .  , 
Bolton  (The  Folds) 

„      (Belmont)    , 

„      (Heaton) 

Rochdale  (Nagden  Dane)    , 

Ormskirk  (Rufford)     

Preston  (Howick)    

Blackpool  (South  shore) .  ,  , 

Stonyhurst 

Clitheroe  (Downham  Hall)  . 

Lancaster  (Caton)   

Cartmel  (Holker)    


Sheffield  (Broomhall  Park) 

Redmires 

Sheffield  Station 

TickhiU    

Dunford  Bridge 

Saddleworth  Station    ,  .  .  . 

Standedge   

Huddersfield  (Longwood) 
„  (Rastrick)  .  , 

Halifax  (Warley  Moor)  .  , 
„  (WeU  Head)  .  , 
„  (Midgeley  Moor) 
,,       (Ovenden  Moor) 

Leeds  (Leventhorpe  Hall) 
„      (Holbeck) 

York  (Bootham) 

Settle   

AmcKffe 

Hull  (Beverley  Road)  .  ,  .  . 

Malton     

Richmond  (Aske)    ...,., 


Height  of  Eain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


ft,     in. 


2  7 

3  0 
40  0 

6  0 

3  6 

6  0 

6  0 

3  6 
0  0 

0  0 

1  6 
0  8 

0  6 

1  8 

0  8 

1  6 
1  6 

4  8 


2 
4 
3 
2 
3 
5 
2 
4 
1 


0 
0 
6 
0 
6 
0 
0 
6 
3 


0  11 


2  0 

32  0 

0  6 
40  0 

2  9 

3  10 

1  0 

2  8 


Above  sea. 


feet. 


106 
154' 
194 
312 
345 
600 
800 
283 
800 
500 
900 
38 
73 
29 
376 
464 
120 
155 


340 

1100 

188 

61 

954 

640 

1150 

650 

410 

1425 

487 

1350 

1375 

90 

127 

50 

498 

750 

11 

75 

550 


Mean 
Annual 
RainftU, 
1860-69. 


inches. 


34-727 
32-597 
36-775 
40-898 
36-133 
37-123 
36007 
48-981 
56-610 
44-210 
44-132 
34-999 
38-303 
32-994 
48-560 
44-786 
43-944 
45-625 


31-276 
39-684 
28-159 
23-990 
56-177 
41-968 
53-700 
34-008 
32-121 
46-330 
33-313 
50-000 
46-090 
23-261 
22-853 
24-479 
41-349 
60-075 
25-024 
27-455 
31-105 


ON  THE  RAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES. 


Ill 


Table  V.  (continued). 


Countj. 


Division  X. 

Durham   

Northumberland 


Station. 


Cumberland 


Westmoreland . 


Division  XI. 

Glamorgan  .  . 
Cardigan  .... 
Brecknock  .  . 
Radnor  .... 
Flint    


Denbigh  .  .  . 
Isle  of  Man . 
Guernsey  . 
Alderney.  .  . 


Division  XII. 
"Wigton    


Kirkcudbright . 
Dumfries 


Height  of  Kain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


Above  sea. 


ft. 

0 
0 
0 
0 
0 

1 


9 
3 
6 
4 
6 
0 


Bishopwearmouth    

Allenheads 

Shotley  HaU    

By  well 

Wylam  Hall     

North  Shields  (Wallsend) 

„  (Rosella  Place) 

Stamfordham   

Hexham  (Parkend)     

Lilburn  Tower    

Seathwaite 

Ullswater  (Watermillock)   . 
Bassenthwaite  (Mirehouse) . 
Cockermouth  (Whinfell  HaU) 
Carlisle  (Bunker's  Hill)  . 
Kendal  (Kent  Terrace)   . 
Windermere  (The  Howe) 
Appleby 


WALES  AND  THE  ISLANDS. 


Cardiff  (Ely)    

Lampeter     

Hay  (Pen-y-maes) 

Rhayader  (Cefnfaes)   . .  . 
Hawarden  [Chester]   .  .  . 
Holywell  (Maes-y-dre)  . 
Llandudno  (Warwick  House) 
Point  of  Ayre 


1 

0 

0 

4 

6 

0 

1 

0 

3 

6 

0 

7 

2 

0 

6 

0 

4 

6 

1 

2 

1 

0 

Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


Harbour  Works 


Roxburgh 


SCOTLAND. 

Mull  of  Galloway    

Stranraer  (South  Cairn) .  .  , 

CorsewaU     

Little  Ross 

Cargen  [Dumfries] , 

Dumfries  (March  Hill  Cott.) 
Westerkirk  (Carlesgill)  .  . 

Wanlockhead 

Kelso  (Springwood  Park) 


1  4 


feet. 

1369 
312 
87 
96 
100 
124 
400 
276 
300 
422 
720 
310 
265 
184 
146 
470 
442 


209 


3  0 

45 

4  6 

420 

1  0 

317 

2  0 

880 

0  7 

270 

5  0 

400 

0  6 

99 

3  4 

27? 

12  0 

204 

10  0 

48 

3 

3 

130? 

0 

4 

80 

0 

5 

70 

6' 

4 

1330 

1 

0 

130 

inches. 

20-247 
51-160 
28-494 
28-874 
26-900 
26-640 
26-065 
27-637 
33-550 
28-657 
154-046 
59-910 
53-756 
57-366 
27-616 
53-322 
87-923 
35-994 


42-016 
45-183 
31-680 
44-980 
26-443 
24-430 
31-004 
30-609 
37-177 
28-624 


27-656 
49-603 
37-027 
26-981 
44-372 
37045 
60-092 
66-628 
24-663 


112 


REPORT 1871. 


Table  V.  (continued). 


County. 


Division  XIII. 

Selkirk  . . 
Peebles  .  . 
Berwick   .  . 

j>  •  • 

Haddington 


Edinburgh 


Division  XIV. 
Lanark     


Ayr 

3,         .    .    .    . 

Renfrew 


Division  XV 

Dumbarton  .  . 
Stirling    .... 

Bute  

Argyll 

>)  

)>  

»  

»  

j>  

)>  

>f  

»>  

j>  


Station. 


Bowhill    

Penicuick  (jST.  Esk  Reservoir) 
Lauder  (Thirlestane  Castle). 
Dunse  (Mungo's  Walls)  . .  . 
Prestonkirk  (Smeaton)    .  .  . 
Haddington  (Millfield)    .  .  . 

East  Linton     

Cobbinshaw  Reservoir    .  .  . 
Inveresk 


Hamilton  (Auchinraith) .  .  . 

„        (BotbweU  Castle), 
Glasgow  (Ccssuock  Park)  . 

,,       (Observatory)   .  .  . 

Baillieston   

Shotts  (Hillend  House)  .  .  . 
Ayr  (Auchendrane  House) . 

Largs  (Mansfield)    

Gorbals,  W.  W.  (Ryat  Lynn) 

(Waulk  Glen) 

„  (Middleton)... 

Meams  (Nether  Place)    .... 

Greenock  (Hamilton  Street) 


Loch  Long  (Arddaroch)  .  .  .  . 

Falkirk  (Kerse) 

Stirling  (Polmaise  Gardens) 

Pladda 

Castle  Toward 

Lochgili^head  (Callton  Mor). 

Inverary  Castle 

Appin  (Airds) 

Ardnamurchan     

Cantire,  Mull  of 

Campbeltown  (Devaar)  .  .  .  , 

Rhinns  of  Islay 

Lismore  (Mousedale) 

Mull,  Sound  of    

Tyree  (Hynish) , 


Height  of  Eain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


ft.  in. 

11  0 

0  6 

0  3 

0  6 

13  0 

4  0 

0  3 

0  7 

2  0 


4  9 

18  0 

4  4 

0  1 

0  3 

7  0 

2  3 

0  6 

0  5 

0  5 

0  5 

0  6 

0  6 


0  10 


1 
0 
3 
4 
4 
0 
0 
3 


0 
2 
3 
0 
6 
1 
3 
6 


3  4 

3  0 

3  4 

0  6 


Above  sea. 


feet. 

537 

1150 
558 
267 
100 
140 

90 
863 

90 


150 
146 

29 
180 
230 
620 

96 

30 
310 
280 
550 
360 

50 


80 

"12 

55 

65 

65 

30 

15 

82? 
279? 

75? 

74? 

37? 

12? 


Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches. 

33-033 

38-014 
29-977 
28-494 
23-263 
25-630 
23-767 
37-450 
29-016 


31-951 

28-885 
37-958 
44-411 
46-471 
33-445 
44-825 
48-920 
47-801 
49-845 
56-682 
50143 
66-156 


78-321 
32-960 
41-300 
40-141 
54-554 
54-253 
67-370 
63-640 
45-594 
44-166 
47-312 
33-434 
46-215 
72-159 
79-992 


ON  THE  RAINFALL  OP  THE  BRITISH  ISLES. 


lis 


Table  V.  (continued). 


County. 


Division  XVI. 

Kinross 

Fife 

)>    ... 

Perth  ....."..'. 

j>        

J)        

jj        

j»        

5)  

if  

5)  

>>  

>)  

Forfar 

>>     

>>      

>>      

Division  XVII. 
Kincardine  .  .  . . 


Aberdeen 


Banff 


Station. 


Height  of  Eain-gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


Division  XVIII 

Ross  &  Cromarty 
>>         }> 

Inverness     .  . 


5> 


Lochlcven  Sluice 

Balfour     

Leven  (Nookton)     

Isle  of  May 

Aberfoyle     

Dunblane  (Kippenross)  .  .  .  . 

Deanston  House 

Lanrick  Castle 

Bridge  of  Tiu-k    

Auclitcrarder  House    

„  (Trinity  Gask) 

Loch  Earnhead  (Stronvar)  .  . 

Perth  Academy   . 

Scone  Palace    

Barry    

Craigton 

Kettins     

Hill  Head    

Arbroath  

Brechin  (The  Burn)    

Girdlcness 

Braemar 

Aberdeen  (Rose  Street)  ... 

Alford  (Castle  Newe) 

Kiunaird  Head    

Buchanness      

Gordon  Castle 


Isle  of  Lewis  (Stornoway)  . 
„  (Beruera)  .  .  . 

Cromarty 

Isle  of  Skye  (Oronsay)     .  .  . 

„  (Kylcakin)  .  .  . 

„  (Raasay) 

„  (Portree) 

Barrahead    

S.  Uist  (Ushenish) 

Harris  (Island  Glass) 

Rona    

CuUoden  House 


ft.  in. 

0  10 

0  6 

0  6 

2  2 

0  6 

0  4 

0  4 

0  0 

0  6 

2  3 

0  1 


64 
2 
0 
0 
1 
0 
2 


1 

0 


1 
3 
0 
3 


5 
6 
3 
3 
0 
3 
0 


0     6 

4     7 


0 
4 


3     4 


1     6 


3  4 

0  G 

3  4 

0  6 

0  2 

1  4 


8 
0 
4 
4 


0     6 
3     0 


Above  sea. 


Mean 
Annual 
Kainfall, 
1800-09. 


feet. 

"l27 

80 
182 

GO 
100 
130 

"276 
162 
133 

"83 

80 
3.5 

481 

218 

570 

60 


235 

86 

1114 

95 

"64 

"(30 


31? 
15 

28 
15? 
3? 

80 

80 
G40? 
157? 

50? 
.  20 
104 


inches. 

35-780 
28-589 
28-988 
20-482 
61-820 
36-165 
43-991 
48-805 
61-890 
34-315 
35-324 
82-434 
23-584 
29-182 
29-729 
34-876 
33-172 
35-187 
29-050 


34-910 
22-718 
33-404 
29-433 
33-500 
24-168 
25-588 
29-192 


31-792 
68-027 
25-941 
72-359 
82-087 
77-120 
104-261 
31-72G 
43-905 
31-129 
39-470 
27-084 


1871. 


114 


REPORT 1871. 

Table  V.  (continued). 


County. 


Station. 


Division  XIX. 

Sutherland  . .  . 

If          •  •  • 
Caithness 

5>  

>J  

Orkney  

J)  

>>  

»  

»  

?j  

Shetland 

»        


Division  XX. 
Cork     


Golspie  (Dunrobin  Castle)  . 

Cape  Wrath 

Wick  (Nosshead)     

Dunnethead     

Pentland  Skerries    

Hoy  (Graemsay  East)    .  .  . 

„    .(        „         West)   .  .  . 

j  Shapinsay  (Balfour  Castle) . 

j  Pomona  (Sandwick)     

Sauda  (Start  Point)     

liorth  Eonaldshay 

Sumburghead 

Bressay  Lighthouse     


Height  of  Eain-gauge. 


Waterford 
Clare     .  .  . 


Division  XXI. 


Queen's  County- 
King's  County 


lEELAND. 

Cork  (Royal  Institution) 

Fermoy     , 

Waterford  (Newtown)     .  .  , 
KiUaloe    


Portarlington 

Tullamore    

Wicklow Bray  (Fassaroe) 

Dublin Black  Eock  (Eockville) 


Division  XXII. 
Fermanagrh  .  .  .  . 


EnniskOIen  (Florence  Court) 


Armagh   i  Armagh  Observatory 


Antrim 


Belfast  (Queen's  College) 
(Linen  Hall)  .  .  .  . 


Above 
ground. 


ft.  in. 


0 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
6 
4 
6 
3 
4 


0  6 

2  0 
0  6 

3  4 
3  4 
0  4 


Above  sea. 


.50 

0 

4" 

6 

5 

0 

1 

2 

3 

0 

5 

0 

29 

0 

11 

0 

1 

5 

/ 

4 

4 

0 

feet. 

6 
355? 
127? 
300? 

72? 

27? 

37? 

50 

78 

29? 

21? 
265? 

60 


70 

60 
123 


240 

235 

250 

90 


300 

208 

68 

12 


Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 


inches. 

27-692 
39-371 
24-699 
25-401 
28-763 
39-007 
32-693 
32-408 
38-853 
31-371 
31-015 
26-454 
36-488 


34-771 
37-207 
40-669 
47-654 


36-8.57 
27-938 
41-822 
27-090 


44-368 
32-014 
34-225 
36-767 


Before  accepting  these  decennial  averages  (1860-69)  as  data  indicative  of 
the  distribution  of  rain  over  the  country,  we  have  to  offer  a  few  prefatory 
remarks.  The  difference  between  the  amount  collected  by  any  two  rain- 
gauges  depends  on  at  least  four  separate  and  distinct  conditions,  three  of 
which  must  be  ascertained  and  corrected  for  before  the  fourth  can  be  accu- 
rately determined. 

The  conditions  are : — (1)  length  of  series  of  observations ;  (2)  correction  for 
secular  change  ;  (3)  height  of  gauges  above  ground. 

(1)  Even  if  there  were  no  other  evidence  in  existence  than  the  accompany- 


ON  THE  KAINFALL  OF  THE  BRITISH  ISLES.  115 

ing  diagram  (fig.  1)  of  the  fluctuations  of  rainfall,  we  feel  that  it  would  suffi- 
ciently prove  the  impossibility  of  determining  accurately  the  rainfall  at  any 
place  except  by  observations  continued  over  a  long  series  of  years  at  that 
place,  or  by  difterentiation  from  some  proximate  long-continued  series. 

(2)  It  does  not  follow  that  simultaneous  observations,  even  for  ten  years, 
giving  for  example  a  mean  difference  between  two  stations  of  five  inches, 
prove  that  the  rainfall  at  the  one  station  is  greater  than  the  other  by  that 
amount,  although  if  they  are  not  very  distant  the  one  from  the  other  it 
would  probably  be  a  safe  assumption. 

(3)  Before  mean  results  can  be  given  with  any  pretensions  to  accuracy  and 
finality,  they  must  be  corrected  for  the  elevation  of  the  rain-gauge  above  the 
ground. 

The  above  remarks  sufaciently  show  that  the  mere  average  of  the  fall  of 
rain  measured  during  ten  or  more  years  does  not  necessarily  give  the  true 
mean  rainfall  at  that  place. 

Let  us  take  as  an  example  the  highest  amount  recorded  in  the  Table 
(Seathwaite),  which  had  during  the  ten  years  (1860-69)  an  average  of 
154  inches ;  many  persons  would  say  at  once  that  tliat  was  therefore  the 
mean  rainfall  at  that  station.  It  is,  however,  nothing  like  it.  From 
Table  II.  and  fig.  2  we  see  that  the  rainfall  over  England,  generally, 
during  those  ten  yeaz's  was  1-5  per  cent,  above  the  average,  upon  which 
evidence  we  are  bound  to  reduce  the  observed  mean  in  that  proportion, 
and  then  the  average  becomes  152  inches  instead  of  154.  Even  this,  how- 
ever, is  not  correct ;  for  we  pointed  out  in  condition  (2)  that  the  same 
years,  or  groups  of  years,  are  not  similarly  wet  in  aU  parts  of  the  country. 
Referring,  therefore,  to  Table  lY.  we  find  that  at  the  nearest  station  to 
Seathwaite,  Kendal,  the  decade  in  question  was  7  per  cent,  above  the  thirty- 
year  mean ;  hence,  on  the  supposition  that  the  Kendal  values  are  applicable 
to  this  station,  we  have  to  reduce  154  inches  by  7  per  cent,  instead  of  by 
1-5  per  cent.,  and  hence  the  probable  mean  comes  out  141-8  inches. 

Now  most  fortunately  we  can  test  the  accuracy  of  this  calculation  in  three 
ways. 

(1)  The  mean  fall  at  Seathwaite  in  the  previous  decade  was  126-98  ;  from 
the  Kendal  observations  the  fall  in  that  decade  was  10  per  cent,  less  than 

(126-98  \ 

— ^—=141-09  \  we  find  the  probable 

out  141-1  from  this  decade,  and  141-8  from  that  of  1860-69.     They  thus 
agree  within  less  than  an  inch,  or  one  half  per  cent. 

(2)  The  fall  at  Seathwaite  has  now  been  continuously  observed  for  twenty-six 
years,  viz.  from  1845  to  1870  inclusive ;  the  mean  of  the  whole  twenty-six 
years'  observations  is  140-03. 

(3)  This  value,  corrected  according  to  the  Table  in  ourl866Eeport,  becomes 
141-44,  agreeing  exactly  with  that  indicated  by  the  decades  1850-59  and 
1860-69. 

This  example  proves  three  points  :- — (1)  the  great  degree  of  accuracy  which 
is  attainable  by  proper  methods ;  (2)  the  care  requisite  to  secure  it ;  (3)  the 
serious  errors  inseparable  from  the  use  of  mere  arithmetical  averages  without 
reference  to  secular  changes. 

These  observations,  however,  must  of  course  be  taken  as  general  results, 
and  not  be  construed  as  having  any  bearing  on  the  relative  rainfall  even  of 
proximate  stations,  the  rainfall  of  which  will  vary  considerably  according  to 
local  circumstances. 

Hence  it  will  be  seen  that  thepi-obable  average  at  Seathwaite  is  141  inches 

i2 


mean  comes 


116  REPORT 1871. 

instead  of  154,  or  7  per  cent.  less.  A  similar,  but  generally  less  correction, 
may  be  required  for  other  stations.  The  figures  in  Table  V.  must  not  there- 
fore be  considered  as  showing  the  mean  fall  at  the  several  stations,  but  only 
as  approximations  generally  pretty  close.  The  data  in  our  possession,  if  cor- 
rected in  accordance  with  the  method  explained,  would  afford  more  accurate 
results,  but  the  investigation  is  altogether  beyond  our  present  resources. 

Large  tracts  of  Ireland,  and  even  of  Scotland,  are  still  without  observers  ; 
much  has  recently  been  done  to  remedy  these  deficiencies,  but  there  are  still 
many  localities  where  observations  are  very  much  wanted ;  we  shall  gladly 
receive  any  off'ers  of  assistance  from  those  who  have  residences  or  property  in 
those  parts,  and  our  Secretary  wUl  readUy  advise  them  as  to  instruments. 


Third  Report  on  the  British  Fossil  Corals.     By  P.  Martin  Duncan^ 
F.R.S.f  F.G.S.,  Professor  of  Geology  in  King's  College,  London. 

Introduction. — There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  palaeontology  of  the  Madrc- 
poraria  of  the  Palaeozoic  strata  is  in  a  condition  of  profound  confusion. 
When  these  Reports  were  commenced,  the  veiy  excellent  descriptions  and 
classification  of  the  Palaeozoic  Corals  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime, 
strengthened  by  those  of  M.  de  Eromentel,  appeared  to  have  satisfied  pa- 
heontologists,  and  they  were  received  and  adopted  without  much  demur. 
But  during  the  last  three  or  four  years  a  series  of  more  or  less  important 
attacks  has  been  made  upon  the  views  of  those  distinguished  authors ; 
consequently  opinions  respecting  many  important  matters  in  the  palaeontology 
of  the  Palaeozoic  corals  are  in  a  very  unsatisfactory  state. 

L.  Agassiz,  A.  Agassiz,  and  now  Count  Pourtales  would  remove  the  Ta- 
bulata  from  the  list  of  Madreporaria.  Mr.  Kent  and  I  doubt  the  propriety 
of  establishing  the  Tabulata  as  a  group.  Count  Keyserling  demurred  years 
since  at  receiving  the  long  se])taless  Tubulata  amongst  the  Madreporaria, 
and,  after  due  examination,  I  agree  with  him  in  relegating  them  to  the  Al- 
cyonaria. 

Working  amongst  the  Rugosa,  I  have  shown  that  they  do  not  invariably 
characterize  Palaeozoic  strata,  for  some  of  the  types  have  persisted,  and  no 
reasonable  doubt  cau  be  entertained  concerning  the  descent  of  the  Jurassic 
Coral-fauna  fro'n  the  Palaeozoic. 

The  genus  Palceocyclns  has  been  shown  not  to  belong  to  the  Fungidac, 
but  to  the  Cyathophyllidae.  Genera  with  the  hexameral  arrangement  of 
septa  have  been  found  in  Carboniferous  and  Devonian  strata. 

Lindstrom's  interesting  researches  respecting  the  operculated  condition  of 
some  Palajozoic  corals  require  most  careful  study  and  much  following  up, 
and  the  assertion  of  L.  Agassiz  respecting  the  hydroid  relationship  of  those 
Eugosa  which  have  tabulae  demands  further  inquiry  *. 

Ludwig,  of  Darmstadt,  has  added  to  the  confusion  by  not  acknowledging 
the  received  classification  in  the  least ;   and  in  his  able  enthusiasm  (anti- 

*  G-.  Lindstrcim,  pamphlet  translated  by  M.  Lindstrcim  from  the  original  Swedish, 
'  Geological  Magazine,'  1866,  p.  356.  He  notices  tliat  Guettard  first  described  an  oper- 
culum in  a  rugose  coral,  and  that  then  Steenstrup  saw  one  in  a  Cyathophyllum  mUratum. 
Lindstrom  produces  evidence  respecting  the  genera  Gonlophylhim,  Calceola,  Zaphrcntis, 
Hallia,  and  Favosites  (see  also  p.  406  et  seq.). 


ON  THE  BKITISH  FOSSIL  COKALS.  117 

Gallican  enougli)  he  alters  generic  and  specific  names,  employing  sesqui- 
pedalian Greek,  and  even  absorbing  the  original  authors  ('  Pateontogra- 
phica,'  H.  von  Meyer,  1866). 

Thus  he  confuses  Stromatopora  concentrica,  Goldfuss,  Avith  the  Madre- 
poraria,  and  calls  it  Lioplacocyathus  concentricus.  Fortunately  Ludwig  gives 
a  plate  of  it  (tab.  Ixxii.  fig.  1),  and  thus  proves  the  total  absence  of  all 
structures  which  differentiate  the  Madreporaria.  After  thus  dignifying  a 
rhizopod,  we  may  be  prepared  for  any  thing. 

The  same  author  figures  a  form  which  is  clearly  that  of  Heliolites  porosa, 
and  calls  it  by  the  extraordinary  name  of  Astroplucocyatlms  solidus,  Ldwg. 
It  appears  that  this  naturalist  studied  this  eminently  cellular  type  from  a 
cast,  hence  the  term  solidus.  Again,  in  tab.  Ixxi.  fig.  2,  Liidwig  delineates  a 
good  specimen  of  Cyatlwphyllum  hexagonum,  Goldfuss,  1826,  and  with  sur- 
passing coolness  names  it  Astroplilceothylacus  vulyaris,  Ldwg.  He  then  con- 
founds a  species  oi  Lithostrotion  and  Smithia  Ifennali,  E,  &  H.,  in  one  genus, 
Astrophloeocyclus,  Ldwg. 

The  student  of  the  Silurian  corals  will  be  surprised  perhaps  to  find  that, 
according  to  Ludwig,  Hah/sites  catenularia,  Ed.  &  H.,  the  Catenipora  esclia- 
roides  of  Lonsdale,  is  transformed  into  PiycJiophJcvohpas  catenidaria,  Ludwig, 
doubtless  on  the  principle  that  having  found  such  a  very  distinguished  generic 
title,  the  compiler  of  it  has  the  right  to  eclipse  the  discoverers  of  the  form. 
Chatetes,  which  some  of  us  consider  to  belong  to  the  Alcyonarian  group,  as 
it  has  DO  septa,  Ludwig  decorates  with  the  title  "  LiopTdoeocyathus." 

In  his  sixty-ninth  plate,  fig.  5,  there  is  a  very  good  representation  of  a 
coral  ordinarily  known  as  Accrvidana  Troscheli,  Ed.  &  H.  This  form  was 
inaccurately  described  by  Goldfuss,  who  called  it  CyathopjhyUum  ananas.  Now 
the  authorship  is  settled  by  this  Alexander,  who  cuts  the  knot  by  claimiug 
the  species  as  his  own,  under  the  title  of  AstrocJiarfodiscus  ananas,  Ludwig  ! 

Then  Pleurodictyum  prohUmaticum,  Goldfuss,  is  altered  into  Tceniocharto- 
cychis  planus,  Ldwg. 

To  render  matters  easier  to  the  student,  Ludwig  associates  Acervidarla 
liLvurians  and  Cyathophylhan  helianfhoides  in  one  genus,  Astroblascodiscus, 
and  of  course  places  his  name  after  the  species.  Then  CyathophyUum  ccespi- 
tosum  becomes,  under  the  same  lexicographic  hands,  Astrocalanocyathiis 
co'spitosiis,  Ludwig  I  In  another  place  CyatliophyJlum  helianthoides,  Gold- 
fuss, just  mentioned  under  the  term  Astrohlascodiscus,  appears  as  Astro- 
discus.  Lonsdale's  CystipTiylhim  cylindriciim  is  turned  into  Liocyathus  ca- 
tinifer,  Ldwg. 

This  author,  moreover,  appears  to  hold  a  brief  against  the  belief  in  the 
quadrate  arrangement  of  the  septa  in  the  Rugosa,  and,  in  a  manner  which  is 
excessively  arbitrary  and  artificial,  terms  such  and  such  septa  primaries,  so 
as  to  reduce  the  cycles  to  sixes.  In  spite  of  the  evidence  of  great  industry 
given  by  Ludwig,  I  cannot  accept  his  classification,  nor  do  I  find  his  hypo- 
thetical septal  readings  consistent  with  facts.  Nevertheless,  Ludwig  has 
contributed  to  our  knowledge  of  Permian  corals,  and  has  discovered  some 
species  of  genera  hitherto  supposed  to  characterize  the  Carboniferous  forma- 
tion in  tlie  Upper  Devonian  of  German}'. 

The  nature  of  this  Ueport  must  therefore  be  very  different  to  those  already 
presented  to  the  Association.  Those  reports  relating  to  the  Corals  of  the 
Mesozoic  strata  were  essentiallj'  founded  upon  observed  facts,  and  upon  data 
which  had  been  more  or  less  before  the  geological  world  for  years;  the 
generalizations  embodied  in  them  were  established  i;pon  very  satisfactory- 
details.     But  in  the  present  instance  there  is  much  uncertainty ;  there  are 


118  REPORT 1871. 

vast  accumulations  of  details  to  be  worked  out  without  the  existence  of  a 
satisfactory  classification,  and,  in  fact,  the  whole  subject  of  the  Palaeozoic 
Madreporaria  is  in  too  transitional  a  state  for  an  exhaustive  report  to  be  made 
upon  them. 

In  presenting  this  Report,  therefore,  I  hope  the  Association  will  consider 
that  I  have  not  yet  completed  my  task,  and  that  it  will  allow  me  to  continue 
my  work  and  to  present  other  reports  when  occasion  offers.  No  fxirther 
grant  will  be  required,  as  the  future  reports  will  deal  more  with  the  results 
of  other  labourers  than  with  my  own. 

The  present  Report  is  divided  into  four  parts, 

I.  The  consideration  of  the  alliances  of  the  Neozoic  and  the  Palaeozoic 
Coral-faunas. 

II.  The  classification  of  the  Perforata. 

III.  The  classification  of  the  Tabulata. 

IV.  The  Eugosa. 

In  order  to  avoid  useless  repetition  of  well-known  facts,  I  have  referred 
to  them  by  giving  their  bibliography,  except  when  they  are  contained  in 
inaccessible  works. 

I.  The  Palaeozoic  corals  of  Great  Britain  have  been  the  subject  of  many 
admirable  works ;  they  have  been  largely  treated  of  in  the  '  Monograph  of 
the  British  Fossil  Corals'  (Palaeontographical  Society)  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards 
and  Jules  Haime,  and  by  M'Coy  in  Sedgwick's  great  work.  Phillips, 
Lonsdale,  King,  Sam.  "Woodward,  Parkinson,  Martin,  Fleming,  Portlock, 
Sowerby,  and  Pennant  have  described  species  in  their  well-known  works, 
and  Kent,  James  Thomson,  and  I  have  contributed  some  information  on 
the  subject  of  the  Scottish  corals.  But,  with  the  exception  of  the  labours  of 
the  last  three  persons,  the  literature  of  the  Palaeozoic  Corals  will  be  found  very 
accessible  in  the  monograph  already  noticed ;  any  omissions,  and  a  con- 
siderable number  of  new  species  will  be  published  in  my  Supplement  to  that 
monograph,  which  I  trust  will  appear  year  after  year,  especially  as  the 
Supplement  to  the  Mesozoic  Corals  is  now  complete  (Palasoutographical 
Society). 

The  vertical  range  and  the  horizontal  distribution  of  the  species  of  corals 
have  been  worked  out  by  llobert  Etheridge,  F.E.S.,  in  a  work  which  is  now 
in  course  of  publication  (Cat.  of  Brit.  Fossils). 

MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  classified  the  British  Palaeozoic 
Corals  amougst  the  sections  Aporosa,  Tabulata,  Tubulosa,  and  Rugosa.  The 
great  section  Perforata  is  not  represented  in  the  British  strata,  but  it  is  in 
the  equivalent  American  beds. 

The  only  representative  of  the  Aporosa  in  their  classification  was  one  of 
the  Fungidoe,  Palceocyclus  being  the  genus.  It  is  a  SUurian  form,  and  no 
others  of  the  family  have  been  discovered  in  the  other  Palaeozoic  rocks.  The 
genus  has  been  the  subject  of  a  memoir  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions, 
1867,  where  its  rugose  affinities  are  pointed  out,  and  its  cyathophyUoid  na- 
ture also.  But  the  Aporosa  are  nevertheless  represented  in  the  Devonian  and 
Carboniferous  rocks  by  the  genera  Battersby'm  and  Heterophyllia  (Phil. 
Trans.  1867). 

The  alliances  of  these  forms  and  of  some  of  the  Rugosa  with  the  Jurassic 
Coral-fauna  have  been  noticed  in  my  Supplement  to  the  Brit.  Foss.  Corals 
(Pal.  Soc),  part  "Liassic,"  and  in  the  Essay  in  the  Phil.  Trans,  of  1867*. 

*  The  PALASTRiEACE^.  Genera,  £aiiershi/ia  and  Heterophyllia  (Phil.  Trans.  1867,  p.  643 
et  seq.,  P.  M.  Duncan). — The  so-called  coenenchyma  of  Batter&hyia  incsgualis,  Ed.  &  H., 
is  like  that  of  Baiter &hyia  grandis,  nobis,  and  B.  gemmans,  nobi?,    It  is  really  nothing 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  119 

I  do  not  consider  that  the  Tubulosa  belonged  to  the  Madreporaria,  but 
that  they  were  Mcyonarians. 

It  is  very  certain  that  some  Aporose,  Perforate,  and  Rugose  corals  have 
tabulag,  and  that  their  existence  cannot  remove  the  forms  from  their  re- 
ceived zoological  position  into  the  separate  section  of  Tabulata. 

Thus  the  well-known  Aporose  coral  of  the  deep  sea,   Lopliohelia  pro- 


move,  than  portions  of  Stromatojiora  which  enclose  the  corallites  and  grow  simultaneously 
with  them. 

I  have  altered  the  generic  characters  of  Battershyia,  in  consequence  of  a  careful  exami- 
nation of  the  old  and  the  two  new  species.  It  is  as  follows : — Corallum  fasciculate  and 
branching  ;  corallites  tall,  cylindrical,  unequal  in  size  and  distance ;  septa  numerous  and 
following  no  apparent  cyclical  order. 

Endotheca  very  abundant :  it  is  vesicular,  and  there  are  no  tabulre.  Epitheca,  costa?, 
and  coenenchyma  wanting.  The  wall  is  stout,  and  the  septa  spring  from  wedge-shaped 
processes.  The  columellary  space  is  occupied  by  vesicular  endotheca.  Gemmation  extra- 
calicular  and  calicular  from  buds  having  only  five  septa. 

There  are  three  species : — 

Battersbyia  inrequalis,  I>uncan.  I  Devonian  Limestone  ; 

grandis,  Duncan.  \     found  in  pebbles, 

gemmans,  Duncan.  J      and  not  in  situ. 

In  Battershyia  gemmans  the  buds  which  develop  more  than  five  septa  grow  into  coral- 
lites, which  are  destined  to  bud  again  from  the  external  wall,  and  the  buds  which  de- 
velop five  septa  produce  other  buds  from  their  interseptal  loculi ;  the  buds  thus  developed 
resemble  the  corallites  with  more  than  thi-ee  septa.  This  curious  alternation  of  gemma- 
tion has  not  been  noticed  in  any  other  genus. 

The  genera  Battershyia  and  Heterophyllia  (Phil.  Trans,  he.  cit.)  have  much  in  common. 
They  have  a  stout  wall,  a  vesicular  and  dissepimental  endotheca,  delicate  septa,  very  irre- 
gular in  their  number,  and  neither  tabular  epitheca  nor  a  quaternary  septal  arrangement. 

The  genus  Batfcrsbyia  has  nothing  to  ally  it  to  the  Eugosa  or  the  Tabulata.  Hetero- 
fhyllia  lias  in  some  of  its  species  the  solitary  septum  or  vacancy  whicli  is  so  often  observed 
in  the  Cyathophyllida^.  Its  costal  wall  and  endotheca  connect  it  with  the  Mesozoic  and 
recent  Astrseidoe. 

The  singular  septal  development  of  Battershyia  is  witnessed  in  the  fasciculate  Liassic 
Astrajidse.  The  pentameral  arrangement  of  the  Battersbyian  septa  is  not  unique,  for 
Acanthoeoenia  Bathieri,  D'Orb.,  of  the  Neocomian  has  only  five  septa,  and  so  have  the 
species  of  Pentaccenia,  all  of  which  are  from  the  same  great  formation.  The  proper  Liassic 
and  some  of  the  Lower  Oolitic  Thecosmiliaj  and  CalamophylUiB  represent  and  are  allied 
by  structure  to  Battershyia.  The  highly  specialized  characters  of  the  Heterophyllise,  espe- 
cially of  H.  mirabilis,  could  hardly  be  perpetuated  during  great  and  prolonged  emigra- 
tions, so  that  the  genus  appears  to  be  without  representatives  in  the  secondary  rocks.  Its 
alliance  to  Battershyia,  however,  is  evident  enough. 

The  genus  HeterophylUa,  MCoy,  was  examined  by  me  in  1867,  and  the  study  of  several 
new  species  of  it  rendered  a  fresh  diagnosis  requisite. 

The  following  description  of  the  diagnosis  appeared  in  my  essay  on  the  genera  Hetero- 
phyUia,  &c.,  already  noticed: — 

"The  corallum  is  simple,  long,  and  slender.  The  gemmation  takes  place  around  the 
calicular  margin,  and  is  extracalicular.  The  septa  are  either  irregular  in  number  and 
arrangement,  or  else  are  six  in  number  and  regular.  The  cost«  are  well  developed,  and 
may  be  trabecular,  spined,  and  flexuous.  The  wall  is  thick  ;  there  is  no  epitheca,  and  the 
endotheca  is  dissepimental." 

The  genus  may  be  subdivided  into  a  group  with  numerous  septa,  and  a  group  with  six 
septa. 

In  the  first  the  rugose  type  is  faintly,  and  in  the  last  the  hexameral  arrangement  is  well 
observed. 

The  dense  wall  and  the  dissepimental  endotheca  prove  that  the  type  of  the  Mesozoic 
Coral-fauna  was  foreshown. 

The  endotheca  varies  in  quantity  in  the  different  species,  and  it  resembles  the  tabular 
arrangement ;  but  even  when  this  is  the  ease  and  the  cross  structures  are  well  developed 
and  numerous,  they  do  not  stretch  over  the  axial  space,  so  as  to  shut  out  cavities 
as  if  they  were  floors ;  they  do  not  close  in  the  whole  of  the  visceral  and  interlocular 


120  REPOKT— 1871. 

I'tfera,  Pallas,  sp.,  may  have  some  of  its  corallites  subdivided  by  perfect 
tabula) ;  the  species  of  Cijathopliora  of  the  Oolites  also  ;  yet  it  would  be  a  most 
objectionable  and  improper  proceeding  to  remove  these  genera  from  their 
recognized  alliances.  I  found  an  Astrcvopora  in  the  Museum  at  Liver- 
pool with  tabula; ;  and  Mr.  Kent  has  pointed  out  the  perforate  affinities  of 
Koninclcia  and  of  the  form  he  has  published.  Some  Eugosse  have  perfect 
tabula;,  others  have  them  not ;  and  in  Ci/clojjJiyllum  and  Glisiophyllum  dis- 
sepiments exist  in  some  parts  of  a  corallum  and  not  in  others,  where  they 
are  replaced  by  tabulae.  This  interesting  fact  may  be  gleaned  from  James 
Thomson's  sections  taken  from  the  Scottish  corals. 

JSTevertheless  there  are  forms  which  are  essentially  tabulate,  and  not  rugose, 
but  which,  so  far  as  their  hard  and  septal  structures  are  concerned,  may 
be  aporose  in  one  instance  and  perforate  in  another ;  for  instance,  Cohwmaria 
and  Favosites.     These  forms  may  still  p»'ovisionalhj  be  considered  Tabulata. 

Alliances. — The  Lower  Cretaceous  and  Neocomiau  corals  appear  to  connect 
the  oldest  and  the  newest  faunas,  and  to  form  an  excellent  starting-point 
both  for  the  study  of  the  Tertiary  as  well  as  for  the  Palasozoic  forms.  It 
will  be  readily  observed  that  the  succession  of  genera  and  species  from  the 
lower  Cretaceous  horizon  to  the  present  day  is  gradual ;  and  that  although 
many  forms  died  out,  still  the  general  appearance  of  the  consecutive  faunas, 
such  as  those  of  the  Middle  and  Upper  Cretaceous,  the  Nummulitic,  the  Oii- 
gocene,  the  Miocene,  the  Pliocene,  and  of  the  two  great  faunas  of  the  present 
day,  presents  a  remarkable  similarity  of  Avhat  is  usually  called  "  facies." 
The  similarity  between  the  Lower  Cretaceous  fauna  and  that  of  the  Miocene 
has  been  treated  of  elsewhere  *,  and  the  analogies  of  the  mid-tertiary  corals 
and  those  of  the  Pacific  also.  Moreover  since  the  last  Eeport  was  read  the 
distinction  between  reef,  deep-sea,  and  littoral  corals  has  been  more  satisfac- 
torily established,  and  the  reason  why  consecutive  faunas  upon  the  same 
areas  could  not  possibly  be  identical,  even  as  regards  the  genera,  has  been 
explained  f. 

As  the  Coral-faunas  are  studied  from  those  of  recent  date  backwards  in 
time,  extinct  forms  are  met  with  which  gradually  fill  up  the  spaces  in  the 
very  natural  received  classification,  and  it  is  perfectly  evident  that  the  existing 
species  were  foreshadowed  in  the  past.  A  great  number  of  existing  species 
lived  in  the  so-called  Pliocene,  and  not  a  few  in  the  Miocene  %.  Eeuss's 
admirable  researches  amongst  the  vast  reefs  which  are  of  an  intermediate  age 
between  the  Flysch  and  the  typical  coral  districts  of  the  Miocene  age,  have 
carried  back  the  homotaxis  of  the  existing  coral  areas  to  a  time  which  has 
hardly  been  recognized  by  British  geologists,  but  whose  fossils  are  clearly 

cavities  in  a  horizontal  plane.  In  some  species  the  dissepiments  are  curved,  and  are  as 
incomplete  as  ■when  they  are  more  or  less  horizontal  in  others,  and  vesicular  endotheca 
exists,  more  or  less,  in  nearly  all  the  forms. 

There  are  no  true  tabula^  and  the  dissepiments  do  not  interfere  in  any  way  with  the 
jiassage  of  the  septa  from  the  lowest  part  of  the  corallum  to  the  calice. 
There  are  eight  species  of  HdcrophyUia : — 

Heteropbyllia  grandis,  M'Coy.  Heterophyllia  M'Coyi,  Duncan. 

— —  ornata,  M'Coy.  Lyelli,  Duncan. 

■  granulata,  Duncan.  mirabilis,  Duncan. 

angulata,  Duncan.  Sedgwicki,  Duncan. 

The  first  two  are  found  in  the  Carboniferous  limestone  of  Derbyshire,  and  the  otliers  in 
the  Scottish  Carboniferous  strata  (see  Phil.  Trans.  1867,  p.  043  et  seq.). 

*  West-Indian  Foss.  Corals  (P.  M.  Duncan,  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  sxiv.  p.  28). 

t  Coral  Faunas  of  Europe  (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  xxvi.  p.  51  ct  seq.). 

I  Corals  of  Porcupine  Expedition  (Proc.  Eoyal  Society,  xviii.  p.  289). 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  121 

represented  at  Brockenhurst.  In  tlie  great  reefs  of  the  Custcl-Gomberto 
district  there  are  the  remains  of  a  larger  coral-fauna  than  that  which  now 
exists  in  the  Caribbean  Sea  ;  and  although  a  profound  Plysch  exists  between 
them  and  the  reefs  in  the  Oberburg  distiict,  indicating  great  oscillations  of 
the  area  and  vast  changes  in  the  life  of  the  time,  still  the  genera  which  con- 
tribute so  largely  to  the  formation  of  modern  reefs  are  found  represented  in 
abundance  in  the  lowest  reefs,  which  clearly  belong  to  the  Nummulitic  period. 

Our  Eocene  corals  and  those  found  at  Brockenhurst  are  the  stunted  off- 
shoots of  the  faunas  which  flourished  at  Oberburg  and  in  the  Vicentine,  but 
nevertheless  some  of  their  species  are  closely  allied  to  those  of  much  later 
geological  date. 

Withoiit  the  assistance  of  the  labours  of  Reuss  and  D'Achiardi  zoophytolo- 
gists  could  not  have  imagined  that  the  well-known  coral-faunas  of  the  Hala 
Mountains  of  Sindh,  of  the  Nummulitic  deposits  of  the  Maritime  Alps  and 
Switzerland,  and  of  the  London  and  Paris  basins  were  but  fractions  of  a 
fauna  which  was  probably  richer  in  species  than  any  modern  coral  tract ;  and 
this  welcome  aid  proves  the  impropriety  of  neglecting  foreign  palaeontology, 
even  when  writing  reports  like  the  present,  and  which  treat  of  the  produc- 
tions of  the  rocks  of  a  small  area.  The  impossibility  of  comparing  with  any 
satisfaction  the  Nummulitic  coral-fauna  and  that  of  the  Upper  Chalk  is 
obvious ;  because  the  NummuHtic  fauna,  so  far  as  it  is  known  to  us,  was 
either  a  reef  or  a  comparatively  shallow-water  one,  whilst  the  corals  of  the 
Upper  Chalk  were  dwellers  in  a  deep  sea,  where  reef  species  cannot  and 
could  not  exist.  We  must  seek  to  compare  the  Upper  Cretaceous  corals  with 
the  deep-sea  forms  of  the  Nummulitic,  but  unfortunately  they  are  not  yet 
found*. 

The  Lower  Cretaceous  corals  of  Great  Britain  were  the  contemporaries  of 
the  reef-builders  of  the  Gosau  and  equivalent  formations,  and  thus  deep-sea 
and  reef  species  were  contemporaneous,  as  they  are  at  the  present  time,  but  they 
were  separated  by  wide  distances.  The  comparison  of  the  reef-fauna  and  that 
of  the  deep  sea  is  in  this  instance  as  futile  as  it  would  be  at  the  present  time  ; 
but  we  may  compare  the  reef-fauna  of  Gosau  with  that  of  the  Nummulitic, 
Oligocene,  Miocene,  and  existing  reefs,  and  not  without  benefit  and  good 
results,  for  there  are  persistent  species  which  unite  the  whole  together. 

A  comparison  may  also  be  instituted  between  the  deep-sea  coral-faunas  of 
the  Chalk  and  those  which  flourished  at  corresponding  depths  in  the  succeed- 
ing geological  epochs.  Thus,  thanks  to  Messrs.  Wyville  Thomson,  Carpenter, 
and  Jeffreys,  I  have  been  able  to  assert  the  extraordinary  homologies  between 
the  deep-sea  Cretaceous  corals  and  those  which  now  exist  to  the  west  of  these 
islands.  These  results  are  being  published  by  the  Zoological  Society.  The 
present  arrangement  of  coral  genera  in  and  about  reefs  was  foreshadowed  as 
early  as  the  Eocene,  and  such  assemblages  of  genera  existed  in  those  old  reefs  as 
would  characterize  the  coral  life  of  atoUs  in  the  Caribbean  Sea  and  in  the  raised 
reefs  of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The  genera  Madrepora,  Alveopora,  Porites,  Helias- 
traa,  and  Millepora  were  represented  in  the  Oberburg,  and  their  species  con- 
stitute the  bulk  of  existing  reefs.  It  is  important  to  be  thus  able,  from  the 
labours  of  MM.  Milne-Edwards,  J.  Haime,  and  Reuss,  to  determine  the 
existence  of  Perforate  and  Tabulate  corals  in  the  earliest  tertiaries,  for  inter- 
esting links  are  thus  offered  to  the  paleeontologist  by  which  the  older  and 
the  newer  faunas  are  connected.  Such  researches  diminish  the  importance 
of  the  break  between  the  early  Tertiary  fauna  and  the  present,  and  also,  to  a 

*  See  P.  M.  Duncan  on  a  new  Coral  from  the  Crag,  and  on  the  persistence  of  Cretaceous 
types  in  the  deep  sea  (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  sxvii.  pp.  369  &  434). 


122  KEPORT— ]871. 

certain  extent,  that  between  the  Palaeozoic  and  recent  faunas.  Thus  the  find- 
ing of  species  of  the  great  Perforate  genus  Madrepora  in  the  Oberburg 
carries  the  genus  a  step  further  back  than  their  discovery  in  the  OHgocene 
of  Brockenhurst,  and  when  taken  into  consideration  with  the  presence  of 
the  StephanophylUa,  a  perforate  simple  coral,  in  the  Crag,  Eocene,  and  Lower 
Cretaceous  deposits,  and  with  Actinads,  a  highly  developed  compound  form, 
in  the  Lower  Cretaceous  strata  of  Gosau,  the  immense  break  between  the 
next  form  of  the  family  and  the  existing  is  materially  diminished.  The  next 
form  is  not  met  with  until  the  Carboniferous  deposits  of  Indiana  are  reached 
in  a  downward  course  ;  and  we  owe  to  the  late  Jules  Haime  the  knowledge 
of  the  structures  of  PaJceacis  cimeiformis,  Haime,  MS.,  from  Spurgeon  Hill, 
Indiana.  It  is  indeed  remarkable  that  the  vast  eoralliferous  strata  which 
intervene  between  the  Carboniferous  and  the  Lower  Chalk  should  not  present 
a  satisfactory  proof  of  the  existence  of  those  members  of  the  existing  great 
reef -building  family.  There  is  a  curious  fact  which  may  be  taken  for  what 
it  is  worth  in  considering  the  absence  of  genera  which  have  been  represented 
in  some  ancient  deposits  and  which  have  not  been  found  in  intermediate 
strata.  Thus  the  existing  West-India  reefs  contain  abundance  of  the  species 
of  the  genus  Madrepora  and  Millepora ;  indeed  they,  with  the  forms  of 
Porites,  constitute  the  bulk  of  the  formations.  Now,  although  Porites  is 
common  in  the  Miocene  reefs  of  the  area,  the  others  are  very  rare,  for  the 
coral  structures  were  principally  composed  of  tabulate  forms  and  Heliastra?ans. 
Yet  we  know  that  before  the  Miocene  reefs  flourished,  Madreporae  and  MUle- 
pora)  were  common  enough ;  they  were  living  all  the  while  in  other  coral 
tracts.  But  the  break  between  the  Palaeozoic  and  the  Lower  Cretaceous  forms 
cannot  be  bridged  over  without  investigating  the  value  of  the  classification 
which  separates  the  most  closely  allied  subfamily  of  the  Perforata,  although 
the  Perforata  are  found  in  the  Great  Oolite. 

II.  The  Perforata  characterized  by  a  porous  ccenenchyma  and  other  tissues 
present  many  modifications  of  their  hard  parts.  Some  approach  the  Aporosa, 
and  others  would  hardly  be  considered  corals  by  the  uninitiated  on  account  of 
the  sponge-like  reticulations  of  the  skeleton.  The  genus  Madrepora  is  defined 
as  follows  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  : — 

The  coraUum  is  compound  and  increases  by  budding.  The  cojnenehj'ma 
is  abundant,  spongy,  reticulate,  slightly  or  not  at  aU  distinguishable  from 
the  walls,  which  are  very  porous.  The  visceral  chambers  are  subdivided  by  two 
principal  septa,  which  meet  by  their  inner  margins,  and  are  more  developed 
than  the  others. 

The  septa,  especially  the  two  largest,  although  perforated,  are  continuous, 
and  very  often  lamellar. 

MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  distinguish  the  Poritidae  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner : — 

The  coraUum  is  compound,  and  entirely  formed  of  a  reticulate  ccenenchyma, 
which  is  formed  of  trabeculae  and  is  porous.  The  corallites  are  fused 
together  by  their  walls,  or  by  an  intermediate  ccenenchyma,  and  they  multiply 
by  budding,  which  is  usually  extracalicular  and  submarginal. 
^  The  septal  apparatus  is  always  more  or  less  distinct,  but  never  completely 
lamellar,  and  is  formed  by  a  series  of  trabeculae,  which  constitute  by  their 
union  a  sort  of  lattice-work.  The  walls  present  the  same  structure  as  the 
septa.  The  visceral  chambers  sometimes  have  rudimentary  dissepiments, 
but  are  never  divided  by  tabulae. 

This  family  is  divided  into  two  subfamilies — 

1.  The  Poritinae,  with  a  rudimentary  or  absent  ccenenchyma. 

2.  The  Montiporinae,  with  a  well-developed  ccenenchyma. 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  123 

It  will  be  noticed,  when  specimens  of  Montiporinse  and  Madreporse  are 
compared,  that  the  distinction  is  in  the  absence  of  the  two  large  and  not 
very  perforate  septa  in  the  case  of  the  first-mentioned  group,  and  it  is  clear 
that  the  excessively  trabecular  character  of  its  septa,  coenenchjma,  and  walls 
is  characteristic.     Moreover  the  Montiporinae  are  recent  forms. 

The  genus  Litharcea  amongst  the  Poritinae  approaches  Madrepora,  however, 
and  its  septa  are  often  so  lamellar  that  they  resemble  those  of  some  Helias- 
traeans  amongst  the  Aporosa.  Here  the  distinction  between  the  forms 
becomes  limited.  The  two  great  septa  are  not  extended  to  the  median  line  in 
Litharcea,  and  there  is  scanty  ccenenchyma,  but  still  there  is  some.  The  colu- 
mella of  Litharcea  is  simply  formed  by  the  union  of  trabeculse  from  the  septal 
ends. 

Now  Protarcea  vetusta,  Hall,  and  Protarcea  VerneuiU,  Ed.  &  H.,  Lower  Silu- 
rian corals  from  Ohio,  only  differ  from  the  species  of  Litharcea  by  having  more 
aporosesepta  and  some  coenenchymal  protuberances*.  It  is  necessary, however, 
on  account  of  the  comparatively  late  appearance  (so  far  as  our  investigations 
has  as  yet  gone)  of  Madrepora  and  Litharcea,  whilst  admitting  the  extraor- 
dinary relation  of  the  last-named  genus  to  Protarcea,  to  examine  another  of 
the  Jurassic  Perforata. 

The  genus  Microsolena  of  the  Poritinao  carries  the  excessively  trabecular 
type  of  the  Poritinae  as  far  back  as  the  Great  Oolite ;  it  is  of  course  one  of 
the  extreme  forms,  and  most  remote  from  Madrepora.  It  has  more  or 
less  confluent  septa,  and  nothing  like  the  styliform  columella  of  Protarcea. 
Thus  Pcdceacis,  a  form  of  the  Madreporinfe,  and  Protarcea,  a  typo  of  the 
Poritinfe,  are  still  unsatisfactorily  disconnected  by  intermediate  species  vidth 
their  allies  in  the  secondary  rocks.  Eut,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  something 
to  be  able  to  show  an  anatomical  connexion  between  the  Protarcece  of  the 
Lower  Silurian  and  the  Mierosolence  of  the  Jurassic  and  of  the  Lithara'ce  of  the 
Nummulitic  rocks,  and  between  Palceacis  and  the  Turbinarians  of  the  group 
Madrepora,  of  which  Actinacis  is  the  oldest  (Lower  Chalk)t.  It  shows  that 
the  reticulate  or  perforate  corals  existed  amongst  the  first  known  eoralliferous 
rocks,  that  the  scheme  of  their  organization  has  been  perpetuated  to  the 
present  day  through  many  kinds  of  variations,  but  with  a  great  break,  which 
is  owing  to  the  imperfection  of  the  geological  record. 

III.  The  Tabulata,  which  form  such  large  portions  of  many  modern  reefs, 
were,  as  has  been  already  noticed,  in  existence  during  the  Miocene+,  the 
01igocene§,  and  the  Eocene  ||.  They  were,  of  course,  not  found  amongst 
the  deep-sea  deposits  of  the  Cretaceous  period,  such,  for  instance,  as  our 
White  Chalk  ;  but  Eeuss  found  the  genera  in  the  reefs  of  Gosau.  Eeliopora 
Partschi,  Eeuss,  sp. ;  If.  raacrostoma,  Eeuss,  sp. ;  Polytremacis  Blainvilleana'; 
P.  hulhosa,  d'Orb.  :  these  are  not  uncommon  in  the  reefs  which  were  in 
relation  with  the  Hippurites,  and  the  last  coral  genus  lived  during  the 
Eocene.  Eeuss  estabUshed  a  genus  in  1854  for  some  compound,  massive 
corals,  with  prismatic  corallites  with  thick  imperforate  walls.  The  calicos 
are  without  radiating  septa  and  have  no  columeUae.  The  tabulae  are  very 
irregular,  some  being  complete  and  others  uniting  obliquely  with  their  neigh- 
bours. The  septa  are  represented  by  trabeculae.  This  Lower  Cretaceous 
genus  he  named  StyJophyllum,  and  will  be  considered  further  on. 

*  See  Hist.  Nat.  des  Corall.  vol.  iii.  p.  185. 

t  M.  Lindstrom  has  lately  described  a  Caloci/stis,  a  perforated  coral  from  the  Silm-ian. 

J  See  Duncan,  West-Indian  Fossil  Corals  (Q.  J.  Geol.  Soc.) ;  Eeuss,  Corals  of  Java,  &c. 

I  Reuss,  op.  cit.,  and  Duncan  (Pal.  Soc.  Tertiary  Corals  of  Brockenhurst). 

II  MM.  Milne- Edwards  and  Haimej  Hist.  Nat.  des  Corall.  &o. 


124  REPORT — 1871. 

Pocillopora,  so  common  a  genus  amongst  the  Indo-Pacific  reefs,  was  found 
in  the  West-India  Miocene,  the  Javan  deposits,  and  at  Turin  and  Dax.  It 
is  considered  to  be  allied  to  Ccenites  by  Milne-Edwards,  but  Jules  Haime 
doubted  the  Zoantharian  characters  of  the  last-named  genus,  which  is  Palae- 
ozoic. Seriatopora,  a  modern  genus,  does  not  appear  to  have  been  found 
fossil ;  but  it  is  closclj'  allied,  according  to  the  received  opinion,  with  Rhab- 
dopora,  Dendrop>ora,  and  Traclinpora,  all  Palfeozoic  genera,  the  first  being 
Carboniferous  and  the  others  Devonian.  Millepora,  the  great  reef-building 
genus  of  the  West  Indies,  can  be  traced  into  the  Lower  Tertiaries,  and  is 
closely  allied  to  the  Heliopora  already  mentioned,  and  by  structure  to  the 
Heliolites  of  the  Palaeozoic  period. 

Between  the  Lower  Cretaceous  reefs  and  the  Palaeozoic  there  were  the 
Devonian,  the  Oolitic,  the  Lower  Liassic,  the  Rhaetic,  and  the  St.  Cassian  and 
the  Muschelkalk  reef's,  but  not  a  trace  of  a  tabulate  coral  has  been  recorded 
from  them,  in  spite  of  the  affinities  of  the  modern  and  most  ancient  genera 
of  the  Devonian.  Cyathopliora  has  tabulae,  but  its  alliances  are  with  the 
Astraeidfe.  On  examining  the  lists  published  in  my  last  Eeport,  the  absence 
of  tabulate  corals  in  the  whole  of  the  Mesozoic  strata  of  Great  Britain  will  be 
apparent,  and  I  have  not  been  able  to  distinguish  any  foreign  forms  belonging 
to  that  vast  age  (except  our  HoJocystis  eJeguns,  Ed.  and  H.),  of  which  notice 
wiU  be  taken  in  treating  of  the  Rugosa  and  the  species  of  Columnastnea. 

Just  as  the  Thecidae,  Favositidas,  and  Halysitinac  formed  the  reef-builders  of 
the  tabulate  fauna  of  the  Palaeozoic  times,  so  MiUeporidas  and  Seriatoporidae 
contribute  to  the  recent  reef-fauna  ;  but  these  last  genera  had  species  in  the 
Palaeozoic  fauna,  so  the  break  of  the  end  of  the  Permian  or  Carboniferous 
periods  was  not  complete  so  far  as  the  Tabulata  were  concerned.  The  ab- 
sence of  them  from  the  successive  secondary  reefs  that  have  been  examined 
by  palaeontologists  has  probably  been  produced  by  the  destructive  fossilization 
which  is  so  common  in  existing  reefs,  and  by  the  real  absence  of  the  forms 
from  certain  reef-areas  of  which  there  is  an  example  (see  '  West-Indian  Fossil 
Corals,'  Duncan). 

The  Tabulata  were  as  abundant  in  the  Palajozoic  periods  as  during  the 
Tertiary  epochs,  and  the  ancient  and  modern  genera  and  species  have  certain 
characters  which  differentiate  them  more  or  less  from  all  other  coral  forms. 

MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  characterize  the  Tabulata  as  fol- 
lows (Hist.  Nat.  des  Corall.  iii.  p.  223) : — • 

The  coraUum  is  essentially  composed  of  a  well-developed  mural  system,  and 
the  visceral  chambers  are  divided  into  a  series  of  stages  by  transverse  floors, 
which  act  as  complete  diaphragms. 

The  septal  apparatus  is  rudimentary,  and  is  cither  completely  deficient  or 
only  represented  by  trabeculae  which  do  not  extend  far  into  the  intertabular 

spaces. 

The  lamellar  diaphragms,  floors,  or  tabulae,  which  close  the  visceral 
chamber  of  the  coraUite  at  difl'erent  heights,  diff"er  from  the  dissepiments  of 
the  Astrffiidse  by  not  depending  in  any  manner  upon  the  septa,  by  closing 
completely  the  space  below,  for  they  stretch  uninterniptedly  from  side  to 
side,  instead  of  simply  occupying  the  interseptal  loculi. 

The  septal  apparatus  does  not  affect  the  Rugose  type,  but  that  character- 
istic of  the  Perforata  and  Aporosa.  The  forms  classified  under  the  section  of 
the  Tabulata  are  very  numerous,  and  hence  the  importance  of  determining 
whether  they  can  be  undoubtedly  allied  with  the  rest  of  the  Actinozoa. 

Many  years  have  elapsed  since  Agassiz  expressed  his  opinion,  founded  upon 
direct  observation,  that  the  Milhporce,  an  important  genus  of  the  Tabulata, 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  125 

were  not  Actiuozoa,  but  Hydrozoa,  aud  lately  he  has  reasserted  this  state- 
ment. If  MUlepora  is  one  of  the  Hydrozoa,  those  tabulate  forms  which 
resemble  it  in  structure,  such  as  Heliolites,  must  reasonably  be  asso- 
ciated with  it  in  classification.  The  importance,  then,  of  determining  this 
point  is  very  great,  and  unfortunately  it  is  accompanied  by  many  difficulties. 
Before  proceeding  to  criticise  Agassiz's  remarks,  it  is  necessary  to  examine 
the  nature  of  the  structures  of  the  genera  associated  with  MUlepora,  or,  in 
fact,  to  review  the  classification  of  the  Tabulata,  and  to  note  their  affinities 
with  the  other  sections.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  divide  the  Tabulata 
into  four  families : — MiUeporidEe,  Seriatoporidae,  Favositidae,  Thecidas. 

The  principle  upon  which  this  classification  is  founded  is  philosophical  and 
natural  to  a  certain  degree.  The  first  two  families  have  more  or  less  coenen- 
chyma  between  the  coraUites,  and  the  last  two  have  little  or  none,  the  co- 
raUites  being  soldered  together  by  their  walls. 

The  genus  Pocillopora  unites  the  two  divisions,  for  it  belongs  to  the  Favo- 
sitidae, and  yet  has  a  compact  coenenchyma  on  the  surface  of  the  corallum. 

The  classificatory  value  of  the  presence  of  coenenchyma  in  the  whole  of  the 
Madreporaria  may  be  estimated  by  examining  the  scheme  of  MM.  MUne- 
Edwards  aud  Jules  Haime. 

When  treating  of  the  Madreporidae  (Hist.  Nat.  des  Corall.  vol.  iii.  p.  91), 
they  subdivide  them  into  Eupsamminae  without  an  independent  coenenchyma, 
Madreporince  and  Turbinarinae  with  a  very  abundant  coenenchyma. 

The  Poritidae  they  subdivide  into  the  Poritinae  without  coenenchyma,  and 
the  Montiporinae  with  an  abundance  of  that  structure  in  the  spongy  or 
alveolar  form. 

The  EiiphyUiaceae  (Ed.  &  H.  op.  cit.  pp.  184  &  197)  have  such  genera 
as  BarysmiUa  and  Dichocosnia,  associated  with  Dendrogyra,  Gyrosmilia,  Pa- 
chyr/yra,  Rhipidogyra,  which  have  or  have  not  much  cosnenchyma. 

The  StylinaceaD  are  divided  into  independent,  "  empatees,"  aud  agglomerate. 
The  independent  genera  have  no  coenenchyma;  the  "  empatees"  possess  it  in 
the  extreme    so  as  to  merit  the  term  peritheca. 

The  agglomerate  have  an  excess  of  exotheca,  but  some  genera  are  admitted 
which  are  united  by  their  walls,  and  are  therefore  without  exotheca  or  coe- 
nenchyma. Thiis  PhyJIocosnia  has  an  exotheca  quite  ccenenchymatous,  and 
Astroca'iiia  has  none.  The  corallites  of  Elasmoccenia  have  large  mural  ex- 
pansions, and  those  of  Aphccenia  are  soldered  by  their  walls.  Heteroccenia 
and  Pentaccenia  present  the  same  anomalies. 

The  Astraeinae  present  such  genera  as  ApJirastrcea  and  Septastrcea,  the  one 
with  and  the  other  without  extramural  tissue,  and  Heliastrcea  and  Solenastrcea 
with  and  Isastrcea  without  the  same  structure. 

It  is  then  evident  that  the  presence  or  absence  of  coenenchyma  had  difierent 
significations  in  the  estimation  of  the  distinguished  French  zoophytologists. 

It  is  e%'ident  that  the  structure  of  the  corallites  of  Isastraeae  and  their  defi- 
ciency in  coenenchyma  in  comparison  with  the  Heliastraeae  and  Solenastraeae 
cannot  be  of  any  very  great  organic  significance  ;  for  the  coraUites  of  Heli- 
astraeae occasionally  grow  so  close  together  as  to  produce  absorption  of  the 
exotheca  and  costas,  and  the  same  occurs  in  the  Astroccenife.  The  presence 
of  exotheca,  peritheca,  aud  coenenchyma  (for  they  are  grades  of  a  particular 
structure)  depends  very  much  upon  the  habits  of  the  corallum,  and  the  notion 
of  teleology  can  hardly  be  separated  from  the  consideration  of  this  presence 
a7id  absence.  Certainly  to  separate  great  groups  by  the  presence  or  absence 
of  coenenchyma  is  not  natural.  It  may  be  very  useful  to  the  classificatory 
student,  because  the  limitation  qf  forms  is  the  prevaUing  want;  but  it  is  not 


126  REPORT 1871. 

so  to  the  biologist,  for  these  mixed  and  unnatural  limitations  and  separations 
only  form  gaps  in  his  argument,  which  require  bridging  over. 

The  Favositidae  and  Thecidae,  Palaeozoic  forms,  may  then  be  separated,  for 
the  pui'poses  of  classification,  from  the  Milleporidae  and  Seriatoporidae,  which 
are  almost  aU  post-Palaeozoic  ;  but  this  hmitation  is  not  to  impede  the  plain 
course  of  the  palaeontologist,  who  studies  from  a  biological  point  of  view ; 
nor  is  it  to  stand  in  the  way  of  the  assertion,  that  the  break  between  the 
Palaeozoic  and  younger  Tabulata  is  almost  nil. 

The  genus  Millepora  belongs  to  the  Milleporidae,  and  the  ccenenchyma  of  its 
species  is  very  abundant.  It  is  of  "  a  very  irregular  and  spongy  structure, 
rather  than  tubular "  (Ed.  &  H.),  The  cahces  are  of  very  different  dimen- 
sions on  the  same  coraUum.  There  are  no  distinct  septa,  nor  is  there  a 
columella.  The  tabulae  are  horizontal.  These  are  the  diagnostics  of  the 
genus  according  to  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Hame.  A  careful  examination 
of  the  calices  of  good  specimens  determines  that  the  trabeciilae,  of  which  the 
ccenenchyma  is  composed,  often  projects  into  them,  in  the  position  of  septa; 
but  there  is  nothing  like  the  regular  arrangement  as  seen  in  Heliopora,  or 
in  the  Poritidae  of  the  Perforata.  The  cells  of  the  ccenenchyma  may  occa- 
sionally be  seen  to  open  into  the  space  above  the  last  tabula. 

The  absence  of  septa  and  this  relation  of  the  ccenenchyma  to  the  gastric 
space  are  most  important.  The  tubular  nature  of  much  of  the  ccenenchyma 
is  evident,  and  longitudinal  sections  of  some  size  prove  that  the  spongy  nature 
of  it  is  by  no  means  constant  nor  uniform. 

In  Heliopora,  belonging  also  to  the  Milleporidae,  the  ccenenchyma  is  very 
abundant,  and  covered  here  and  there  with  rounded  pores  arranged  more  or 
less  regularly  and  separated  by  papillose  granules.  These  grains  are  the 
extremities  of  cylindrical  "tigelles"  which  circumscribe  the  tubules,  the 
calice  of  which  is  open  at  the  surface.  The  calices  are  circular.  The  septa 
are  slightly  developed,  and  there  are  twelve  of  them.  The  tabulae  are  well 
developed  and  horizontal  (Ed.  &  H.).  The  nature  of  the  ccenenchyma  and 
the  distinct  septa  distinguish  this  genus  from  the  last.  Both  of  the  extinct 
species  have  a  papillose  or  striated  structure  running  over  the  coenenchymal 
surface.  In  all  the  species  the  septa  do  not  project  far  into  the  calice ;  but 
the  amount  of  projection  is  not  sufficient,  as  a  structural  peculiarity,  in  any 
case  to  determine  more  than  a  specific  distinction.  Hence  MM.  Milne- 
Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  when  they  separate,  in  their  scheme  of  the  Millepo- 
ii^yd* ,  Millepora  and  Heliopora  and  other  genera  ivova.  Hcliolites,  Propora, 
and  Lyellia,  the  particular  Palaeozoic  genera,  they  can  only  be  permitted  to  do 
so  on  the  plea  that  the  plan  renders  the  genera  readily  distinguishable.  The 
projection  or  non-projection  is  not  sufficient  to  determine  a  generic  difference. 

Now  Heliolites  has  a  beautiful  ccenenchyma,  very  geometric,  and  not  irre- 
gular and  spongy ;  its  cellules  are  placed  regularly  and  symmetrically.  In 
most  of  the  species  the  septa  are  distinct,  and  project  far  inwards,  but  in 
Heliolites  Orayi  they  are  almost  rudimentary, 
'  The  genus  Pohjiremacis  hnks  Heliolites  and  Heliopora  together,  for  its 
ccenenchyma  is  that  of  the  second,  and  the  septa  resemble  those  of  the  first- 
named  genus.  Polytremacis  is  not  older  than  Heliopora  in  the  secondary 
ages,  and  the  septal  distinction  which  cannot  expel  Heliolites  Grayi  from 
its  genus,  and  which  is  improperly  allowed  to  distinguish  Polytremacis  and 
Heliopora,  and  these  and  Heliolites,  may  well  have  been  produced  by  varia- 
tions in  a  succession  of  early  secondary  forms. 

»  Op.  cii.  p.  225. 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  127 

The  septal  development  of  Heliolites  is  exaggerated  in  Propora,  a  genus 
from  the  Upper  Silurian,  and  which  perhaps  lasted  into  the  Carboniferous. 
The  costaj  in  this  genus  are  well  developed,  but  the  ccenenchymal  cells  are 
less  geometric  than  in  Heliolites.  The  structural  relations  are  of  the  closest, 
and  the  generic  distinction  is  not  of  the  usual  generic  value.  Another 
Upper  Silurian  genus,  Lyellia,  represents  these  symmetrical  Milleporidse 
in  America.  The  corallite  walls  are  subcostulate  and  not  so  costulate  as  in 
Propora.  The  septa  (12)  are  well  developed,  as  in  Heliolites  and  Propora  and 
Heliopora,  and  the  coenenchyma  is  perfectly  vesicular — spongy,  in  fact,  like 
Heliopora.  Here,  then,  in  the  distant  and  British  and  Northern  European 
Silurians,  there  were  closely  allied  forms  varying  amongst  themselves,  but 
more  than  the  secondary  types,  the  variation  having  some  sort  of  likeness  in 
both  instances.  It  is  impossible  not  to  acknowledge  the  genetic  affinities  of 
all  these  genera  except  Millepora,  of  which  more  will  be  said,  or  to  hesitate 
to  assert  that  there  has  never  been  a  break  in  the  Tabulata,  and  that  the  Ee- 1 
cent  and  Palaeozoic  Heliopora  and  Heliolites  are  very  closely  allied,  the  one 
being  the  descendant  of  the  other*.  Axopora  is  a  tertiary  genus,  and  its 
immense  columella,  which  fills  up  the  corallite  inferiorly  and  leaves  but  little 
room  in  the  calice  around  it,  of  course  prevents  the  tabiilae  from  reaching 
across  the  axial  space.  The  tabulae  come  in  contact  with  but  do  not  perfo- 
rate the  columella,  so  that  this  structure  grows  progressively  without  any 
reference  to  them ;  they  do  not  form  floors  upon  which  a  columella  is  deve- 
loped f.  There  are  no  septa,  and  the  coenenchyma  is  reticulate  in  the  ex- 
treme. No  living  analogue  of  this  genus  exists,  and  exception  may  be  taken 
whether  it  be  a  true  coral.     It  has  no  Palasozoic  representatives. 

Battershyia  is  a  very  remarkable  Palaeozoic  genus,  and  has  been  examined 
by  me+.  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime§  classify  it  with  the  Mil- 
leporidaj,  but  apparently  only  provisionally ;  but  it  will  be  noticed  elsewhere. 
I  have  associated  Battershyia  and  Heterophyllia  together  as  a  new  division 
of  the  Aporosa  of  the  Astraeidae,  under  the  name  of  the  Palastraeaceae,  which 
are  noticed  in  the  first  part  of  this  Eeport. 

The  Eavositidae  are  divided  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  into 
the  following  subfamilies :  Eavositinae,  Chaetetinae,  Halysitinae,  PociUoporinae. 
All  are  presumed  to  present  the  following  family  characteristics  : — "  The 
corallum  is  formed  essentially  of  the  lamellar  walls  of  the  coraUites,  and 
possesses  hardly  any  or  no  coenenchyma.  The  visceral  chambers  are  divided 
by  tabulfe,  which  are  numerous  and  well  developed." 

The  subfamilies  without  any  coenenchyma,  and  those  whose  coralHt€s  fonn  a 
massive  corallum,  are  the  Eavositinae  and  the  Chastetiase,  and  the  genera  whose 
corallites  are  not  united  on  all  sides  the  Halysitinae.  The  Pocilloporinfe 
constitute  the  ccenenchymal  subfamily.  One  of  the  great  difliculties  of  the 
zoophytologist  appears  strongly  enough  whilst  investigating  these  Tabulata,  for 
the  question  constantly  arises,  and  can  only  be  answered  very  unsatisfactorily, 
are  such  and  such  forms  really  Actinozoa?  are  they  not  Polyzoa,  Hydrozoa, 
or  of  some  class  which  has  become  extinct,  and  which  has  no  modern  repre- 
sentatives ? 

Some  genera  are  characterized  by  the  absence  of  septa.  Thus  Chcetetes 
has  long  basaltiform  coralKtes,  numerous  tabulae  which  do  not  correspond  in 
their-  plane  throughout  the  coraUum,.  no  septa,  and  the  reproduction  is  fissi- 
parous.  I 

*  See  Huxley's  Address,  Geol.  Soc.  1870. 

t  Pal.  Soc.  Tertiary  Corals,  3rd*Series,  P.  M.  Buncan,  pi.  vii.  figs.  11-15, 

t  Phil,  Trans,  1867.  §  Op.  cit,  p,  244. 


128  REPORT 1871. 

Keyserling  considered  the  genus  to  belong  to  the  Alcyonaria  amongst  the 
Actiuozoa ;  but  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime,  considering  the  great 
analogj-  between  Chcetetes  aud  Favosites,  and  particularly  with.  Beaumontia, 
"  ou  la  presence  de  cloisons  n'est  pas  contestable"*,  determined  its  position 
to  be  amongst  the  true  Tabulata. 

The  same  authors  now  recognize  the  necessity  of  separating  Chcetetes  from 
Monticulipora,  and  assert  that  the  members  of  the  last-named  genus  increase 
by  gemmation. 

The  genus  Dania  differs  from  Chcetetes  in  having  the  tabulae  on  regular 
planes  which  traverse  the  whole  coraHum.  This  peculiarity  is  hardly  of 
generic  value. 

Stellijjora  (Hall)  is  not  generically  different  from  Monticulipora,  and  the 
truth  of  this  assertion  can  be  estimated  by  comparing  the  diagnosis  of  the 
genera  given  by  MM.  Mibie-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  f. 

The  differentiation  of  Delcayia  (Ed.  &  H.)  J  and  of  Lahechia  is  also  unsatis- 
factory, aud  their  more  or  less  mamraillated  ccBnenchyma  ranges  them  together 
\  by  the  side  of  Stellipora  as  subgenera  of  Monticulipora. 

Now  Jiiles  Haime,  when  investigating  the  Oolitic  Polyzoa,  classified  forms 
without  septa  and  with  tabulae,  hke  Chcetetes  or  Monticulipora,  as  Polyzoa, 
and  the  beautiful  Stelliporce  were  especially  included. 

Now  the  question  arises,  are  there  any  recent  Polyzoa  whose  soft  parts 
have  been  examined  that  have  tabulaj  ?  From  our  knowledge  of  the  recent 
Polyzoa,  it  is  unsafe  to  answer  this  in  the  affirmative.  There  is  a  freshwater 
species  which  is  said  to  have  tabulas,  but  the  assertion  requires  confirmation. 
The  classification,  then,  of  these  forms  amongst  the  Polyzoa  must  be  deferred, 
and  I  propose  to  decide  against  it  now. 

Beaumontia,  the  genus  noticed  above,  is  distinguished  by  MM.  Milne- 
Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  §  as  follows : — "  This  genus  is  distinguished  from 
all  other  Chaetetiuffi  by  the  formation  of  its  tabuliie,  which  are  irregular  or 
vesicular,  and  it  thus  resembles  Michelenia,  belonging  to  Favositinae."  The 
presence  of  septa  belonging  to  three  cycles  is  asserted  by  the  same  authors, 
and  this  fact  must  remove  the  genus  quite  out  of  the  neighbourhood  of  septa- 
less  forms. 

The  genera  of  the  Cheetetiuce  were  formerly  Chcetetes,  Monticulipora,  Dania, 
Stellip)ora,  Dekayia,  Beaumontia,  and  Lahechia.  It  has  been  shown  that 
Stellipora,  Delcayia,  and  Lahechia  are  subgenera  of  Monticulipora,  that  Dania 
cannot  be  separated  from  Chcetetes,  and  that  Beaumontia  has  no  correct  affinity 
with  the  others,  and  that  it  belongs  to  another  family. 

The  genera  should  stand  thus  : — 

Chcetetes.     Subgenus  Dania, 
Monticulipora.     Subgenus  Stellipora. 

,,         Delcayia. 

„         Lahechia, 

But  the  subgeneric  names  should  be  dropped. 

This  result  is  interesting  because  it  eliminates  Beaumontia  and  makes  a 
compact  sei'ies,  the  affinities  of  which  are  not  Polyzoan,  but  which  may  be 
Alcyonarian  or  Hydrozoan. 

The  long  tab\ilar  or  basaltiform  corallites  of  Chcetetes  and  its  allied  forms, 

«  Op.  cit.  pp.  271.  f  Op.  cit.  vol.  iii.  pp.  272,  281. 

X  Ibid.  p.  283.  §  Op.  cit.  vol.  iii.  p.  282. 


ON  THK  BEITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  129 

and  their  more  or  less  horizontal  and  perfect  tabulae,  recall  the  Tubiporiuoc 
amongst  the  order  of  the  Alcyonaria. 

The  Alcyonaria  are  Actinozoa  which  are  separated  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards 
and  Jules  Haime  from  the  Zoantharia  on  account  of  the  pinnate  structure  of 
the  tentacles,  and  from  these  important  organs  being  invariably  eight  in 
number. 

The  zoantharian  tentacles,  on  the  contrary,  are  simple  or  irregularly  rami- 
fied, and  increase  in  number  with  age. 

The  Alcyonaria  are  divided  into  the  families  of  the  Alcyonidee,  the  Gorge- 
nidae,  and  the  Pennatulidae. 

The  first  two  families  have  an  adherent  corallum,  and  the  last  consists  of 
free  forms. 

The  Alcyonidae  have  no  hard  central  axis,  but  this  characterizes  the 
Gorgonidffi. 

Now  the  Cornularinse,  Telestingg,  and  Alcyoninas,  subfamilies  of  the  Alcy- 
nidae,  are  clearly  allied  to  the  Tubiporina;  by  their  soft  structures ;  but  the 
hard  external  structures  of  this  subfamily  are  only  faintly  shown  in  the  spi- 
culate  scoi'iaceous  conditions  of  the  external  tegument  of  NejjJithy a,  Spoggodes, 
and  Paralcyonium.  The  polypes  oi  JSfejjMii/a  and  Paralcyonium  enter  their 
spiculate  and  dense  external  covering  when  they  contract;  but  the  hard 
structures  of  S^oggodes  celosia,  Lesson,  are  very  slightly  developed. 

TuBiPOEA  (pars),  Linnaeus. 

Tuhipora,  Lamarck. 

The  genus  has  been  examined  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime 
with  their  usual  care  and  acumen. 

The  specimens  of  Tuhipora  are  so  common  that  the  descriptions  of  these 
authors  concerning  the  hard  parts  of  the  corallum  can  readily  be  followed. 

The  coraUitcs  are  formed  principally  by  a  tabular  waU,  the  tissue  of  which 
is  calcareous  and  readily  fractured.  There  are  no  septa,  but  there  are  ru- 
dimentary tabulas,  which  cut  off  the  visceral  cavity  into  more  or  less  perfect 
stages.  The  corallites  arc  cylindrical,  and  usually  attain  an  equal  height ; 
but  they  do  not  touch  each  other,  for  they  are  united  by  a  peritheca,  which 
is  only  seen  here  and  there  in  distinct  floors.  The  budding  takes  place 
from  the  connecting  peritheca,  which  is  therefore  a  true  coenenchyma,  and 
not  like  that  of  Solenastrcea.  Were  the  corallites  in  contact  the  appearance 
of  Chcetefes  would  be  presented ;  so  that  the  presence  of  the  coenenchyma  is 
the  differentiating  structure.  It  is  only  of  generic  value,  and  thus  there  is  ' 
a  very  strong  reason  for  associating  the  Chsetetinee  and  all  the  other  fossils 
with  long  tubular  structures,  no  septa,  and  tabulae  with  the  Alcyonidae  in  the 
subfamily  Tubiporinse  and  near  the  genus  Tubijjora.  These  retaarks  are  ■ 
subject,  of  course,  to  the  consideration  whether  the  views  of  Agassiz  already 
noticed  are  correct. 

Keuss's  genus  Styhphyllum  (Gosau  Chalk)  cannot  be  associated  with  the 
Alcyonidee,  for  the  species  has  septa.  The  corallites  are  united  by  their 
walls  without  there  being  a  coenenchyma,  and  tlie  walls  are  imperforate.  The 
junction  of  the  corallites  takes  place  by  means  of  an  epitheca. 

The  junction  may  occur  at  any  part  of  the  corallito. 

The  resemblance  of  StyhphyUum  to  some  of  the  Halysitinte  (Ed.  &  H.)* 
necessitates  an  examination  of  their  structural  peculiarities. 

*  Op.  cit,  vol.  iii.  p.  286. 
1871.  K 


130  REPORT 1871. 

MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  differentiate  the  Halysitinse  as 
follows : — 

"The  corallum  is  compound,  but  its  corallites  unite  imperfectly,  and 
constitute  lamellar  expansions  or  long  fasciculi ;  they  are  either  free  on  two 
sides,  or  arc  united  together  by  '  ea-pansions  murales.'  " 

The  septa  are  small,  but  usually  very  distinct ;  finally  the  walls  are  well 
developed  and  aporose. 

The  genera  are  : — Hah/sites,  Fischer ;  Syringopora,  Goldfuss  ;  Tliecostegites, 
Ed.  &  H.  (Ilarmodites,  Michelin) ;  Conostefjitcs,  Ed.  &  H. ;  Fletcheria,  Ed. 
&H. 

Hall/sites.      The  species  are  invariably  formed  by  corallites  which  are  joined 
on  two  sides,  and  which  in  transverse  outline  resemble  links  of  a  chain. 
The  epitheca  is  very  strong,  and  unites  the  corallites  perfectly  where 
they  are  in  contact  from  the  base  to  the  calice.     Septa  12.     Tabulas 
horizontal  and  well  developed.     (Silurian.) 
Thecostegites.     The  corallites  have  septa,  horizontal  tabulae,  and  an  exotheca 
unites  them,  and  it  is  more  or  less  tabular  in  structure,  and  exists  in 
stages  like  the  Tuhipora.     In  'T,  pm-mda  the  ccenenchyma  is  nearly 
compact.     (Devonian.) 
C'onostegites.     There  are  numerous  septal  s-trise,  which  mark  also  the  smooth 
and  convex  surfaces  of  the  tabula).     The  tabulte  are  more  or  less  infun- 
dibuliform,  and  the  epitheca  unites  the  corallites  hero  and  there. 
Byringopora.     The  coraUum  is  fasciculate ;  the  corallites  are  cylindrical  and 
very  long,  parallel,  and  free  laterally,  except  where  horizontal  tubes 
connect  them.     The  walls  are  well  developed,  and  clothed  with  a  strong 
epitheca  ;  septa  exist.     The  tabula)  are  infundibuliform. 
Fletcheria.     The  corallum  is  fasciculate ;  the  corallites  are  cylindrical,  close, 
and  long.     The  epitheca  is  complete  ;   septa  exist.     Tabulae  horizontal 
and  well  developed.     No  intcrcorallite  tubes  or  expansions  of  epitheca. 
Gemmation  calicular. 
It  is  evident  that  some  of  these  genera  are  very  slightly  allied ;  for  in- 
stance, Syringopora  and  Fletcheria,  and  both  of  them  and  Halysites. 

Halysites,  with  its  stout  epitheca  and  simple  tabulae  with  non-tubular 
joints,  is  a  very  definite  form. 

Thecostegites  should  belong  to  the  Milleporidae. 

Conostegites,  with  infundibialiform  tabulae,  is  related  to  Halysites  as  Miche- 
linia  is  to  Favosites. 

Fletcheria  is  altogether  aberrant. 

The  Halysitince  comprehend,  according  to  this  analysis,  Halysites,  Fischer ; 
Btylophyllmn,  Eeuss  ;   Conostegites,  Ed.  &  H. 

The  genera  Syringopora  and  Fletcheria  will  be  considered  further  on. 
The  subfamily  of  the  Pocilloporinae  contains  the  genera  Pocillopora  and 
Ccenites. 

Pocillopora  has  septa  (and  my  specimens  show  12),  which,  even  in  fossil 
specimens,  mark  the  top  of  the  tabulae.  There  is  a  columellary  swelling  on 
its  tabula).  The  ccenenchyma  is  very  stout  and  thick  in  old  portions  of  the 
corallum,  less  so  where  growth  has  just  ceased,  and  the  ccenenchyma  barely 
exists  where  the  corallites  or  calicos  are  developing.  It  is  cellular  at  first, 
and  then  fills  up  with  calcite  and  other  coral  salts. 

Fossil  forms  have  been  described  by  Eeuss  and  myself  from  the  Cainozoic 
formations. 

Ccenites  resembles  Pocillopora  in  a  certain  density  of  its  ccenenchyma,  but 
differs  in  only  having  three  tooth-liko  septa,  like  the  genus  Alveolites. 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  131 

The  number  of  septa  and  the  habit  of  growth  of  the  two  genera  separate 
them  very  widely ;  and  the  propriety  of  connecting  the  last-named  one  with 
the  MUleporidse  must  be  considered. 

There  are  four  genera  in  the  family  of  the  Seriatoporidte  : — Seriatopora, 
Dendropora,  JRhahdopora,  Trachypora. 

The  family  is  characterized  by  the  continual  growth  of  the  lower  parts  of 
the  corallites  and  the  rarity  of  tabulte. 

Seriatopora  is  a  recent  genus,  and  therefore  those  associated  with  it  must 
be  carefully  examined. 

Dendropora,  Michelin,  is  clearly  too  closely  allied  to  Bhahdopora  to  be 
separated  generically. 

Rhahdopora,  formed  for  the  Dendropora  megastoma,  M'Coy,  by  MM.  MUne- 
Edwards  and  Jules  Haime,  has  only  one  species,  the  diagnosis  of  which  is  as 
follows : — 

Rhahdopora  megastoma,  M'Coy,  sp. — The  corallum  is  branching.  Branches 
four-sided,  starting  from  the  stem  at  an  angle  of  70°,  and  very  equal.  Coe- 
nenchyma  granulated  or  subechinulated  and  obscurely  striated.  Calicos  in 
vertical  series  on  each  face  of  the  branches.  Septa  (teeth)  12  in  number  and 
subequal. 

It  is  impossible  to  separate  this  from  Seriatopora,  for  the  four-sided  suture 
of  the  branches  is  only  a  specific  (if  that)  distinction. 

Trachypora  appears  to  be  an  Alcyonarian. 

The  distinction  between  PociUopora  and  Seriatopora  is  not  generic,  and 
therefore  these  genera  and  Dendropora  (for  Dendropora  and  Rhahdopora 
are  equal,  and  the  first  name  is  the  oldest)  are  absorbed  in  one.  Oken'a 
name  Acropora  (1815)  may  be  used  as  the  generic  term  : — Acropoea 
{Seriatopora,  Lamarck  ;  PociUopora,  Lamarck  ;  Dendropora,  Michelin  ;  Rhah~ 
dopora,  Ed.  &  Haime). 

All  the  species  of  the  absorbed  genera  should  take  the  generic  name  of 
Acropora,  and  the  family  becomes  that  of  the  Acroporinaa.  Thus  the  sharp 
distinction  between  the  recent  and  Palaeozoic  forms  is  partly  smoothed  down, 
and  the  old  Dendroporre  and  Rhabdoporge  were  doubtless  the  ancestral 
forms  of  the  recent  Acroporse.  Ccenites  cannot  be  associated  with  the 
family. 

The  family  of  the  Thecidese  is  characterized  by  well-formed  septa,  which 
are  prolonged  throughout  the  visceral  chamber,  well-developed  tabulae,  which 
grow  like  dissepiments  upon  the  sides  of  the  septa,  and  these  last  do  not 
spring  from  the  upper  surface  of  the  tabiilse,  as  in  some  Tabulata.  The  walls 
are  solid,  compact,  and  united. 

The  corals  contained  in  the  family  are  all  Silurian  forms,  so  far  as  is 
known  at  present. 

Thecia,  Ed.  &  Haime.  It  is  a  most  remarkable  fact  that  this  genus,  the 
species  of  which  have  no  true  wall,  but  a  dense  ccenenchyma  between  septal 
prolongations  or  costa?,  should  here  give  the  family  name.  Tliecia  Siuinder- 
niana,  Goldfuss,  sp.,  has  been  called  ^(7«nc?'a,  Porites,  Astreopora,  and  PaJceo- 
pora  by  different  authors,  so  that  its  classificatory  position  may  well  be  a 
matter  of  doubt.  It  is  not  in  the  least  allied  to  Columnarife,  which  has  soHd 
walls,  and  which  fulfils  all  the  characteristics  of  the  Thecidaj. 

In  Thecia,  Ed.  &  H.,  there  is  a  long  visceral  cavity  surrounded  by  a  dense 
tissue,  as  in  Mtllepora,  through  which  the  septa,  or  rather  the  costa,  run. 

What  is  the  structure  of  Plasmopora  and  Propora  but  that  of  Thecia 
slightly  modified.  The  genus  clearly  must  be  associated  with  them  amongst 
the  Milleporidip. 

k2 


132  REPORT— 1871. 

Columnaria  is  a  fine  form ;  the  great  septa  (12  to  18)  and  tabulae,  with 
the  compact  walls,  distinguish  it  at  once.  Col.  alveolata  is  a  Lower  SHuriau 
form,  C  GotMandka  is  Upper  Silurian.  It  is  a  most  important  genus,  and 
its  affinities  will  be  noticed. 

The  Favositidse  have  a  massive  corallum  without  ccenenchyma,  septa,  and 
perforate  walls ;  that  is,  there  are  openings  which  permit  the  visceral  cavity 
of  one  coraUite  to  communicate  with  that  of  another  in  several  places.  The 
foUovsdng  genera  are  included  by  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  : — 
Favosites,  Emmonsia,  MicJielinia,  Roemeria,  Koninchia,  Alveolites. 

Favosites  is  the  typical  genus.  In  some  species  the  mural  foramina  are 
scanty  in  number,  in  others  numerous ;  and  they  are  even  in  relation  with 
the  angles  of  the  wall,  especially  in  F.  alveolar  is. 

The  earliest  species  of  the  genus  are  Lower  Silurian,  for  instance  : — F.  Qoth- 
landica,  F.  multipora,  F.  aspera,  F.  Forbesi  (which  ranges  through  to  the 
Upper  Silurian),  and  F.  fibrosa  (having  the  same  vertical  range,  and  is  found 
as  a  Devonian  fossil). 

F.  Hisingeri  has  the  same  range  as  F.  fibrosa.  F.  cristata  and  F.  cervi^ 
cornis  are  the  same,  and  the  range  is  from  the  Upi^er  Silurian  of  England 
to  the  Devonian  of  Russia. 

The  species  which  are  Devonian,  and  do  not  range  above  or  below,  are : — 
F.  Goldfussi,  F.  basaltica,  F.  polymorp'ha,  F,  alveolaris,  F.  pedicidata,  F.  Tclii- 
TiatcheJJi,  and  F.  niammillaris.  The  only  known  Carboniferous  Favosites  is 
F.  parasitica,  and  it  is  a  degenerate  form. 

F.  Oothlandica  has  rounded  processes  encircling  the  mural  pores,  and  the 
projections  formed  upon  one  fit  against  those  of  the  neighbouring  corallite. 
F.  multipara  has  three  vertical  series  of  pores,  and  its  walls  are  almost  as  per- 
forate as  some  Alveoporte. 

The  tabulae  are  almost  universally  horizontal  in  the  lavosites,  but  some  are 
wavy  in  their  course ;  and  the  septa  are  a  series  of  vertical  spines  which  vary 
in  size  according  to  the  cycle,  and  are  often  referable  to  three  cycles  in  six 
systems.     In  some  there  is  a  faint  columellary  swelling  on  the  tabula?. 

A  careful  examination  of  the  species  proves  that  the  earliest  known  forms 
are  as  highly  developed  as  the  Devonian,  but  that  the  sj^eciea  parasitica  is 
dwarfed. 

Emmonsia  has  imperfect  tabula;.     The  tabulae  are  vesicular  at  the  sides, 
or  dissepimental,  and  they  communicate  more  or  less  with  each  other. 
Roemeria  has  infundibuhform  tabulas,  and  the  species  is  Devonian. 
Koninckia  is  an  Upper  Cretaceous  form ;  it  has  thin  and  nearly  horizontal 
tabulae,  thiu  walls  very  much  perforated,  and  six  series  of  large  spiny  septa. 
Michelinia  has  irregular  and  vesicidar  (dissepimental)  tabulae,  and  simple 
striae  for  septa  (Devonian  and  Carboniferous).     The  alliance  of  Michelinia, 
Roemeria,  and  Emmonsia  is  very  evident.     Mr.  Kent  has  written  a  most 
interesting  description  of  Favositipora  (Kent),  Ann.  &  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1870, 
vol.  vi.  p.  384,  which  unites  the  Favositiuae  and  the  Favositidae. 

Alveolites  ofi'ers  the  same  objection  to  being  united  to  i^rtvosjV^s  that  Cten?  to 
does  to  PociJlopora  ;  in  fact  Alveolites  is  a  Coenites  with  perforated  walls, 
and  it  is  proposed  to  deal  with  both  genera  by  disassociating  them  from  their 
recognized  families. 

Biiringopora  I  propose  uniting  with  the  Favositida?,  as  it  has  tubular 
connexions  between  the  visceral  centres  of  the  corallites,  which  are  fore- 
shadowed in  F.  Gotldandica. 

After  this  analysis  of  the  TabiJata,  it  is  necessary  to  state  the  opinions  of 
Prof.  Agassiz  respecting  their  Hydrozoau  characteristics. 


ON   THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS.  133 

Prof.  Agassiz  (senior)  writes  as  follows  in  the  '  American  Journal  of  Science 
and  Arts,'  2nd  series,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  140,  N'ovember  1858  : — 

"  The  animals  of  Millepora  are  Hydroid  Acalephs  and  not  polyps ;"  that 
is  to  say,  they  are  Hydrozoa  and  not  Aetinozoa.  The  resume  of  several  letters 
to  Dana  is  given  at  the  same  place.  ''I  have  seen,"  writes  Agassiz,  "in 
the  Tortugas  something  very  unexpected.  Millepora  is  not  an  actinoid  polyp 
biit  a  genuine  Hydroid,  closely  allied  to  Hydractinia.  This  seems  to  carry 
the  whole  group  of  Favositidte  over  to  the  Acalephs,  and  displays  a  beautiful 
array  of  this  class  from  the  Silurian  to  this  day." 

Dana  adds  a  note  to  this  statement.  "  The  drawings  of  Professor  Agassiz 
which  have  been  sent  us  for  examination  are  so  obviously  Hydractiuian  in 
most  of  their  characters  that  no  one  can  question  the  relation.  With  re- 
gard to  the  reference  of  all  the  FavositidtB  (a  group  including  Favosiies, 
Fenestella,  PociUopora,  &c.,  as  well  as  the  minuter  MiUejJora,  Chcetetes,  &c.) 
to  the  Acaleph  class,  direct  evidence  is  not  yet  complete,  as  the  animal  of  the 
Pocilhpom  has  not  been  figured  by  any  author  on  zoophytes.  Prom  the 
specimens  of  the  species  of  this  genus  which  I  procured  in  the  Pacific,  I  never 
obtained  a  clear  view  of  the  polyps,  and  hence  made  no  figure.  The  brief 
description  on  page  523  of  my  Report  may  be  reasonably  doubted  until  con- 
firmed by  new  researches.  The  much  larger  cells  in  Pocillopora,  FavosiUs, 
and  Fenestella  than  in  Millepora,  and  the  frequently  distinct  rays  in  these 
cells,  are  the  characters  I  had  mentioned  to  Prof.  Agassiz  as  suggesting  a 
doubt  as  to  their  being  Acalephs,  and  to  this  what  follows  above  relates." 

Agassiz  observes,  in  a  subsequent  letter,  after  observing  that  the  Sidero- 
porffi  obviously  are  polyps,  "  There  are  two  types  of  radiating  lamelte  which 
are  no£  homologous.  In  true  polyps  (excluding  Favositidas  as  Hydroids)  the 
lamella}  extend  from  the  outer  body-waU  inward  along  the  whole  height  of  that 
wall,  and  the  transverse  partitions  reach  only  from  one  lamella  to  the  other, 
so  that  there  is  no  continuity  between  them,  while  the  radiating  lameUte 
are  continuous  from  top  to  bottom  in  each  cell.  In  Milleporidse  the  partitions 
are  transverse  and  continuous  across  the  cells ;  so  are  they  in  Pocillopora  and 
in  all  Tabulata  and  Eugosa ;  while  the  radiating  lamella?,  where  they  exist, 
as  in  Pocillopora  and  many  other  Favositida),  rise  from  these  horizontal 
floors,  and  do  not  extend  through  the  transverse  partitions ;  indeed  they  are 
limited  within  the  spaces  of  two  successive- floors,  or  to  the  ujiper  surface  of 
tlie  last.  A  careful  comparison  of  the  corallum  of  Millepora  and  Pocillopora 
with  that  of  Hydractinia  has  satisfied  me  that  these  radiating  partitions  of 
the  Favositida?,  far  from  being  productions  of  the  body-wall,  are  foot-secre- 
tions, to  be  compared  to  the  axis  of  the  Gordonia  corallum  &:c.,  and  their 
seeming  radiating  lamellae  to  the  vertical  groove  or  keel  upon  the  surface  of 
the  latter,  which,  reduced  to  a  horizontal  ijrojeetion,  would  also  make  the 
impression  of  radiating  lamellas  in  the  foot  of  the  polyp.  If  this  be  so,  you 
see  at  once  that  apparent  radiating  lamellae  of  the  Favositidte  do  no  longer 
indicate  an  affinity  with  the  true  polyps,  but  simply  a  peculiar  mode  of 
growth  of  the  corallum ;  and  of  these  we  have  already  several  types,  that  of 
Actinoids,  that  of  Alcyonoids,  that  of  Bryozoa,  that  of  Millepora,  and  other 
corallines,  to  which  we  now  add  that  of  Hydroids.  Considering  the  subject 
in  this  light,  is  there  any  further  objection  to  uniting  all  the  Favositida?  with 
the  Hydroids  ?  Sideropora  and  Alveopora  being  of  course  removed  from  the 
Favositida;.  It  is  a  point  of  great  importance  in  a  geological  point  of  vicAv, 
and  for  years  I  have  been  anticipating  some  such  result,  as  you  may  sec  by 
comparing  my  remarks  in  the  '  American  Journal,'  May  1854,  p.  315.  If  all 
the  Tabulata  and  Eugosa  are  Hydroids,  as  I  believe  them  to  be,  the  class  of 


134  KEPORT — 1871. 

Aealephs  is  no  longer  an  exception  to  the  simultaneous  appearance  of  all  the 
types  of  Radiata  in  the  lowest  fossiliferous  formations,  and  the  peculiar  cha- 
racters which  these  old  Hydi-oid  corals  present  appears  in  a  new  and  very 
instructive  aspect." 

A.  Agassiz  includes  the  Tabulata  amongst  the  Hydrozoa.  He  notices 
"  that  the  absence  of  radiating  partitions  in  the  Tabulata  seems  to  show 
without  much  doubt  that  their  true  place  is  among  the  Hydroids."  It  is 
true  that  Prof.  Agassiz  has  not  observed  the  Medusa-buds  on  the  specimens 
he  has  figured,  yet  the  Hydroid  character  of  the  animal  and  their  similarity  to 
I[aIochcens-]ike  Hydroids  is  very  striking  (Havard  Catalogue,  1865,  p.  219). 

Prof .  Alexander  Agassiz  informs  me  that  his  father  still  holds  these  opinions, 
and  that  new  researches  have  satisfied  him  about  the  correctness  of  the 
di'aAvings  which  have  been  lately  reproduced.  '•'  MiUeiJora  is  not  an  actinoid 
polyp,  but  a  genuine  Hydroid,  closely  allied  to  H)jdractinia." 

This  very  strong  expression  of  opinion  is  founded  iipon  the  appearance 
presented  by  the  polyps  of  Millepora  cdcicornis,  the  drawing  of  which  has 
been  reproduced  by  A.  Agassiz.  Now  the  distinction  between  the  Actinozoa 
and  the  Hydrozoa  is  well  marked ;  in  the  first  the  generative  apparatus  is 
included  in  the  gastric  and  perigastric  cavities,  and  in  the  last  the  digestive 
and  generative  organs  are  perfectly  apart.  Every  variety  of  tentacular  and 
disk  apparatus  may  exist  in  either,  but  the  external  development  of  the  gem- 
mules,  ova,  and  embryonic  forms  must  be  recognized  before  any  Coelenterate 
animal  can  be  associated  with  the  Hydi'ozoa. 

Here  is  the  point  at  which  Agassiz  faUs.  His  researches  are  only  sug- 
gestive, until  the  generative  organs  are  recognized  on  the  protruded  polypes 
of  Millepora,  and  until  the  mesenterico-ovarian  layers  are  proved  not  to  exist 
■within  the  cahces.  The  external  resemblance  of  the  Milleporc  polypes  to  the 
sterile  Hydractinia  is  evident. 

The  remarks  upon  Pavositidse,  Sideropora},  and  other  genera,  made  by 
Agassiz  in  consequence  of  the  assumption  that  Mdlepora  is  Hydrozoan,  are  of 
doubtful  value  ;  and  I  must  refer  back  to  my  analysis  of  the  Tabulata  to  show 
how  a  confused  classification  between  both  classes  imperils  research.  Sidero- 
2)ora  is  not  a  tabulate  form  even.  A  careful  examination  of  Columnarla  satis- 
fies me  that  Agassiz's  description  of  the  lamellae  fails  in  that  genus ;  and  inas- 
much as  the  wavy  lines  of  Gorgonia  and  CoraUium  are  connected  with  the  water 
system  of  the  species,  they  can  have  no  possible  relation  with  the  radiate 
amellfe  or  groovings  of  the  MiUeporan  calices.  The  homologucs  of  the  grooves 
are  the  depressions  and  irregular  interstriatcd  portions  on  top  of  the  ccenen- 
chyma  between  the  calices  in  the  Tabulata. 

The  perforate  walls  and  the  septa  of  the  true  Favositidae  seem  to  remove 
them  from  the  range  of  the  remarks  of  Agassiz,  which  may  well  deserve 
attention,  so  far  as  Millepora  is  concerned,  for  it  is  a  genus  with^  marked 
distinctions  from  all  other  corals. 

It  is  not  reasonable  to  include  the  Rugosa,  because  some  of  them  have  no 
tabulic,  and  others  have  them  so  much  like  dissepiments,  or  associated  with 
dissepiments,  that  we  are  impressed  with  the  unimportance  of  the  differen- 
tiations established  by  the  presence  of  horizontal  tabukic!. 

It  is  most  important  that  the  minute  structure  of  the  MiUeporidae  should 
be  thoroughly  investigated,  and  any  report  on  the  Palaeozoic  corals  must  be 
very  incomplete  -ndthout  a  detailed  description  of  its  study. 


ON  THE  BRITISH  FOSSIL  CORALS. 


135 


With  ccenenchyma  . . 
Without  coenenchyma 


Section  TABULATA. 

Families. 

J  MiUeporidce,  Coenenchyma  cellular. 

[  Acroporklce.  Ccenenchj^ma  compact. 

(Favositidce.  Walls  perforated. 

Halysitidce.  Walls  imperforate. 

Alveolitidce.  Septa  trideutate. 

Genera. 
CMillepora*. 
j  Heliolites,  Hellopora-f,  Pohjtremacis. 

MiLLEPOEiD^ J  P'-^^^r''^  P^asmopora,  Thecia. 

I  Lyelha. 
I  Thecostegites, 
'^Axopora. 
1  i  -^cro2Jom,  Seiiatopora,  PocillojJOra,  DendrojJora,  Bhah- 

\      dopora. 

(  Favosites,  Koninchia,  Favosltipora,  genus  nov.  (Kent). 
I  Mklielinia,  Scemeria,  Emmonsia. 
■^1  Syringopora. 
\^  Aulop)ora. 
''  Halysites. 
Stylopliyllum. 
Conostegites. 
Columnaria. 
Beaumontia. 
j  Alveolites. 
\  Ccenites. 

T        .         J-  f  Fistidipora. 

Incerttc  sedis \  m  ^  i     • 

\  Fletchena. 


Fayositid^ 


Halysitid^    ■( 


AxTBOlIXIDiE 


Alcyoxakta. 
Chcetetes.         Montladipora.         Dania. 


ora. 


Lahechia. 


TV.  The  Eugosa. — Mil.  Miliic-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  observe  (op>.  cit. 
vol.  iii.  p.  323),  "'that  this  division  comprehends  simple  and  compound 
corals,  and  that  the  septal  apparatus  never  forms  six  distinct  systems,  and 
appears  to  be  derived  from  four  primitive  elements.  Sometimes  this  dispo- 
sition is  shown  by  the  great  development  of  four  principal  septa,  or  by  the 
existence  of  four  depressions  which  occupy  the  bottom  of  the  calice  and 
take  on  a  cross-like  look.  In  other  instances  there  is  observed  only  one  of 
these  depressions  or  excavations,  or  one  large  septum  interferes  Avith  the 
regularly  radiate  and  star-shape  of  the  septal  arrangement.  Finally,  there 
arc  instances  where  no  traces  of  distinct  groups  or  systems  of  sejita  can  be 
recognized,  and  where  the  septa  are  represented  by  numerous  stria;  arising 
on  the  upper  surface  of  the  tabulaj  or  dissepiments  near  the  calicular  mar- 
gin." They  continue  as  follows  : — "  The  corallites  are  always  perfectly  di- 
stinct amongst  themselves,  and  are  never  united  by  independent  coenenchyma. 
The  walls  are  in  general  very  slightly  developed.     The  visceral  chamber  is 

*  MiUcpora  is  a  most  aberrant  genus  if  it  is  one  of  the  Madreporaria  Tabulata.  I  have 
not  yet  satisfied  myseK  about  the  Hydroidean  characteristics  of  its  soft  parts ;  but  an 
examination  of  the  coenenchyma  of  a  series  of  species  throws  great  doubt  upon  the  Ma- 
dreporarian  affinities. 

t  The  relation  of  ReU<ypora  to  Heliolites  is  of  the  closest. 


136  EBPOiiT — 1871. 

ordinarily  occupied  by  a  series  of  tabulra  or  vesicular  endotheca,  and  tbc 
eudotheca  often  occupies  the  greater  part  of  the  corallum.  The  septal 
laminfc,  although  generally  very  incomplete,  arc  never  perforated  or  '  pou- 
trellaire ; '  finally,  their  lateral  faces  are  not  furnished  with  synapticulse,  and 
are  only  rarely  granular. 

"  The  individual  corallites  increase  by  gemmation,  and  never  by  fissiparity. 
The  buds  are  generally  calicular,  and  this  form  of  gemmation  may  continue 
in  the  same  individual.     In  some  cases  the  gemmation  is  lateral." 

The  originators  of  the  "  Rugosa"  divide  them  into  four  families  : — 

1.  Stauridffi.  3.  Cyathophyllidas. 

2.  Cyathosonidge.  4.  Cystiphyllidse, 

In  criticising  this  classification  some  definite  plan  must  be  adopted,  which 
should  refer  to  the  philosophy  of  the  classification  of  the  Aporosa  and  Per- 
forata. In  fact  the  scheme  of  generic  subdivision  and  differentiation  adopted 
in  the  Neozoic  corals  can  be  made  to  apply  to  those  of  the  Palceozoic  age. 
Thus  an  essential  distinction  is  made  amongst  the  Neozoic  corals  by  the 
simple  or  compound  nature  of  the  corallum.  Simple  Caryophyllinse  constitute 
a  series  of  genera,  and  the  compound  forms  are  separated  as  Ccenocyathi. 
Now  in  the  Paltcozoic  genus  CijafJiojjJu/Ihun,  MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules 
Haime  admit,  in  direct  opposition  to  the  Neozoic  scheme,  both  simple  and 
compound  forms.  This,  I  think,  is  an  error,  but  only  an  error  of  classifica- 
tion, for  there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt  of  the  intimate  genealogical 
relation  of  the  simple  and  compound  genera  of  Ct/athophyllum, 

Families  *. 

1.  SiATJEiDiE. — Genera:  Siauria,  Hohcystis,  Polyccelia,  Metrio][jliyllum, 
Conosmilia. 

Of  these  Ilolocystis  is  a  Lower  Greensand  form,  and  Conosmilia  is  Austra- 
lian and  Tertiary. 

MM.  Milne-Edwards  and  Jules  Haime  place  the  Stauridse  first  in  their 
list  of  families ;  but  it  would  have  made  the  classification  more  simple  if  the 
second  family  took  their  place ;  and  I  propose  to  change  the  order  of  arrange- 
ment, but  proceed  at  present  in  the  recognized  method. 

There  is  a  well-developed  wall  in  the  Stauridaj ;  the  septa  are  continuous 
from  the  top  to  the  bottom  of  the  calico,  and  are  eminently  quaternary  in 
their  arrangement.  The  endotheca  assumes  the  vesicular  structure  between 
the  septa,  and  then  crosses  over  in  the  form  of  horizontal  tabulps.  The 
Staiiridaj  approach  the  CyathophyUidaj  more  than  the  Cjathoxonidae ;  and, 
indeed,  the  only  essential  distinction  between  the  first  two  families  is  in  the 
truly  lamellar  state  of  the  septa  in  the  first  instance,  and  in  the  incomplete 
condition  of  them  in  the  second.  Nevertheless  it  should  constitute  a  family 
distinction. 

Two  of  the  Stauridian  genera  are  compound,  and  three  arc  simple  forms. 

Stauria,  which  as  yet  has  not  been  found  in  British  strata,  has  neither  colu- 
mella nor  costa?,  whilst  Hohcystis  has  both  of  these  structures.  There  is  no 
reason  why  the  last-named  genus  should  not  be  the  lineal  descendant  of  the 
former.  Both  were  probably  shallow-water  forms  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
reefs. 

The  simple  forms  Conosmilia  and  Poh/ccelia  are  closely  allied,  and  the 
presence  of  the  first  in  the  Australian  Tertiaries,  and  of  the  other  in  the  Euro- 

*  See  Hist.  Nat.  cles  Coralliaires,  vol.  iii.  p.  325  c(  scq.  (Milne-Edwards  aud  Jules 
Haime). 


ON  HEAT  GENERATED  IN  THE  BLOOD.  137 

pean  Pcrmiau,  is  highly  suggestive.  The  remaining  form,  lletriojjhT/Uum, 
offers  a  great  difficulty,  for  if  the  received  classification  be  adopted,  the  genus 
is  very  aberrant.  Thus  3Iefr{o2)hi/Uum  has  not  four  principal  septa,  but  the 
septa  are  arranged  in  four  groups,  a  gap  or  kind  of  septal  fossula  being  be- 
tween each  gToup.  The  British  Devonian  species  (M.  Battershiji,  Ed.  &  H.) 
was  founded  upon  a  transverse  section  of  a  slab,  and  therefore  the  entire 
nature  of  the  septa  could  hardly  he  determined.  The  question  arises  at  once, 
what  do  those  septal  fossute  mean?  And  another  follows  very  naturally,  are 
they  in  relation  with  the  primary  septa  ? 

I  think  that  they  denote  a  difference  in  the  physiology  of  the  polype,  for 
they  would  permit  of  a  deeper  development  of  the  visceral  cavity  and  an 
enlarged  condition  of  the  ovarian  apparatus.  Moreover,  these  fossulaj  may 
have  much  to  do  with  the  growth  of  the  coral  in  calibre  and  in  septal  num- 
ber ;  and,  furthermore,  Lindstrom's  admirably  suggestive  paper  on  the  oper- 
culated  structures,  necessitates  much  attention  being  paid  to  them.  Can 
there  be  any  genealogical  classification  which  will  connect  in  one  family 
such  different  forms  as  MetriojpliyUum  and  Pohjcxelia  ?     I  think  not. 

Eliminating,  then,  MetriophyUam  from  the  Stauridaj,  I  propose  to  permit 
the  genus  to  remain  per  se  for  the  present. 

2.  Ctathoxonidje. — Genera:  Cyathoxonia,  Palaeozoic;  HaplopliylUa^Som- 
tales)  and  Guynia  (Duncan),  recent. 

This  group  has  no  endotheca,  and  resembles  the  TurbinolidoB  amongst  the 
Neozoic  corals,  but  it  has  the  quaternary  arrangement  of  the  septa. 

All  the  forms  are  simple.  Cyathoxonia  preceded  the  others,  and  all  are 
closely  allied.  The  foreshadowing  of  the  Neozoic  forms  in  the  Palteozoic 
Cyathoxonidse  is  evident  enough. 


Re]}ort  on  the  Heat  generated  in  the  Blood  during  the  process  of 
Arterialization.  By  Arthur  Gamgee^  M.D.,  F.R.S.E.,  Lecturer  on 
Physiology  in  the  Extra-Academical  Medical  School  of  Edinburgh. 

In  a  Report  which  was  submitted  to  the  British  Association  in  Liverpool 
last  year*,  I  very  shortly  alluded  to  the  objects  which  I  had  in  view  in  com- 
mencing an  investigation  on  the  very  obscure  subject  of  the  heat  generated 
during  the  arterialization  of  blood. 

I  pointed  out  that  two  methods  of  research  suggested  themselves  as  likely 
to  elicit  facts  which  would  lead  to  a  solutioii  of  the  problem,  and  I  stated 
that  both  these  methods  had  been  employed  by  previous  observers. 

The  first  method,  which  would  at  first  sight  appear  likely  to  furnish  us 
with  most  important  data,  consists  in  ascertaining  the  temperature  of  the 
blood  in  the  right  and  left  ventricles  of  the  heart  of  living  animals.  If  our 
methods  of  experimenting  were  free  from  the  great  fallacies  which  are  in- 
troduced when  we  are  compelled  to  interfere,  in  a  serious  manner,  with  the 
central  organ  of  the  circulation,  and  if  it  resulted  that  the  left  side  of  the 
heart  contained  blood  warmer  than  that  of  the  right  side,  we  should  be  driven 
to  the  conclusion  either  that  during  the  process  of  absorption  and  combina- 
tion of  the  oxygen  of  the  air  a  very  perceptible  evolution  of  heat  had  oc- 

*  Eeport  of  the  Liyerpool  Meeting,  p.  228. 


138  KEPOHT — 1871. 

curred,  or  that  within  the  pulmonary  vessels  considerable  oxidation  processes 
of  the  blood  contained  in  them  had  taken  place.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
temperature  of  the  left  side  were  the  same  as  that  of  the  right  side,  or  lower, 
the  question  would  still  remain  an  open  one ;  for  heat  might  be  evolved  in 
the  lungs,  and  yet  the  quantity  might  be  insufficient  to  counterbalance  the 
loss  of  heat  due  to  the  evolution  of  large  quantities  of  watery  vapour,  of  car- 
bonic acid,  and  to  the  heating  of  the  air  which  we  daily  inspire. 

The  first  method,  or  that  which  consists  in  ascertaining  the  temperature 
of  the  two  sides  of  the  heart,  need  scarcely  be  touched  upon  at  present ;  and 
I  shall  merely  confine  myself  to  the  statement  that,  in  the  hands  of  the  most 
experienced  and  reliable  physiologists,  and  specially  in  those  of  Professor 
Claude  Bernard,  it  has  led  to  the  curious  resxilt  that  the  blood  which 
reaches  the  left  ventricle  is  colder  than  that  which  leaves  the  right.  This 
result  would,  at  first  sight,  appear  to  prove  that  if  any  heat  be  evolved  in 
the  lungs,  its  amount  is  not  sufficient  to  compensate  the  losses  to  which  I 
have  already  alluded,  and  rendered  it  absolutely  essential  that  fresh  experi- 
ments should  be  conducted  by  a  second  method,  which  consists  in  ascer- 
taining whether,  when  venous  blood  removed  from  the  body  is  agitated  with 
oxygen  or  atmospheric  aii',  any  changes  occur  in  its  temperature. 

The  first  step  in  the  inquiry  consisted  in  ascertaining  the  specific  heat  of 
blood,  for  none  of  the  experiments  previously  made  had  led  to  trustworthy 
results.  Dr.  Crawford  had,  in  the  last  century,  advanced  a  theory  of  animal 
heat  which  was  based  upon  an  assumed  diff'erence  in  the  specific  heat  of 
arterial  and  venous  blood  :  he  supposed  that  the  former  possessed  a  very  high, 
and  the  latter  a  comparatively  low  specific  heat ;  so  that  in  becoming  arte- 
rialized  in  the  lungs,  the  heat  resulting  from  the  condensation,  solution,  and 
probable  chemical  combination  of  oxygen  with  the  blood  became  latent, 
being,  however,  evolved  as  the  blood  circulated  through  the  body,  when, 
becoming  venous,  it  acquired  a  continually  diminishing  specific  heat.  Dr. 
John  Davy,  in  his  '  Researches,  Physiological  and  Anatomical,'  vol.  i.  p.  141, 
in  a  chapter  entitled  "  On  the  Capacities  of  Venous  and  Arterial  Blood  for 
Heat,"  described  experiments  which  contradicted  the  hypothesis  of  Crawford 
as  to  the  difl^crence  in  the  specific  heat  of  the  two  varieties  of  blood,  although 
the  extraordinary  discrepancies  between  difi'erent  experiments  rendered  it 
impossible  that  any  calculations  could  be  based  upon  Dr.  Davy's  results.  In 
his  experiments.  Dr.  DslXJ  made  use  of  defibrinated  blood,  employing  for  the 
determination  of  specific  heat  the  methods  of  mixture  and  rate  of  cooling. 

In  the  experiments  which  I  performed  last  year,  and  wliich  are  published 
in  the  last  volume  of  the  Eeports  of  the  British  Association,  I  made  use 
of  the  method  of  mixture,  taking  care  to  adopt  aU  the  precautions  which 
modern  experience  has  suggested.  Making  use  of  the  perfectly  fresh  blood 
of  the  ox,  which  was  sometimes  venous,  sometimes  arterial,  I  obtained  re- 
markably concordant  results,  the  mean  of  which  gave  1-02  as  the  coefficient 
of  the  specific  heat  of  blood.  Having  made  this  determination,  I  could  pass 
to  the  experiments  intended  to  determine  whether,  in  being  arteriahzed, 
blood  which  is  perfectly  venous  becomes  hotter. 

As  a  preface  to  my  own  researches  on  this  subject,  it  is  incumbent  upon  me 
to  allude  to  all  the  observations  which  have  been  made  on  this  subject.     In 
the  second  volume  of  Dr.  Davy's  '  Eesearchcs,  Physiological  and  Anatomical,' 
at  p.  168  a  section  is  devoted  to  the  following  question: — "  WJien  oxygen  is _ 
absorbed  by  the  blood,  is  there  any  production  of  heat  ?  " 

"  To  endeavour  to  determine  this  point,"  sa3^s  Dr.  Davy,  "  of  so  much  in- 
terest in  connexion  with  the  theory  of  animal  heat,  a  very  tliju  vial,  of  the 


ON  HEAT  GENEKATEl)  IN  THE  BLOOU.  139 

capacity  of  eight  liquid  ounces,  was  selected  and  earefuUy  enveloped  in  bad 
conducting  substances,  viz.  several  folds  of  flannel,  of  fine  oiled  paper,  and 
of  oiled  cloth.  Thus  prepared,  and  a  perforated  cork  being  provided  holding 
a  delicate  thermometer,  2  cubic  inches  of  mercury  were  introduced,  and  im- 
mediately after  it  was  fiUed  with  venous  blood  kept  liquid  as  before  described. 
The  vial  was  now  corked  and  shaken  ;  the  thermometer  included  was  sta- 
■iiouary  at  45°.  After  five  minutes  that  it  was  so  stationary  the  thermometer 
■was  withdrawn  ;  the  vial,  closed  by  another  cork,  was  transferred  to  a  mercu- 
rial bath,  and  Ig  cubic  inch  of  oxygen  was  introduced.  The  common  cork 
was  retui-ned,  and  the  vial  was  well  agitated  for  about  a  minute :  the  ther- 
mometer was  now  introduced ;  it  rose  immediately  to  4G°,  and,  continuing 
the  agitation,  it  rose  further  to  46°-5,  very  nearly  to  47°.  This  experiment 
was  made  on  the  12th  of  February,  1838,  on  the  blood  of  the  sheep.  On  the 
following  day  a  similar  experiment  was  made  on  the  venous  blood  of  man. 
The  -sial  was  filled  with  11  cubic  inches  of  this  blood,  its  fibrine  broken  up  in 
the  usual  manner,  and  with  3  cubic  inches  of  mercury;  the  temperature  of 
the  blood  and  mercury  was  42°-o,  and  the  temperature  was  the  same  after 
the  introduction  of  3  cubic  inches  of  oxygen.  The  temperatui-e  of  the  room 
being  47°,  a  fire  having  shortly  before  been  lit,  the  vial  was  taken  to  an  ad- 
joining passage,  where  the  temperature  of  the  air  was  39°.  Here  the  vial 
was  well  agitated,  held  in  the  hand  with  thick  gloves  on  as  an  additional 
protection  ;  after  about  three  quarters  of  a  minute  the  thermometer  in  the 
vial  had  risen  a  degree,  viz.  to  43°'5."  Dr.  Davy  relates  two  other  experi- 
ments, of  which  the  first  Avas  performed  on  the  venous  blood  taken  from  the 
jugular  vein  of  a  sheep,  the  second  on  arterial  blood.  The  three  experiments 
with  venous  blood  showed  that  when  agitated  with  mercury  and  air  for  the 
space  of  a  minute,  venous  blood  was  heated  to  the  extent  of  1°  Pahr.,  whilst 
the  arterial  blood  was  heated  only  half  a  degree. 

Dr.  Davy  quotes  Sir  Charles  Scudamore,  who,  in  his  '  Essay  on  the  Blood,' 
at  p.  59,  states  that  venous  blood  cools  much  more  slowly  in  oxygen  gas  than 
in  atmospheric  air ;  that  the  same  blood  divided  into  two  cupping-glasses, 
"  after  an  interval  of  eight  minutes  from  the  beginning  of  the  experiment," 
exhibited  a  diff'erence  of  8°, — that  exposed  to  oxygen  being  85°,  that  to  atmo- 
spheric air  77°. 

H.  Nasse,  in  his  article  on  Animal  Heat  in  the  fourth  volume  of  Wagner's 
*  Handwiirterbuch  der  Physiologic'  (1842),  quotes  Marchand  to  the  effect 
that  when  oxygen  is  shaken  with  blood  the  latter  is  heated. 

In  a  paper  entitled  "  On  the  lielative  Temperature  of  Arterial  and  Yenous 
Blood,"  Mr.  "W.  B.  Savory,  having  described  at  considerable  length  observa- 
tions on  the  temperature  of  the  two  sides  of  the  heart,  describes  others 
performed  with  a  view  to  check  the  accuracy  of  the  experiments  of  Dr. 
John  Davy,  and  states  the  conclusions  to  which  he  was  led  by  his  own 
experiments,  viz. : — 1st,  that  when  venous  blood  is  treated,  as  was  done  by 
Dr.  Davy  in  his  experiments,  with  oxygen,  its  temperature  was  usuaU}-  raised 
from  1°  to  1|°  or  2°;  2ndly,  that  when  venous  blood  was  treated  in  a  similar 
manner  with  hydrogen  or  carbonic  acid,  its  temperature  was  as  frequently 
raised,  and  generally  to  the  same  extent ;  3rdly,  that  similar  experiments 
upon  arterial  blood  usually  jdelded  the  same  results ;  4thly,  that  in  all  cases 
the  increase  of  temperature  seemed  to  be  the  result  of  the  agitation.  In 
concluding  his  paper,  Mr.  Savory  remarked,  "  At  present  there  is  no  evi- 
dence upon  which  we  can  safely  venture  further  into  this  inquiry.  If,  as  I 
conclude  from  my  experiments,  arterial  blood  is  warmer  than  venous,  the 
increase  of  temjierature  must  occur  in  the  lungs  as  a  resvilt  of  those  changes 


140  REroRT — 1871. 

which  tho  hlood  there  undergoes.     Of  the  nature  of  those  changes,  little  or 
nothing  is  known," 

In  my  early  researches,  conducted  during  the  months  of  May  and  June 
1869,  I  had  attempted  to  determine,  by  means  of  comparatively  simple  con- 
trivances, whether  any  heat  was  evolved  during  arteriahzation,  making  use  of 
delicate  thermometers.  At  first  I  used  a  glass  bottle  furnished  with  a  tubu- 
lature,  near  the  bottom  in  which  a  cork,  perforated  and  furnished  with  a  glass^ 
tube  closed  by  india-rubber  tubing  and  a  clip,  was  inserted.  The  neck  of  the 
bottle  was  furnished  with  a  cork  perforated  in  two  places  ;  through  one  of 
the  perforations  a  delicate  Centigrade  thermometer  passed  into  the  centre  of 
the  flask,  whilst  into  the  other  was  inserted  a  bent  glass  tube  through  which 
gas  might  be  introduced  into  the  apparatus.  The  bottle  which  I  have  de- 
scribed was  filled  with  venous  blood,  both  the  tubes  communicating  with  its 
interior  being  closed.  It  was  then  maintained  at  a  temperature  varying  be- 
tween 30°  and  35°  C.  for  many  hours,  until  it  had  assumed  the  characteristic 
cherry-red  coloration  which  indicates  the  complete  removal  of  the  loosely 
combined  oxygen  of  the  blood.  The  apparatus  having  been  allowed  to  cool, 
it  was  invested  with  a  jacket  of  felt.  An  india-rubber  tube  was  made  to 
connect  the  upper  glass  tube  with  a  hydrogen  gasometer,  whilst  the  lower 
tube  being  opened,  the  hydrogen  expelled  any  required  quantity  of  blood. 
The  apparatus  was  then  shaken  and  the  temperature  determined.  Then  by 
a  repetition  of  the  process  (followed  in  the  introduction  of  hydrogen)  pure 
oxygen  gas  was  made  to  displace  more  of  the  blood,  and  the  process  of  shaking 
repeated  as  before.  The  results  of  such  experiments  were  eminently  unsatis- 
factory, varying  obviously  with  the  amount  of  mechanical  work  which  was 
formed  by  the  experiments,  and  which  yet  did  not  admit  of  exact  deter- 
mination. 

In  some  experiments  I  observed  a  heating  which  amounted  to  0°-3  C. ;  in 
other  cases  the  difference  in  the  readings,  before  the  introduction  of  oxj^geu 
and  after  it,  seemed  to  point  to  a  cooling  instead  of  to  a  heating.  To 
give  an  idea  of  the  indefinite  and  perplexing  results  which  I  obtained,  I 
shall  cite  the  details  of  an  experiment  performed  on  the  23rd  of  June,  1870, 
by  Professor  Tait  and  myself,  the  apparatus  used  being  a  tin  vessel  resem- 
bling in  principle  the  one  of  glass  which  I  have  already  described.  This 
vessel  was  covered  with  felt,  and,  when  shaken,  it  was  held  by  means  of  a 
very  strong  iron  clamp.  Having  been  filled  with  sheep's  blood,  it  was  placed 
in  an  air-oven  and  maintained  for  a  period  of  twelve  hours  at  a  temperature 
which  oscillated  between  100^  and  110°  Pahr.  It  was  afterwards  placed  in 
the  room  in  which  my  experiments  were  carried  on ;  but  in  order  to  make 
it  cool  more  rapidly,  its  felt  covering  was  taken  off,  and  it  was  placed  in 
water  at  a  temperature  of  15°  C.  It  was  dried,  again  covered  with  felt, 
and  fixed  in  its  clamp.  Hydrogen  was  then  made  to  expel  4-5  cubic 
inches  of  blood,  which  was  found  by  spectroscopic  examination  to  exhibit  the 
single  band  of  reduced  haemoglobin  ;  after  shaking  the  blood  and  hydrogen 
in  the  apparatus,  its  temperature  was  found  to  be  17°'S  0.,  then  18°  C,  the 
temperature  of  the  air  being  20°-4  C.  10  cubic  inches  of  blood  were  then 
drawn  off  and  replaced  by  oxygen,  which  was  brought  in  contact  with  the 
blood  by  shaking  ;  the  temperature  rose  to  18°-1  C.  :  more  oxygen  was  intro- 
duced and  the  shakinc;  repeated,  the  temperature  rising  to  18°-25,  18°-4, 18°-5, 
18°-6,  18°-6,  18°-55,l8°-7,  18°- 75,  18°-77.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  experi- 
ment the  quantity  of  blood  which  had  been  arterialized  was  found  to  be  3G0 
cubic  centims.  This  experiment  merely  gave  one  of  many  results ;  for  as  long 
as  I  followed  this  method  I  was  quite  unable  twice  to  determine  the  same 


ON  HEAT  GENERATED  IN  THE  HLOOD.  141 

amount  of  heat  as  the  result  of  oxygenation  of  the  blood.  The  amount  of 
heating  in  a  given  time  depended  upon  several  important  factors,  as  the  dif- 
ference bet-sveen  the  temperature  of  the  blood  in  the  experimental  vessel  and 
that  of  the  surrounding  air,  upon  the  amount  of  blood  contained  in  the  appa- 
ratus, and  the  space  through  which  the  vessel  was  moved  during  its  agitation, 
no  less  than  upon  the  number  of  the  agitations. 

To  describe,  or  even  to  give  the  results  of  a  series  of  experiments  so  emi- 
nently unsatisfactory,  woiild  be  a  mere  waste  of  time ;  it  will  be  sufficient 
for  me  to  state,  however,  that  I  clearly  came  to  the  conclusion  that,  like  those 
who  had  preceded  me,  I  had  obtained  no  positive  proof  of  the  heating  of 
blood  when  it  absorbs  oxygen,  there  having  been  as  great  a  heating  when 
water  as  when  blood  was  experimented  upon. 

In  commencing  new  experiments  this  year,  I  did  so  with  the  conviction 
that,  in  order  to  obtain  results  of  any  value,  my  apparatus  shoiild  be  so  con- 
structed and  my  experiments  so  conducted  as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of 
any  appreciable  rise  in  temperature  resulting  from  the  mechanical  work  of 
shaking.  Then  I  decided  upon  discarding  thermometers,  and  making  use  of 
thermo-electric  junctions  of  great  delicacy. 

The  galvanometer  employed  in  the  research  was  one  resembling  one  of 
Sir  Wm.  Thomson's  older  forms,  constructed  especially  for  Professor  Tait, 
every  possible  precaution  having  been  taken  to  avoid  a  trace  of  iron  in 
the  coils  and  framework.  The  wire  was  drawn  through  agate  plates 
from  electrolytic  copper,  covered  with  white  silk  and  formed  into  four  coils, 
each  adjusted  to  produce  the  maximum  effect  with  the  least  resistance, 
those  parts  of  the  coils  nearest  the  magnets  being  made  of  finer  wire. 
The  astatic  system  vibrated  under  the  earth's  force  once  in  eight  seconds ; 
but  as  this  was  much  too  delicate  for  my  purpose,  I  placed  near  the  in- 
Btriiment  a  bar-magnet,  which  reduced  the  period  of  vibration  to  3^-4. 

The  thermo-electric  junctions  which  I  employed  were  made  by  twisting 
very  thin  iron  and  copper  wire  together,  the  free  ends  of  the  copper  wires 
being  immersed  into  the  mercury  pools  of  a  very  simple  form  of  commu- 
tator placed  in  the  circuit,  which  enabled  me,  with  the  greatest  ease,  to 
reverse  the  current  flowing  along  the  wires. 

The  apparatus  actually  employed  in  my  experiments  consisted  of  an 
upper  glass  vessel,  which  I  may  call  the  blood  reservoir,  to  which  was  con- 
nected a  lower  vessel,  also  of  glass,  and  in  which  the  blood,  wliich  was  the 
subject  of  experiment,  could  be  brought  in  contact  Avith  the  gases  which 
were  intended  to  act  upon  it. 

The  iipper  vessel  was  a  glass  bulb  of  a  pyriform  shape,  and  had  a  capacity 
of  about  150  cubic  centimetres.  Above  and  below  it  was  drawn  out,  so  as  to 
present  two  tubes,  the  upper  of  which  was  bent  at  right  angles  and  furnished 
with  a  piece  of  india-rubber  tubing,  which  admitted  of  being  closed  by  a  clamp, 
whilst  the  lower  was  furnished  with  a  very  accurately  ground  stopcock.  In 
the  side  of  the  bulb  was  a  round  tubulature,  which  could  be  closed  with  a  cork, 
through  which  passed  a  thermo-electric  junction.  The  lower,  or  mixing- 
vessel,  was  cylindrical  in  shape,  and  possessed  four  apertures.  The  upper  one 
was  closed  by  a  cork,  bored  so  as  to  allow  of  the  passage  of  a  glass  tube, 
attached  above  by  means  of  an  elastic  tube  to  the  stopcock  of  upper  vessel  or 
reservoir,  and  made  of  such  a  length  as  to  reach  to  the  bottom  of  the  mixing- 
vessel.  N^ear  the  upper  aperture  was  a  second  lateral  one,  into  which  a 
glass  tube  had  been  fused.  This  glass  tube  could  be  connected,  by  means  of 
a  metallic  tube  and  stopcocks,  eitlier  with  a  Sprengel  mercurial  aspirator  or 
with  an  oxygen  or  hydrogen   gasometer.     A  third  lateral  aperture  waa 


142  REPORT— 1871. 

closed  with  a  cork,  perforated  (like  the  one  which  closed  the  upper  vessel) 
by  a  second  thermal  junction.  A  fourth  aperture  in  the  mixing-vessel, 
closed  by  a  stopcock,  enabled  it  to  be  emptied. 

In  determining  with  such  an  apparatus  whether  heat  is  generated  when 
venous  blood  becomes  arterial,  the  upper  vessel  is  disconnected  from  the 
lower  at  a  point  below  the  glass  stopcock  previously  described ;  it  is  com- 
pletely filled  with  water,  and  then  the  water  is  displaced  by  a  stream  of 
pure  hydrogen  gas  admitted  through  the  upper  tube. 

The  lower  glass  tube  is  then  connected  with  the  vessel  which  contains  the 
blood  to  be  experimented  upon.  The  upper  tube,  through  which  hydrogen  had 
been  admitted,  is  now  connected  to  the  Sprengel  pump,  which  rapidly  sucks 
the  blood  into  the  vessel,  Avithout  the  slightest  j)ossibility  of  its  coming  in 
contact  with  oxygen.  The  upper  vessel  is  either  partially  or  completely  filled 
with  blood,  but  it  always  is  ultimately  left  in  connexion  with  a  hydrogen 
gasometer. 

The  mixing-vessel  (the  lowest  aperture  of  which  has  been  closed  by  india- 
rubber  tubing  and  clip)  is  now  connected  to  the  Sprengel  pump,  and  a  va- 
cuum is  formed  into  which  hydrogen  is  allowed  freely  to  flow.  The  vacuum 
is  renewed  three  or  four  times  consecutively,  hydrogen  being  allowed  to  flow 
into  the  apparatus  each  time.  The  object  of  this  is  to  exclude  traces  from 
the  lower  vessel  of  atmospheric  oxygen. 

The  stopcock  which  connects  the  upper  and  lower  vessels  is  opened,  and 
venous  blood  is  allowed  to  flow  into  the  lower  vessel.  In  actual  work  both 
the  upper  and  lower  vessels  are  thickly  covered  with  wadding.  The  upper 
one  is  firmly  fixed  in  a  clamp,  and  constitutes  a  reservoir,  which,  except 
when  the  atmospheric  changes  in  temperature  are  abnormally  sudden,  main- 
tains during  limited  periods  of  time  a  constant  temperature.  The  lower  .tube 
being  connected  to  the  stopcock  of  the  upper  by  means  of  a  flexible  india- 
rubber  tube,  admits  of  being  comj^letcly  tilted,  or,  if  necessary,  shaken. 

As  soon  as  the  lower  vessel  contains  the  blood  to  be  experimented  upon, 
the  thermal  junctions  are  bi'ought  in  connexion  with  the  galvanometer. 
The  amount  of  deviation  on  the  graduated  scale,  and  the  direction  of  the 
deviation,  at  once  tells  the  experimenter  whether  the  upper  or  the  lower 
junction  be  the  hotter.  The  lower  vessel  is  thoroughly  shaken,  then,  after 
some  time,  the  temperature  of  its  contents  is  determined  by  reading  on  the 
scale  placed  in  front  of  the  galvanometer.  The  tube  and  its  contents  are 
then  repeatedly  tilted,  a  reading  of  the  galvanometer  being  taken  after  each 
set  of  five  tilts.  After  a  certain  time  the  lower  vessel  has  assumed  a  constant 
temperature,  and  readings,  at  the  interval  of  two  or  three  minutes,  show  no 
perceptible  change.  I  may  remark  that  the  galvanometer  which,  through 
the  kindness  of  Prof.  Tait,  was  placed  at  my  disposal  was  so  set  tbat  in  my 
various  experiments  one  division  of  the  divided  scale  corresponded  to  the 
100th  or  the  120th  of  a  degree  Cent.  The  first  observations  made  with  my 
apparatus  were  intended  to  determine  whether  such  an  amount  of  agitation 
as  would  be  required  to  communicate  a  thoroughly  arterial  colour  to  perfectly 
venous  blood  would  heat  the  fluid  to  a  perceptible  extent,  in  consequence  of 
the  mechanical  work  expended  in  the  agitation. 

In  preliminary  experiments  I  foimd  that  venous  blood  assumed  a  beauti- 
ful arterial  hue,  when  it  was  mixed  with  oxygen  contained  in  the  mixing- 
vessel,  by  successively  tilting  the  tube  twenty  times.  In  each  tilt  the  tube 
containing  blood  and  oxygen  was  completely  reversed.  In  other  preli- 
minary experiments  I  found  that  when  the  tulje  contained  thoroughly  arte- 
riaUzed  blood  or   water,   the  process  of  tilting   had  no   influence    on   the 


ON  HEAT  GENERATED  IN  THE  BLOOD.  143 

temperature  of  the  contained  fluid.  It  was,  therefore,  obvious  that  any  heat- 
ing which  might  occur  in  the  process  of  tilting  or  shaking  in  subsequent 
experiments  could  not  be  referred  to  the  mechanical  work  expended  in  the 
tube  and  its  contents. 

My  next  experiments  consisted  in  determining  whether,  when  agitated 
with  a  neutral  gas,  as,  for  example,  hydrogen,  any  material  change  in  the 
temperature  of  the  blood  occurred ;  they  led  to  the  result  that  when  agi- 
tated with  hydrogen  gas  no  heating  of  the  blood  results,  it  being  always 
remembered  that  the  mechanical  agitation  to  which  the  blood  and  the 
neutral  gas  were  subjected  was  the  same  as  in  my  experiments  with  blood 
and  oxygen. 

In  ray  systematic  experiments  on  the  heat  generated  during  the  process 
of  arterialization,  the  following  observations  were  always  made  : — 

1.  The  temperature  of  the  lower  as  contrasted  with  the  upper  vessel  was 
determined  after  the  latter  had  been  exhausted. 

2.  The  temperature- observations  were  repeated  after  shaking  with  hy- 
drogen. 

3.  After  the  renewal  of  a  vacuum. 

4.  After  admission  of  oxygen  in  the  mixing-vessel. 

5.  After  oxygen  had  been  thoroughly  shaken  with  the  blood. 

The  results  of  my  experiments  on  veiy  numerous  samples  of  venous  blood 
have  led  to  the  conclusion  that  whilst,  as  I  have  previously  mentioned,  no 
heat  is  evolved  on  agitating  blood  with  hydrogen,  there  is,  on  agitation  with 
oxygen,  always  a  slight  evolution  of  heat. 

To  determine  the  exact  heating,  when  venous  blood  of  varying  gaseous 
composition  is  arterialized,  appears  to  be  most  desirable.  We  should  espe- 
cially attempt  to  determine  the  heating  observed  when  the  average  venous 
blood  contained  in  the  right  ventricle  and  directly  drawn  from  it  is  ar- 
terialized. The  first  and  most  important  datum  to  be  ascertained  appeared 
to  me,  however,  to  be  the  heating  which  takes  place  when  blood  which  has 
been  thoroughly  reduced,  i.  e.  which  contains  no  loosely  combined  oxygen 
and  exhibits  Stokes's  spectrum,  is  completely  arterialized. 

From  five  sets  of  experiments  on  the  heat  developed  during  the  arteriali- 
zation of  perfectly  reduced  blood,  I  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  the  mean 
rise  of  temperatiire  during  the  absorption  of  oxygen  amounted  to  0°-0976  C. 
The  maximum  heating  found  was  0°'lll  C,  and  the  minimum  0°-083C. 

The  research,  of  which  the  above  are  the  results,  was  conducted  in  the 
Physical  Laboratory  of  the  University  of  Edinburgh  ;  and  I  have  to  express 
my  thanks  to  Professor  Tait  for  the  uniform  kindness  with  which  he  helped 
me  by  advice,  assistance,  and  apparatus  in  ascertaining  the  facts  which  are 
recorded  in  this  Report.  I  intend  to  extend  these  researches  very  greatly. 
It  is  most  desirable  that  in  future  experiments  venous  blood  of  known  com- 
position be  employed,  and  that  the  amount  of  oxygen  absorbed  and  CO^ 
evolved  be  ascertained  after  each  experiment.  I  propose  likewise  to  increase 
the  period  during  which  the  blood  is  agitated,  making  use  of  an  arrangement 
whereby  the  mechanical  work  performed  in  the  agitation  may  be  precisely 
determined. 


144-  REPORT — 1871. 

Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  to  consider  the  subject  of 
Physiological  Experimentation. 

A  CouoiiTTEE,  consisting  of  ten  individuals,  having  been  appointed  at  the  last 
Meeting  of  the  British  Association,  held  at  Liverpool,  to  consider  the  subject 
of  Physiological  Experimentation,  in  accordance  -with  a  Resolution  of  the 
General  Committee  hereto  annexed,  the  following  Report  was  drawn  up  and 
signed  by  seven  members  of  the  Committee. 

Report. 

i.  No  experiment  which  can  be  performed  under  the  influence  of  an  anaes- 
thetic ought  to  be  done  without  it. 

ii.  No  painful  experiment  is  justifiable  for  the  mere  purpose  of  illustrating  a 
law  or  fact  already  demonstrated ;  in  other  words,  experimentation  with- 
out the  employment  of  ansesthetics  is  not  a  fitting  exhibition  for  teaching 
purposes. 

iii.  Wliencvcr,  for  the  investigation  of  new  truth,  it  is  necessary  to  make  a 
painful  experiment,  every  effort  should  l)e  made  to  ensure  success,  in 
order  that  the  suffering  inflicted  may  not  be  wasted.  For  this  reason, 
no  painful  experiment  ought  to  be  performed  by  an  unskilled  person 
with  insufficient  instruments  and  assistance,  or  in  places  not  suitable  to 
the  purpose,  that  is  to  say,  anywhere  except  in  physiological  and  patho- 
logical laboratories,  under  proper  regulations. 

iv.  In  the  scientific  preparation  for  veterinary  practice,  operations  ought  not 
to  be  performed  upon  living  animals  for  the  mere  purpose  of  obtaining 
greater  operative  dexterity. 

Signed  by : — M.  A.  Lawson,  Oxford.     G.  M.  HtriirnRT,  Cambridge. 
WH.BALEorK,!  j,^^^^^^^_ 
Arthur  Gamoee,    J  ° 

William  Flower,  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  London. 
J.  BuRDOiq^  Sanderson,  London. 
George  Rolleston,  Secretary,  Oxford. 

Hesohdions  referred  to  in  the  Report. 

That  the  Committee  of  Section  D  (Biology)  be  requested  to  draw  up  a 
statement  of  their  views  upon  Physiological  Experiments  in  their  various 
bearings,  and  that  this  document  be  circulated  among  the  Members  of  the 
Association. 

That  the  said  Committee  be  further  requested  to  consider  from  time  to  time 
■whether  any  steps  can  be  taken  by  them,  or  by  the  Association,  which  will 
tend  to  reduce  to  its  minimum  the  suffering  entailed  by  legitimate  physiolo- 
gical inquiries ;  or  any  which  will  have  the  effect  of  employing  the  influence 
of  this  Association  in  the  discouragement  of  experiments  which  are  not  clearly 
legitimate  on  live  animals. 

The  following  resolution,  subsequently  passed  by  the  Committee  of  Section 
D  (Biology),  was  adopted  by  the  General  Committee : — 

"  That  the  following  gentlemen  be  appointed  a  Committee  for  the  pur- 
pose of  carrying  out  the  suggestion  on  the  question  of  Physiological  Expe- 
riments made  by  the  General  Committee, — Professor  Rolleston,  Professor 
Lawson,  Professor  Balfour,  Dr.  Gamgee,  Professor  M.  Foster,  Professor 
Humphry,  Professor  W.  H.  Flower,  Professor  Sanderson,  Professor  Mac- 
alister,  and  Professor  Redfern  ;  that  Professor  Rolleston  be  the  Secretary, 
and  that  they  be  requested  to  report  to  the  General  Committee." 


PHYSIOLOGICAL  ACTION  OF  ORGANIC  CHEMICAL  COMPOUNDS.       145 

Report  on  the  Physiological  Action  of  Organic  Chemical  Compounds. 
By  Benjamin  Ward  Richardson,  M.A.,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

The  plan  I  have  heretofore  followed,  of  passing  under  review  the  practical 
results  of  the  labours  chronicled  in  previous  Reports,  cannot  be  carried  out 
this  year.  The  review  itself  would  now  become  so  comprehensive  that  it 
would  occupy  all  the  time  allowed  for  the  reading  of  the  Report  to  the  ex- 
clusion of  the  new  matter  to  be  brought  forward.  I  shall  therefore  proceed 
at  once  to  the  description  of  new  research. 

Chloeal  Hydrate. 

It  is  two  years  since  the  substance  called  chloral  hydrate  (the  physio- 
logical properties  of  which  had  been  previously  discovered  by  Liebreich)  was 
introduced  into  this  country  at  the  jN'orwich  Meeting  of  this  Association. 
During  the  first  year  of  tlie  employment  of  chloral  hydrate  the  enthusiasm 
connected  with  the  learning  of  its  value  prevented,  in  some  degree,  all  fair 
criticism  as  to  its  real  values  and  dangers.  The  year  immediately  past 
has  afforded  time  for  calmer  and  more  judicial  observation,  greatty,  as  I  think, 
to  the  advantage  of  the  public,  since  it  has  given  to  the  professors  of  medical 
art  the  opportunity  of  learning  that  the  new  agent  placed  in  their  hands, 
blessing  as  it  is  to  humanity,  is  not  an  unalloyed  blessing,  but  one  that  haS 
engendered  a  new  and  injurious  habit  of  narcotic  luxury,  and  has  added 
another  cause  to  the  preventible  causes  of  the  mortality  of  the  nation. 

Recognizing  these  truths,  I  have  felt  it  a  duty  to  devote  some  part  of  the 
labours  of  this  Report  to  the  elucidation  of  questions  which  have  become  of 
public,  not  less  than  of  scientific  importance,  and  to  these  I  would  now  ask 
attention. 

1.  I  have  endeavoured  to  ascertain  what  is  a  dangerous  and  what  a  fatal 
dose  of  chloral  hydrate.  The  conclusion  at  which  I  have  been  able  first  to 
anive  on  this  point  is,  that  the  maximum  quantity  of  the  hydrate  that  can 
be  borne,  at  one  dose,  bears  some  proportion  to  the  weight  of  the  animal 
subjected  to  its  influence.  The  rule,  however,  does  not  extend  equally  to 
animals  of  any  and  every  class.  The  proportion  is  practically  the  same  in 
the  sam'e  classes,  but  there  is  no  actual  universality  of  rule.  A  mouse  weigh- 
ing from  three-quarters  of  an  ounce  to  an  ounce  .will  be  put  to  sleep  by  one 
quarter  of  a  grain  of  the  hydrate,  and  will  be  killed  by  a  grain.  A  pigeon 
weighing  twelve  ounces  will  be  put  to  sleep  by  two  grains  of  the  hydrate,  and 
will  be  killed  by  five  grains.  A  guineapig  weighing  sixteen  ounces  will  be 
put  by  two  grains  into  deep  sleep,  and  by  five  grains  into  fatal  sleep.  A 
rabbit  weighing  eighty-eight  ounces  will  be  thrown  by  thirty  grains  into 
deep  sleep,  and  by  sixty  grains  into  fatal  sleep. 

The  human  subject,  weighing  from  one  hundred  and  twenty  to  one  hundred 
and  forty  pounds,  will  be  made  by  ninety  grains  to  pass-into  deep  sleep,  and 
by  one  hundred  and  forty  grains  into  a  sleep  that  will  be  dangerous. 

Prom  the  eflfects  produced  on  a  man  who  had  of  his  own  accord  taken  a 
hundred  and  twenty  grains  of  the  hydrate,  and  who  seemed  at  one  period  to 
be  passing  into  death,  I  was  led  to  infer  that  in  the  human  subject  one 
hundred  and  forty  grains  should  be  accepted  as  dangerous,  and  one  hundred 
and  eighty  as  a  fatal  dose.  Evidence  has,  however,  recently  been  brought 
before  me  which  leads  me  to  think  that,  although  eighty  grains  would 
in  most  instances  prove  fatal,  it  could,  under  very  favourable  circumstances, 
be  recovered  from. 

1871.  1 


146  REPORT — 1871. 

Dr.  Hills,  of  the  Thorpe  Asylum,  Norwich,  has,  for  example,  favoured  me 
with  the  facts  of  an  instance  in  which  a  suicidal  woman  took  no  less  than 
four  hundred  ami  seventy-hvo  grains  of  the  hydrate  dissolved  in  sixteen  ounces 
of  water,  and  actually  did  not  die  for  thirty-three  hours.  Such  a  fact,  ably 
observed  as  it  was,  is  startling  ;  but  it  does  not,  I  think,  militate  against  the 
rule  that  one  hundred  and  forty  grains  is  the  maximum  quantity  that 
should,  under  any  circumstances,  be  administered  to  the  human  subject. 

2.  A  second  point  to  which  my  attention  has  been  directed  is,  what  quan- 
tity of  hydrate  of  chloral  can  be  taken  with  safety  at  given  intervals  for  a 
given  period  of  time,  say  of  twenty-four  hours.  To  arrive  at  some  fair  con- 
clusion on  this  subject,  I  calculated  from  a  series  of  experiments  the 
time  required  for  the  development  of  symptoms  from  different  doses  of  the 
hydrate,  the  full  period  of  the  symptoms,  and  the  time  when  they  had  entii-ely 
passed  away.  Great  difficulties  attend  this  line  of  investigation ;  but  I  may 
state,  as  a  near  approximation  to  the  truth,  that  an  adult  person  who  has 
taken  chloral  in  sufficient  quantity  to  be  influenced  by  it,  disposes  of  it  at  the 
rate  of  about  seven  grains  per  hour.  In  repeated  doses,  the  hydrate  of  chloral 
might  therefore  be  given  at  the  rate  of  twelve  grains  every  two  hours  for 
twenty-four  hours,  with  less  danger  than  would  occur  from  giving  twelve 
times  twelve  (14-i)  grains  at  once ;  but  I  do  not  think  that  amount  ought, 
except  in  the  extremest  emergencies,  to  be  exceeded  even  in  divided 
quantities. 

3.  A  third  point  to  which  I  have  paid  attention  is,  the  means  to  be  adopted 
in  any  case  when,  from  accident  or  other  cause,  a  large  and  fatal  dose  of 
chloral  hydrate  has  been  administered.  I  can  speak  here  with  precision.  It 
should  be  remembered  that  this  hydrate,  from  its  great  solubility,  is  rapidly 
diffused  through  all  the  organism.  It  is  in  vain,  consequently,  to  attempt  its 
removal  by  any  extreme  measures  after  it  has  fairly  taken  effect.  In  other 
words,  the  animal  or  person  under  chloral,  like  an  animal  or  person  in  a 
fever,  must  go  through  a  distinct  series  of  stages  on  the  way  to  recovery  or 
death ;  and  these  stages  will  be  long  or  short,  slightly  dangerous  or  intensely 
dangerous,  all  but  fatal  or  actually  fatal,  according  to  the  conditions  by  which 
the  animal  is  suiTounded,  One  of  the  first  and  marked  effects  of  the  chloral  is 
reduction  of  the  animal  temperature  ;  and  when  an  animal  is  deeply  under  the 
influence  of  the  agent,  in  the  fourth  degree  of  narcotism  of  Dr.  Snow,  the  tem- 
perature of  its  body,  unless  the  external  warmth  be  carefully  sustained,  will 
quickly  descend  seven  and  even  eight  degrees  below  the  natural  standard. 
Such  reduction  of  temperature  is  itself  a  source  of  danger  ;  it  allows  conden- 
sation of  fluid  on  the  bronchial  pulmonary  surface,  and  so  induces  apncea, 
and  it  indicates  a  period  when  the  convulsion  of  cold  (a  convulsion  which 
sharply  precedes  death)  is  at  hand. 

I  offer  these  explanations  in  order  to  indicate  the  first  favourable  condition 
for  the  recovery  of  an  animal  or  man  from  the  effects  of  an  extreme  dose  of 
chloral  hydi'ate.  It  is  essential  that  the  body  of  the  animal  be  kept  warm, 
and  not  merely  so,  but  that  the  air  inspired  by  the  animal  be  of  high  tempe- 
rature. The  first  effort  to  recovery,  in  short,  should  consist  in  placing  the 
animal  in  a  warm  air.  This  fact  is  perfectly  illustrated  by  experiment  on 
the  inferior  animals.  In  the  pigeon  an  air  of  95°  Fahr.  is  most  favourable, 
in  the  rabbit  an  air  at  105°  to  110°,  in  the  dog  the  same.  In  man  the 
air  to  be  breathed  should  be  raised  and  sustained  at  90°  Fahr.  at  least*. 

*  I  have  no  doubt  it  -n-ill  be  found,  as  tbo  chronicle  of  deaths  from  chloral  hydrate  in- 
creases, that  the  mortality  from  the  agent  wUl  be  greatest  when  the  thermometrical 
readings  are  the  lowest,  and  vice  versa. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL  ACTION  OF  ORGANIC  CHEMICAL  COMPOUNDS.       147 

The  nest  thing  to  be  remembered  in  the  recovery  of  persons  under  the 
fatal  influence  of  chloral  hydrate  is  to  sustain  the  body  by  food.  I  find  that 
under  even  deep  sleep  from  the  narcotic,  although  the  process  of  waste  is  less 
than  is  common  under  natural  conditions  of  rest,  there  is  still  a  very  con- 
siderable waste  in  progress,  which,  if  not  made  up,  is  against  recovery.  I 
find  also  that  the  digestive  and  assimilating  powers,  thoiigh  impaired  diuing 
sleep  from  chloral,  are  not  arrested,  but  may  be  called  into  fair  action  with  so 
much  advantage,  that  if  two  animals  be  cast  into  deep  sleep  by  an  excessive 
quantity  of  the  narcotic,  and  one  be  left  without  food  and  the  other  be  artifi- 
cially fed  on  warm  food,  one  fourth  of  the  chance  of  recovery  is  given  to  the 
animal  that  is  supplied  with  food.  In  the  human  subject  wai-m  milk,  to 
which  a  little  lime-water  has  been  added,  is  the  best  food.  Milk  is  very  easily 
administered  mechanically,  and  it  should  be  administered  in  the  proportion 
of  half  a  pint  every  two  hours*. 

4.  The  fourth  point  to  remember  is  to  sustain  the  breathing ;  in  the 
inferior  animals  the  question  of  life  or  death  can  be  made  to  turn  on  this 
pivot.  But  the  artificial  respiration  must  be  carried  out  with  great  gentle- 
ness ;  it  must  not  be  done  by  vehement  movements  of  the  body  or  compres- 
sions of  the  chest,  but  by  the  simple  process  of  inflating  the  luugs  by  means 
of  small  bellows,  through  the  nostrils.  I  have  devised,  in  the  course  of  the 
researches  conducted  chiefly  for  the  Association,  various  instruments  for 
artificial  respiration,  viz.  a  small  double-acting  bellows,  a  small  syringe,  and 
a  double-acting  india-rubber  pocket-bellows  ;  but  I  have  lately  made  an  ob- 
servation which  leads  to  a  simpler  method  still,  i.  e.  I  merely  attach  to  a 
single  hand-bellows  a  nostril-tube,  and  gently  inflate  the  lungs,  letting  the 
elasticity  of  the  chest-wall  do  the  work  of  expiration.  A  little  valve  near 
to  the  nostril-tube  effectually  stops  aR  back  currents  from  the  lungs  into 
the  bellows.  For  the  human  subject,  five  charges  of  air  from  the  bellows 
should  be  given  at  intervals  of  five  seconds  apartt. 

There  is  another  subject  of  public  interest  connected  with  the  employ- 
ment of  chloral  hydrate.  I  refer  to  the  increasing  habitual  use  of  it  as  a 
narcotic.  As  there  are  alcoholic  intemperants  and  opium-eaters,  so  now 
there  are  those  who,  beginning  to  take  chloral  hydrate  to  relieve  pain  or  to 
procure  sleep,  get  into  the  fixed  habit  of  taking  it  several  times  daily  and  in 
full  doses.  I  would  state  from  this  public  place,  as  earnestly  and  as  forcibly 
as  I  can,  that  this  growing  practice  is  alike  injurious  to  the  mental,  the 
moral,  and  the  purely  physical  organization,  and  that  the  confirmed  habit 
of  taking  chloral  hydrate  leads  inevitably  to  confirmed  disease.  The  diges- 
tion gets  impaired  ;  natural  tendency  to  sleep  and  natural  sleep  are  impaired ; 
the  blood  is  changed  in  quality,  its  plastic  properties  and  its  capacity  for 
oxidation  being  reduced;  the  secretions  are  depraved;  and,  the  nervous  system 
losing  its  regulating,  controlling  power,  the  muscles  become  unsteady,  the 
heart  irregular  and  intermittent,  and  the  mind  uncertain  and  irritable.  To 
crown  the  mischief,  in  not  a  few  cases  already  the  habitual  dose  has  been  the 
last,  involuntary  or  rather  unintentional  suicide  closing  the  scene. 

I  press  these  facts  on  public  notice  not  a  moment  too  soon,  and  I  add  to 
them  the  facts,  that  hydrate  of  chloral  is  purely  and  absolutely  a  medicine, 
and  that  whenever  its  administration  is  not  guided  by  medical  science  and 
experience,  it  ceases  to  be  a  boon,  and  becomes  a  curse  to  mankind. 

*  This  question  of  feeding  is  applicable  to  all  foi-ras  of  accidental  narcotic  poisoning. 
In  every  such  case  the  poisoning  is  a  distinct  process,  and  the  recovery  turns  largely  on  the 
sustainnient  of  tlie  animal  force  by  supply  of  food  and  of  external  -warmth. 

t  Dr.  Richardson  exhibited  the  different  instruments  described. 

1.2 


148  REPORT ISri. 


Anhtdrotts  Chloral. 


The  hydrate  of  chloral,  of  which  I  have  treated  above,  is  made  from 
another  substance,  called  anhydrous  chloral,  by  the  addition  to  the  latter  of  a 
certain  proportion  of  simple  water.  Anhydrous  chloral  was  discovered 
by  Liebig  in  1832,  and  is  formed  by  the  process  of  passing  chlorine  through 
absoMe  alcohol.  It  is  a  colourless  oily  fluid,  of  specific  gravity  1502,  at 
64°  Pahr.  It  boils  at  93°  Cent.  (199°  Fahr.);  its  composition  is  C.HClj  0,  and 
its  vapour-density,  taking  hydrogen  as  unity,  is  73.  It  dissolves  in  ether, 
alcohol,  and  hydride  of  amyl. 

The  vapour  of  anhydrous  chloral  is  irritating  and  painful  to  an  extreme 
degree  when  it  is  inhaled,  and  the  substance  has  consequently  not  attracted 
attention  as  a  subject  for  physiological  study.  Having,  however,  a  pure 
specimen  of  it  prepared  by  Dr.  Versmann,  I  thought  it  was  worth  while  to 
make  a  research  with  it.  The  results  have  proved  worthy  of  the  trouble  ;  in 
fact  I  have  rarely  derived  from  so  simple  an  investigation  so  rich  a  practical 
result.  It  would  be  inferred  a  priori  that  anhydrous  chloral  in  the  liquid 
state  would  be,  like  its  vapour,  a  powerful  irritant  to  the  skin  and  mucous 
membrane.  I  soon  found,  however,  that  this  was  not  the  fact,  that  I  could 
apply  the  fluid  freely  to  my  ovm.  skin  and  to  the  tongue  without  injury,  and 
that  the  caustic  action  is  extremely  mild,  even  when  the  substance  is  applied 
to  a  moist  surface.  If  a  quarter  grain  of  it  (anhydrous  chloral)  be  placed 
upon  the  skin  of  the  frog  in  a  dry  atmosphere,  there  is  a  rather  quick  ab- 
sorption, followed  by  the  formation  of  a  white  film  of  the  hydrate  of  chloral 
beneath  the  skin,  which  film  soon  disappears  by  absorption,  the  symptoms 
following  the  absorption  being  the  specific  narcotic  symptoms  of  chloral 
hydrate.  The  animal  soon  falls  into  a  deep  sleep  with  complete  muscular 
exhaustion. 

If  in  higher  animals,  birds  and  rabbits,  anhydrous  chloral  be  injected  sub- 
cutaneously,  the  same  phenomena  are  indicated,  the  quantities  for  producing 
the  specific  effects  being  the  same  as  are  required  for  the  hydrate. 

It  is  clear  from  these  observations  that  anhydrous  chloral,  when  brought 
into  contact  with  the  exposed  surfaces  of  the^body,  abstracts  water  from  the 
part  with  which  it  is  in  contact,  becomes  converted  into  the  hydrate,  and  is 
directly  absorbed  into  the  body,  producing  tlie  same  symptoms  as  the  pre- 
pared hydrate  produces  when  it  is  introduced  into  the  organism. 

As  anhydrous  chloral  is  soluble  in  amyl  hydride,  ether,  and  many  other 
volatile  fluids,  I  tried  whether  any  of  it  coiild  be  carried  over  with  the  vapour 
of  amyl  hydride,  and  whether,  if  it  were  administered  in  this  way,  it  would 
produce  prolonged  narcotism  by  being  transformed  into  the  hydrate  in  the 
lungs  and  taken  up  into  the  blood. 

The  result  of  the  experiment  was  to  show  that  in  frogs,  guineapigs,  and 
pigeons  general  narcotism  can  be  so  induced,  and  that  the  narcotism  is  pro- 
longed far  beyond  what  follows  from  the  simple  inhalation  of